Neonatal hypoplastic left heart syndrome: Effects of bloodstream infections on outcomes and costs

Brett R. Anderson, Adam J. Ciarleglio, Ganga Krishnamurthy, Sharon Glied, Emile A. Bacha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is not only a devastating disease, but also the most expensive birth defect managed in the US. Nosocomial bloodstream infections (NBIs) are common in neonates with HLHS. We examined the effects of NBIs on in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and costs for late preterm and term infants with HLHS undergoing stage 1 palliation, at both individual patient and hospital levels. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of infants 35 weeks or greater gestation with HLHS, admitted to our institution January 1, 2003 to January 1, 2013. Children with other cardiac abnormalities, major comorbid conditions, or perinatal infections were excluded. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed. To estimate the effects of reduced NBI incidence on resource utilization, predictive models were used. Results One hundred forty-three children met inclusion criteria. In-hospital mortality was 9.1% (n = 13). Postoperative infection was observed in 12.6% (n = 18). Median length of stay was 23 days for survivors (IQR, 17 to 40; range, 9 to 132). Median costs were $83,000 for survivors, in 2013 dollars (IQR, $62,000 to $123,000; range, $17,000 to $517,000). NBIs were not associated with changes in mortality. In multivariable analyses, at a patient level NBIs were associated with a 74% increase in length of stay (95% confidence interval [CI], 31% to 132%, p < 0.001) and a 65% increase in costs (95% CI, 28% to 114%, p < 0.001). On a hospital level, in this cohort a 50% reduction in the incidence of NBIs would be expected to yield a 4.3% decrease in average length of stay and a 3.8% decrease in average in-patient costs. Conclusions Nosocomial bloodstream infections in neonates with HLHS are associated with large increases in lengths of stay and costs on a patient level, but not a hospital level. For hospitals without particularly high incidences, studies are needed to identify additional targets for quality improvement.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1648-1654
Number of pages7
JournalAnnals of Thoracic Surgery
Volume99
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2015

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Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome
Cross Infection
Costs and Cost Analysis
Length of Stay
Infection
Hospital Mortality
Survivors
Newborn Infant
Confidence Intervals
Incidence
Quality Improvement
Premature Infants
Cohort Studies
Retrospective Studies
Pregnancy
Mortality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Neonatal hypoplastic left heart syndrome : Effects of bloodstream infections on outcomes and costs. / Anderson, Brett R.; Ciarleglio, Adam J.; Krishnamurthy, Ganga; Glied, Sharon; Bacha, Emile A.

In: Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Vol. 99, No. 5, 01.05.2015, p. 1648-1654.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Anderson, Brett R. ; Ciarleglio, Adam J. ; Krishnamurthy, Ganga ; Glied, Sharon ; Bacha, Emile A. / Neonatal hypoplastic left heart syndrome : Effects of bloodstream infections on outcomes and costs. In: Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 2015 ; Vol. 99, No. 5. pp. 1648-1654.
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abstract = "Background Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is not only a devastating disease, but also the most expensive birth defect managed in the US. Nosocomial bloodstream infections (NBIs) are common in neonates with HLHS. We examined the effects of NBIs on in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and costs for late preterm and term infants with HLHS undergoing stage 1 palliation, at both individual patient and hospital levels. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of infants 35 weeks or greater gestation with HLHS, admitted to our institution January 1, 2003 to January 1, 2013. Children with other cardiac abnormalities, major comorbid conditions, or perinatal infections were excluded. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed. To estimate the effects of reduced NBI incidence on resource utilization, predictive models were used. Results One hundred forty-three children met inclusion criteria. In-hospital mortality was 9.1{\%} (n = 13). Postoperative infection was observed in 12.6{\%} (n = 18). Median length of stay was 23 days for survivors (IQR, 17 to 40; range, 9 to 132). Median costs were $83,000 for survivors, in 2013 dollars (IQR, $62,000 to $123,000; range, $17,000 to $517,000). NBIs were not associated with changes in mortality. In multivariable analyses, at a patient level NBIs were associated with a 74{\%} increase in length of stay (95{\%} confidence interval [CI], 31{\%} to 132{\%}, p < 0.001) and a 65{\%} increase in costs (95{\%} CI, 28{\%} to 114{\%}, p < 0.001). On a hospital level, in this cohort a 50{\%} reduction in the incidence of NBIs would be expected to yield a 4.3{\%} decrease in average length of stay and a 3.8{\%} decrease in average in-patient costs. Conclusions Nosocomial bloodstream infections in neonates with HLHS are associated with large increases in lengths of stay and costs on a patient level, but not a hospital level. For hospitals without particularly high incidences, studies are needed to identify additional targets for quality improvement.",
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N2 - Background Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is not only a devastating disease, but also the most expensive birth defect managed in the US. Nosocomial bloodstream infections (NBIs) are common in neonates with HLHS. We examined the effects of NBIs on in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and costs for late preterm and term infants with HLHS undergoing stage 1 palliation, at both individual patient and hospital levels. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of infants 35 weeks or greater gestation with HLHS, admitted to our institution January 1, 2003 to January 1, 2013. Children with other cardiac abnormalities, major comorbid conditions, or perinatal infections were excluded. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed. To estimate the effects of reduced NBI incidence on resource utilization, predictive models were used. Results One hundred forty-three children met inclusion criteria. In-hospital mortality was 9.1% (n = 13). Postoperative infection was observed in 12.6% (n = 18). Median length of stay was 23 days for survivors (IQR, 17 to 40; range, 9 to 132). Median costs were $83,000 for survivors, in 2013 dollars (IQR, $62,000 to $123,000; range, $17,000 to $517,000). NBIs were not associated with changes in mortality. In multivariable analyses, at a patient level NBIs were associated with a 74% increase in length of stay (95% confidence interval [CI], 31% to 132%, p < 0.001) and a 65% increase in costs (95% CI, 28% to 114%, p < 0.001). On a hospital level, in this cohort a 50% reduction in the incidence of NBIs would be expected to yield a 4.3% decrease in average length of stay and a 3.8% decrease in average in-patient costs. Conclusions Nosocomial bloodstream infections in neonates with HLHS are associated with large increases in lengths of stay and costs on a patient level, but not a hospital level. For hospitals without particularly high incidences, studies are needed to identify additional targets for quality improvement.

AB - Background Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is not only a devastating disease, but also the most expensive birth defect managed in the US. Nosocomial bloodstream infections (NBIs) are common in neonates with HLHS. We examined the effects of NBIs on in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and costs for late preterm and term infants with HLHS undergoing stage 1 palliation, at both individual patient and hospital levels. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of infants 35 weeks or greater gestation with HLHS, admitted to our institution January 1, 2003 to January 1, 2013. Children with other cardiac abnormalities, major comorbid conditions, or perinatal infections were excluded. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed. To estimate the effects of reduced NBI incidence on resource utilization, predictive models were used. Results One hundred forty-three children met inclusion criteria. In-hospital mortality was 9.1% (n = 13). Postoperative infection was observed in 12.6% (n = 18). Median length of stay was 23 days for survivors (IQR, 17 to 40; range, 9 to 132). Median costs were $83,000 for survivors, in 2013 dollars (IQR, $62,000 to $123,000; range, $17,000 to $517,000). NBIs were not associated with changes in mortality. In multivariable analyses, at a patient level NBIs were associated with a 74% increase in length of stay (95% confidence interval [CI], 31% to 132%, p < 0.001) and a 65% increase in costs (95% CI, 28% to 114%, p < 0.001). On a hospital level, in this cohort a 50% reduction in the incidence of NBIs would be expected to yield a 4.3% decrease in average length of stay and a 3.8% decrease in average in-patient costs. Conclusions Nosocomial bloodstream infections in neonates with HLHS are associated with large increases in lengths of stay and costs on a patient level, but not a hospital level. For hospitals without particularly high incidences, studies are needed to identify additional targets for quality improvement.

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