Observation of GeV solar energetic particles from the 1997 November 6 event using Milagrito

A. Falcone, R. Atkins, W. Benbow, D. Berley, M. L. Chen, D. G. Coyne, B. L. Dingus, D. E. Dorfan, R. W. Ellsworth, L. Fleysher, R. Fleysher, G. Gisler, J. A. Goodman, T. J. Haines, C. M. Huffman, S. Hugenberger, L. A. Kelley, I. Leonor, J. F. McCullough, J. E. McEnery & 17 others R. S. Miller, A. I. Mincer, M. F. Morales, P. Nemethy, J. M. Ryan, B. Shen, A. Shoup, G. Sinnis, A. J. Smith, G. W. Sullivan, T. Tumer, K. Wang, M. O. Wascko, S. Westerhoff, D. A. Williams, T. Yang, G. B. Yodh

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    Milagrito was an extensive air-shower observatory that served as a prototype for the larger Milagro instrument. Milagrito operated from 1997 February to 1998 May. Although it was designed as a very high energy (few hundred GeV threshold) water-Cerenkov gamma-ray observatory, it could also be used to study solar energetic particles (SEPs). By recording sealer data, which correspond to photomultiplier tube singles rates, it was sensitive to muons and small showers from hadronic primary particles with rigidities above ∼4 GV. Milagrito simultaneously recorded air-shower trigger data of primary particles with energies greater than ∼100 GeV that provide the data to help reconstruct event directions. The Milagrito sealers registered a ground-level enhancement associated with the 1997 November 6 SEP event and X9 solar flare. At its peak, the enhancement was 22 times the background rms fluctuations. Based on comparisons to neutron monitor and satellite data, we find evidence that the rigidity power-law spectrum for the differential flux of energetic protons steepened above ∼4 GV and that the acceleration site was high in the corona (at ∼3 R above the photosphere), assuming that a CME-driven shock was responsible for the ground-level enhancement.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)557-565
    Number of pages9
    JournalAstrophysical Journal
    Volume588
    Issue number1 I
    DOIs
    StatePublished - May 1 2003

    Fingerprint

    energetic particles
    sealers
    energetics
    cosmic ray showers
    rigidity
    augmentation
    Gamma Ray Observatory
    observatory
    photomultiplier tubes
    photosphere
    solar flares
    showers
    coronas
    monitors
    muons
    observatories
    air
    actuators
    recording
    shock

    Keywords

    • Acceleration of particles
    • Interplanetary medium
    • Sun: flares
    • Sun: particle emission

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Space and Planetary Science

    Cite this

    Falcone, A., Atkins, R., Benbow, W., Berley, D., Chen, M. L., Coyne, D. G., ... Yodh, G. B. (2003). Observation of GeV solar energetic particles from the 1997 November 6 event using Milagrito. Astrophysical Journal, 588(1 I), 557-565. https://doi.org/10.1086/373950

    Observation of GeV solar energetic particles from the 1997 November 6 event using Milagrito. / Falcone, A.; Atkins, R.; Benbow, W.; Berley, D.; Chen, M. L.; Coyne, D. G.; Dingus, B. L.; Dorfan, D. E.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Fleysher, L.; Fleysher, R.; Gisler, G.; Goodman, J. A.; Haines, T. J.; Huffman, C. M.; Hugenberger, S.; Kelley, L. A.; Leonor, I.; McCullough, J. F.; McEnery, J. E.; Miller, R. S.; Mincer, A. I.; Morales, M. F.; Nemethy, P.; Ryan, J. M.; Shen, B.; Shoup, A.; Sinnis, G.; Smith, A. J.; Sullivan, G. W.; Tumer, T.; Wang, K.; Wascko, M. O.; Westerhoff, S.; Williams, D. A.; Yang, T.; Yodh, G. B.

    In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 588, No. 1 I, 01.05.2003, p. 557-565.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Falcone, A, Atkins, R, Benbow, W, Berley, D, Chen, ML, Coyne, DG, Dingus, BL, Dorfan, DE, Ellsworth, RW, Fleysher, L, Fleysher, R, Gisler, G, Goodman, JA, Haines, TJ, Huffman, CM, Hugenberger, S, Kelley, LA, Leonor, I, McCullough, JF, McEnery, JE, Miller, RS, Mincer, AI, Morales, MF, Nemethy, P, Ryan, JM, Shen, B, Shoup, A, Sinnis, G, Smith, AJ, Sullivan, GW, Tumer, T, Wang, K, Wascko, MO, Westerhoff, S, Williams, DA, Yang, T & Yodh, GB 2003, 'Observation of GeV solar energetic particles from the 1997 November 6 event using Milagrito', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 588, no. 1 I, pp. 557-565. https://doi.org/10.1086/373950
    Falcone A, Atkins R, Benbow W, Berley D, Chen ML, Coyne DG et al. Observation of GeV solar energetic particles from the 1997 November 6 event using Milagrito. Astrophysical Journal. 2003 May 1;588(1 I):557-565. https://doi.org/10.1086/373950
    Falcone, A. ; Atkins, R. ; Benbow, W. ; Berley, D. ; Chen, M. L. ; Coyne, D. G. ; Dingus, B. L. ; Dorfan, D. E. ; Ellsworth, R. W. ; Fleysher, L. ; Fleysher, R. ; Gisler, G. ; Goodman, J. A. ; Haines, T. J. ; Huffman, C. M. ; Hugenberger, S. ; Kelley, L. A. ; Leonor, I. ; McCullough, J. F. ; McEnery, J. E. ; Miller, R. S. ; Mincer, A. I. ; Morales, M. F. ; Nemethy, P. ; Ryan, J. M. ; Shen, B. ; Shoup, A. ; Sinnis, G. ; Smith, A. J. ; Sullivan, G. W. ; Tumer, T. ; Wang, K. ; Wascko, M. O. ; Westerhoff, S. ; Williams, D. A. ; Yang, T. ; Yodh, G. B. / Observation of GeV solar energetic particles from the 1997 November 6 event using Milagrito. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2003 ; Vol. 588, No. 1 I. pp. 557-565.
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    abstract = "Milagrito was an extensive air-shower observatory that served as a prototype for the larger Milagro instrument. Milagrito operated from 1997 February to 1998 May. Although it was designed as a very high energy (few hundred GeV threshold) water-Cerenkov gamma-ray observatory, it could also be used to study solar energetic particles (SEPs). By recording sealer data, which correspond to photomultiplier tube singles rates, it was sensitive to muons and small showers from hadronic primary particles with rigidities above ∼4 GV. Milagrito simultaneously recorded air-shower trigger data of primary particles with energies greater than ∼100 GeV that provide the data to help reconstruct event directions. The Milagrito sealers registered a ground-level enhancement associated with the 1997 November 6 SEP event and X9 solar flare. At its peak, the enhancement was 22 times the background rms fluctuations. Based on comparisons to neutron monitor and satellite data, we find evidence that the rigidity power-law spectrum for the differential flux of energetic protons steepened above ∼4 GV and that the acceleration site was high in the corona (at ∼3 R⊙ above the photosphere), assuming that a CME-driven shock was responsible for the ground-level enhancement.",
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    AU - Falcone, A.

    AU - Atkins, R.

    AU - Benbow, W.

    AU - Berley, D.

    AU - Chen, M. L.

    AU - Coyne, D. G.

    AU - Dingus, B. L.

    AU - Dorfan, D. E.

    AU - Ellsworth, R. W.

    AU - Fleysher, L.

    AU - Fleysher, R.

    AU - Gisler, G.

    AU - Goodman, J. A.

    AU - Haines, T. J.

    AU - Huffman, C. M.

    AU - Hugenberger, S.

    AU - Kelley, L. A.

    AU - Leonor, I.

    AU - McCullough, J. F.

    AU - McEnery, J. E.

    AU - Miller, R. S.

    AU - Mincer, A. I.

    AU - Morales, M. F.

    AU - Nemethy, P.

    AU - Ryan, J. M.

    AU - Shen, B.

    AU - Shoup, A.

    AU - Sinnis, G.

    AU - Smith, A. J.

    AU - Sullivan, G. W.

    AU - Tumer, T.

    AU - Wang, K.

    AU - Wascko, M. O.

    AU - Westerhoff, S.

    AU - Williams, D. A.

    AU - Yang, T.

    AU - Yodh, G. B.

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