On-line evidence for spontaneous trait inferences at encoding

James S. Uleman, Alex Hon, Robert J. Roman, Gordon B. Moskowitz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Three experiments obtained evidence that spontaneous trait inferences (STIs) occur on-line, at encoding. In each, participants read many sentences on a computer screen. After each paragraph, they indicated whether it included a test probe word. Paragraphs that imply but do not contain traits should increase errors or reaction times (RTs) to trait probes. In Experiment 1, trait-implying paragraphs produced more errors than control paragraphs, supporting the hypothesis. In Experiments 2 and 3, with feedback on each trial, longer RTs supported the hypothesis. STIs had the same effects as McKoon and Ratcliffs "predicting inferences." Unexpectedly, participants gained control over STIs and predicting inferences, so that RT differences (and error differences in Experiment 1) declined over trials. Analyses of reading times in Experiment 3 ruled out several alternative explanations. Results demonstrate that social inferences can occur spontaneously at encoding and suggest that immediate feedback may make control possible.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)377-394
Number of pages18
JournalPersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Volume22
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1996

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)
  • Social Psychology

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Uleman, J. S., Hon, A., Roman, R. J., & Moskowitz, G. B. (1996). On-line evidence for spontaneous trait inferences at encoding. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22(4), 377-394.

On-line evidence for spontaneous trait inferences at encoding. / Uleman, James S.; Hon, Alex; Roman, Robert J.; Moskowitz, Gordon B.

In: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 22, No. 4, 04.1996, p. 377-394.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Uleman, JS, Hon, A, Roman, RJ & Moskowitz, GB 1996, 'On-line evidence for spontaneous trait inferences at encoding', Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 377-394.
Uleman JS, Hon A, Roman RJ, Moskowitz GB. On-line evidence for spontaneous trait inferences at encoding. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 1996 Apr;22(4):377-394.
Uleman, James S. ; Hon, Alex ; Roman, Robert J. ; Moskowitz, Gordon B. / On-line evidence for spontaneous trait inferences at encoding. In: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 1996 ; Vol. 22, No. 4. pp. 377-394.
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