Nitrogen-climate interactions in US agriculture

G. Philip Robertson, Tom W. Bruulsema, Ron J. Gehl, David Kanter, Denise L. Mauzerall, C. Alan Rotz, Candiss O. Williams

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    Agriculture in the United States (US) cycles large quantities of nitrogen (N) to produce food, fuel, and fiber and is a major source of excess reactive nitrogen (Nr) in the environment. Nitrogen lost from cropping systems and animal operations moves to waterways, groundwater, and the atmosphere. Changes in climate and climate variability may further affect the ability of agricultural systems to conserve N. The N that escapes affects climate directly through the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), and indirectly through the loss of nitrate (NO3 -), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ammonia to downstream and downwind ecosystems that then emit some of the N received as N2O and NOx. Emissions of NOx lead to the formation of tropospheric ozone, a greenhouse gas that can also harm crops directly. There are many opportunities to mitigate the impact of agricultural N on climate and the impact of climate on agricultural N. Some are available today; many need further research; and all await effective incentives to become adopted. Research needs can be grouped into four major categories: (1) an improved understanding of agricultural N cycle responses to changing climate; (2) a systems-level understanding of important crop and animal systems sufficient to identify key interactions and feedbacks; (3) the further development and testing of quantitative models capable of predicting N-climate interactions with confidence across a wide variety of crop-soil-climate combinations; and (4) socioecological research to better understand the incentives necessary to achieve meaningful deployment of realistic solutions.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)41-70
    Number of pages30
    JournalBiogeochemistry
    Volume114
    Issue number1-3
    DOIs
    StatePublished - 2013

    Fingerprint

    Agriculture
    Nitrogen Oxides
    Crops
    Nitrogen
    Nitrous Oxide
    agriculture
    nitrogen
    Animals
    climate
    nitrogen oxides
    Ozone
    Ammonia
    Greenhouse gases
    Nitrates
    Ecosystems
    Groundwater
    crop
    Feedback
    Soils
    incentive

    Keywords

    • Fertilizer
    • Greenhouse gases
    • Methane
    • Mitigation
    • Nitrate
    • Nitrous oxide
    • Ozone

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Environmental Chemistry
    • Water Science and Technology
    • Earth-Surface Processes

    Cite this

    Robertson, G. P., Bruulsema, T. W., Gehl, R. J., Kanter, D., Mauzerall, D. L., Rotz, C. A., & Williams, C. O. (2013). Nitrogen-climate interactions in US agriculture. Biogeochemistry, 114(1-3), 41-70. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-012-9802-4

    Nitrogen-climate interactions in US agriculture. / Robertson, G. Philip; Bruulsema, Tom W.; Gehl, Ron J.; Kanter, David; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Rotz, C. Alan; Williams, Candiss O.

    In: Biogeochemistry, Vol. 114, No. 1-3, 2013, p. 41-70.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Robertson, GP, Bruulsema, TW, Gehl, RJ, Kanter, D, Mauzerall, DL, Rotz, CA & Williams, CO 2013, 'Nitrogen-climate interactions in US agriculture', Biogeochemistry, vol. 114, no. 1-3, pp. 41-70. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-012-9802-4
    Robertson GP, Bruulsema TW, Gehl RJ, Kanter D, Mauzerall DL, Rotz CA et al. Nitrogen-climate interactions in US agriculture. Biogeochemistry. 2013;114(1-3):41-70. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-012-9802-4
    Robertson, G. Philip ; Bruulsema, Tom W. ; Gehl, Ron J. ; Kanter, David ; Mauzerall, Denise L. ; Rotz, C. Alan ; Williams, Candiss O. / Nitrogen-climate interactions in US agriculture. In: Biogeochemistry. 2013 ; Vol. 114, No. 1-3. pp. 41-70.
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