Nuclear desalination

A state-of-the-art review

Amani Al-Othman, Noora N. Darwish, Muhammad Qasim, Mohammad Tawalbeh, Naif A. Darwish, Nidal Hilal

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Thermal desalination is an energy intensive process that satisfies its requirement from conventional fossil fuel sources. Current research efforts aim at finding alternatives for fossil fuels to power thermal desalination. Nuclear energy offers a feasible option for power cogeneration and production of fresh water due to the significant amount of recovered useful heat. The heat is exploited to produce steam and generate electricity on-site to power thermal and membrane desalination facilities. Large or small/medium nuclear reactors (SMR) can be used. This paper reviews the various aspects of nuclear desalination, the different nuclear reactors that have been coupled with desalination processes, and the hybrid desalination systems coupled with nuclear reactors. It also discusses the safety and public acceptance for the nuclear desalination practices as well as the latest economic studies and assessments for on –site nuclear desalination power plants. Ten main projects around the world are primarily operated as nuclear desalination plants. The major desalination processes coupled with nuclear SMRs are MSF, MED and RO. The cost of water production using nuclear desalination was estimated to range from 0.4 $/m3 to 1.8 $/m3 depending on the type of reactor and the desalination process used.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)39-61
Number of pages23
JournalDesalination
Volume457
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2019

Fingerprint

Desalination
desalination
Nuclear reactors
thermal power
fossil fuel
Fossil fuels
state of the art
cogeneration
Water
Steam
Nuclear energy
power plant
electricity
Power plants
Electricity
safety
membrane
Hot Temperature
water
Membranes

Keywords

  • Nuclear desalination
  • Nuclear power plant
  • Safety analysis
  • SMR in desalination
  • Techno-economic analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Mechanical Engineering

Cite this

Al-Othman, A., Darwish, N. N., Qasim, M., Tawalbeh, M., Darwish, N. A., & Hilal, N. (2019). Nuclear desalination: A state-of-the-art review. Desalination, 457, 39-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2019.01.002

Nuclear desalination : A state-of-the-art review. / Al-Othman, Amani; Darwish, Noora N.; Qasim, Muhammad; Tawalbeh, Mohammad; Darwish, Naif A.; Hilal, Nidal.

In: Desalination, Vol. 457, 01.05.2019, p. 39-61.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Al-Othman, A, Darwish, NN, Qasim, M, Tawalbeh, M, Darwish, NA & Hilal, N 2019, 'Nuclear desalination: A state-of-the-art review', Desalination, vol. 457, pp. 39-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2019.01.002
Al-Othman A, Darwish NN, Qasim M, Tawalbeh M, Darwish NA, Hilal N. Nuclear desalination: A state-of-the-art review. Desalination. 2019 May 1;457:39-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2019.01.002
Al-Othman, Amani ; Darwish, Noora N. ; Qasim, Muhammad ; Tawalbeh, Mohammad ; Darwish, Naif A. ; Hilal, Nidal. / Nuclear desalination : A state-of-the-art review. In: Desalination. 2019 ; Vol. 457. pp. 39-61.
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