Nonconscious goal pursuit: Acting in an explanatory vacuum

Gabriele Oettingen, Heidi Grant, Pamela K. Smith, Mary Skinner, Peter Gollwitzer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Nonconsciously activated goals and consciously set goals produce the same outcomes by engaging similar psychological processes (Bargh, 1990; Gollwitzer & Bargh, 2005). However, nonconscious and conscious goal pursuit may have different effects on subsequent affect if goal pursuit affords an explanation, as nonconscious goal pursuit occurs in an explanatory vacuum (i.e. cannot be readily attributed to the respective goal intention). We compared self-reported affect after nonconscious versus conscious goal pursuit that either violated or conformed to a prevailing social norm. When goal-directed behavior did not require an explanation (was norm-conforming), affective experiences did not differ after nonconscious and conscious goal pursuit. However, when goal-directed behavior required an explanation (was norm-violating), nonconscious goal pursuit induced more negative affect than conscious goal pursuit.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)668-675
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Experimental Social Psychology
Volume42
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2006

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Vacuum
social norm
experience
Psychology

Keywords

  • Affective experience
  • Automatic goal pursuit
  • Conscious goal pursuit
  • Explanatory vacuum
  • Norm-violating behavior

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology

Cite this

Nonconscious goal pursuit : Acting in an explanatory vacuum. / Oettingen, Gabriele; Grant, Heidi; Smith, Pamela K.; Skinner, Mary; Gollwitzer, Peter.

In: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 42, No. 5, 09.2006, p. 668-675.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Oettingen, Gabriele ; Grant, Heidi ; Smith, Pamela K. ; Skinner, Mary ; Gollwitzer, Peter. / Nonconscious goal pursuit : Acting in an explanatory vacuum. In: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 2006 ; Vol. 42, No. 5. pp. 668-675.
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