Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers

A. Aab, P. Abreu, M. Aglietta, E. J. Ahn, I. Al Samarai, I. F M Albuquerque, I. Allekotte, P. Allison, A. Almela, J. Alvarez Castillo, J. Alvarez-Muñiz, R. Alves Batista, M. Ambrosio, A. Aminaei, G. A. Anastasi, L. Anchordoqui, S. Andringa, C. Aramo, F. Arqueros, N. Arsene & 430 others H. Asorey, P. Assis, J. Aublin, G. Avila, N. Awal, A. M. Badescu, C. Baus, J. J. Beatty, K. H. Becker, J. A. Bellido, C. Berat, M. E. Bertaina, X. Bertou, P. L. Biermann, P. Billoir, S. G. Blaess, A. Blanco, M. Blanco, J. Blazek, C. Bleve, H. Blümer, M. Bohácová, D. Boncioli, C. Bonifazi, N. Borodai, J. Brack, I. Brancus, T. Bretz, A. Bridgeman, P. Brogueira, P. Buchholz, A. Bueno, S. Buitink, M. Buscemi, K. S. Caballero-Mora, B. Caccianiga, L. Caccianiga, M. Candusso, L. Caramete, R. Caruso, A. Castellina, G. Cataldi, L. Cazon, R. Cester, A. G. Chavez, A. Chiavassa, J. A. Chinellato, J. Chudoba, M. Cilmo, R. W. Clay, G. Cocciolo, R. Colalillo, A. Coleman, L. Collica, M. R. Coluccia, R. Conceição, F. Contreras, M. J. Cooper, A. Cordier, S. Coutu, C. E. Covault, J. Cronin, R. Dallier, B. Daniel, S. Dasso, K. Daumiller, B. R. Dawson, R. M. De Almeida, S. J. De Jong, G. De Mauro, J. R T De Mello Neto, I. De Mitri, J. De Oliveira, V. De Souza, L. Del Peral, O. Deligny, N. Dhital, C. Di Giulio, A. Di Matteo, J. C. Diaz, M. L. Díaz Castro, F. Diogo, C. Dobrigkeit, W. Docters, J. C. D'Olivo, A. Dorofeev, Q. Dorosti Hasankiadeh, R. C. Dos Anjos, M. T. Dova, J. Ebr, R. Engel, M. Erdmann, M. Erfani, C. O. Escobar, J. Eser, J. Espadanal, A. Etchegoyen, H. Falcke, K. Fang, G. Farrar, A. C. Fauth, N. Fazzini, A. P. Ferguson, B. Fick, J. M. Figueira, A. Filevich, A. Filipcic, O. Fratu, M. M. Freire, T. Fujii, B. García, D. García-Gámez, D. Garcia-Pinto, F. Gate, H. Gemmeke, A. Gherghel-Lascu, P. L. Ghia, U. Giaccari, M. Giammarchi, M. Giller, D. Glas, C. Glaser, H. Glass, G. Golup, M. Gómez Berisso, P. F. Gómez Vitale, N. González, B. Gookin, J. Gordon, A. Gorgi, P. Gorham, P. Gouffon, N. Griffith, A. F. Grillo, T. D. Grubb, F. Guarino, G. P. Guedes, M. R. Hampel, P. Hansen, D. Harari, T. A. Harrison, S. Hartmann, J. L. Harton, A. Haungs, T. Hebbeker, D. Heck, P. Heimann, A. E. Hervé, G. C. Hill, C. Hojvat, N. Hollon, E. Holt, P. Homola, J. R. Hörandel, P. Horvath, M. Hrabovský, D. Huber, T. Huege, A. Insolia, P. G. Isar, I. Jandt, S. Jansen, C. Jarne, J. A. Johnsen, M. Josebachuili, A. Kääpä, O. Kambeitz, K. H. Kampert, P. Kasper, I. Katkov, B. Keilhauer, E. Kemp, R. M. Kieckhafer, H. O. Klages, M. Kleifges, J. Kleinfeller, R. Krause, N. Krohm, D. Kuempel, G. Kukec Mezek, N. Kunka, A. W. Kuotb Awad, D. LaHurd, A. Lang, L. Latronico, R. Lauer, M. Lauscher, P. Lautridou, S. Le Coz, D. Lebrun, P. Lebrun, M. A. Leigui De Oliveira, A. Letessier-Selvon, I. Lhenry-Yvon, K. Link, L. Lopes, R. López, A. López Casado, K. Louedec, A. Lucero, M. Malacari, M. Mallamaci, J. Maller, D. Mandat, P. Mantsch, A. G. Mariazzi, V. Marin, I. C. Maris, G. Marsella, D. Martello, H. Martinez, O. Martínez Bravo, D. Martraire, J. J. Masías Meza, H. J. Mathes, S. Mathys, J. Matthews, J. A. J. Matthews, G. Matthiae, D. Maurizio, E. Mayotte, P. O. Mazur, C. Medina, G. Medina-Tanco, R. Meissner, V. B. B. Mello, D. Melo, A. Menshikov, S. Messina, M. I. Micheletti, L. Middendorf, I. A. Minaya, L. Miramonti, B. Mitrica, L. Molina-Bueno, S. Mollerach, F. Montanet, C. Morello, M. Mostafá, C. A. Moura, G. Müller, M. A. Muller, S. Müller, S. Navas, P. Necesal, L. Nellen, A. Nelles, J. Neuser, P. H. Nguyen, M. Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M. Niechciol, L. Niemietz, T. Niggemann, D. Nitz, D. Nosek, V. Novotny, L. Nožka, L. A. Núñez, L. Ochilo, F. Oikonomou, A. Olinto, N. Pacheco, D. Pakk Selmi-Dei, M. Palatka, J. Pallotta, P. Papenbreer, G. Parente, A. Parra, T. Paul, M. Pech, J. Pękala, R. Pelayo, I. M. Pepe, L. Perrone, E. Petermann, C. Peters, S. Petrera, Y. Petrov, J. Phuntsok, R. Piegaia, T. Pierog, P. Pieroni, M. Pimenta, V. Pirronello, M. Platino, M. Plum, A. Porcelli, C. Porowski, R. R. Prado, P. Privitera, M. Prouza, E. J. Quel, S. Querchfeld, S. Quinn, J. Rautenberg, O. Ravel, D. Ravignani, D. Reinert, B. Revenu, J. Ridky, M. Risse, P. Ristori, V. Rizi, W. Rodrigues De Carvalho, J. Rodriguez Rojo, M. D. Rodríguez-Frías, D. Rogozin, J. Rosado, M. Roth, E. Roulet, A. C. Rovero, S. J. Saffi, A. Saftoiu, H. Salazar, A. Saleh, F. Salesa Greus, G. Salina, J. D. Sanabria Gomez, F. Sánchez, P. Sanchez-Lucas, E. M. Santos, E. Santos, F. Sarazin, B. Sarkar, R. Sarmento, C. Sarmiento-Cano, R. Sato, C. Scarso, M. Schauer, V. Scherini, H. Schieler, D. Schmidt, O. Scholten, H. Schoorlemmer, P. Schovánek, F. G. Schröder, A. Schulz, J. Schulz, J. Schumacher, S. J. Sciutto, A. Segreto, M. Settimo, A. Shadkam, R. C. Shellard, G. Sigl, O. Sima, A. Smialkowski, R. Šmída, G. R. Snow, P. Sommers, S. Sonntag, J. Sorokin, R. Squartini, Y. N. Srivastava, D. Stanca, S. Stanic, J. Stapleton, J. Stasielak, M. Stephan, A. Stutz, F. Suarez, M. Suarez Durán, T. Suomijärvi, A. D. Supanitsky, M. S. Sutherland, J. Swain, Z. Szadkowski, O. A. Taborda, A. Tapia, A. Tepe, V. M. Theodoro, C. Timmermans, C. J. Todero Peixoto, G. Toma, L. Tomankova, B. Tomé, A. Tonachini, G. Torralba Elipe, D. Torres Machado, P. Travnicek, M. Trini, R. Ulrich, M. Unger, M. Urban, J. F. Valdés Galicia, I. Valiño, L. Valore, G. Van Aar, P. Van Bodegom, A. M. Van Den Berg, S. Van Velzen, A. Van Vliet, E. Varela, B. Vargas Cárdenas, G. Varner, R. Vasquez, J. R. Vázquez, R. A. Vázquez, D. Veberic, V. Verzi, J. Vicha, M. Videla, L. Villaseñor, B. Vlcek, S. Vorobiov, H. Wahlberg, O. Wainberg, D. Walz, A. A. Watson, M. Weber, K. Weidenhaupt, A. Weindl, F. Werner, A. Widom, L. Wiencke, H. Wilczynski, T. Winchen, D. Wittkowski, B. Wundheiler, S. Wykes, L. Yang, T. Yapici, A. Yushkov, E. Zas, D. Zavrtanik, M. Zavrtanik, A. Zepeda, B. Zimmermann, M. Ziolkowski, F. Zuccarello

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    To exploit the full potential of radio measurements of cosmic-ray air showers at MHz frequencies, a detector timing synchronization within 1 ns is needed. Large distributed radio detector arrays such as the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) rely on timing via the Global Positioning System (GPS) for the synchronization of individual detector station clocks. Unfortunately, GPS timing is expected to have an accuracy no better than about 5 ns. In practice, in particular in AERA, the GPS clocks exhibit drifts on the order of tens of ns. We developed a technique to correct for the GPS drifts, and an independent method is used to cross-check that indeed we reach a nanosecond-scale timing accuracy by this correction. First, we operate a "beacon transmitter" which emits defined sine waves detected by AERA antennas recorded within the physics data. The relative phasing of these sine waves can be used to correct for GPS clock drifts. In addition to this, we observe radio pulses emitted by commercial airplanes, the position of which we determine in real time from Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcasts intercepted with a software-defined radio. From the known source location and the measured arrival times of the pulses we determine relative timing offsets between radio detector stations. We demonstrate with a combined analysis that the two methods give a consistent timing calibration with an accuracy of 2 ns or better. Consequently, the beacon method alone can be used in the future to continuously determine and correct for GPS clock drifts in each individual event measured by AERA.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Article numberP01018
    JournalJournal of Instrumentation
    Volume11
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Jan 29 2016

    Fingerprint

    Extensive Air Showers
    time synchronization
    Time Synchronization
    Global Positioning System
    Demodulators
    cosmic ray showers
    Timing
    Synchronization
    stations
    Global positioning system
    time measurement
    Detector
    clocks
    detectors
    Air
    Clocks
    engineering
    Engineering
    beacons
    sine waves

    Keywords

    • Calibration and fitting methods
    • Cluster finding
    • Detector alignment and calibration methods (lasers, sources, particle-beams)
    • Pattern recognition
    • Timing detectors

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Instrumentation
    • Mathematical Physics

    Cite this

    Aab, A., Abreu, P., Aglietta, M., Ahn, E. J., Al Samarai, I., Albuquerque, I. F. M., ... Zuccarello, F. (2016). Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers. Journal of Instrumentation, 11(1), [P01018]. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/11/01/P01018

    Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers. / Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F M; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anastasi, G. A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blanco, M.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Bohácová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Brogueira, P.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; De Almeida, R. M.; De Jong, S. J.; De Mauro, G.; De Mello Neto, J. R T; De Mitri, I.; De Oliveira, J.; De Souza, V.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dos Anjos, R. C.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Eser, J.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fujii, T.; García, B.; García-Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glas, D.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Golup, G.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Hervé, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kuempel, D.; Kukec Mezek, G.; Kunka, N.; Kuotb Awad, A. W.; LaHurd, D.; Lang, A.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui De Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopes, L.; López, R.; López Casado, A.; Louedec, K.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; J. Matthews, J. A.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meissner, R.; B. Mello, V. B.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Müller, G.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, S.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Núñez, L. A.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pękala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Reinert, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues De Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sanabria Gomez, J. D.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E. M.; Santos, E.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sarmiento-Cano, C.; Sato, R.; Scarso, C.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Smialkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sonntag, S.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanca, D.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suarez Durán, M.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trini, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; Van Aar, G.; Van Bodegom, P.; Van Den Berg, A. M.; Van Velzen, S.; Van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vasquez, R.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynski, H.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yang, L.; Yapici, T.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.

    In: Journal of Instrumentation, Vol. 11, No. 1, P01018, 29.01.2016.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Aab, A, Abreu, P, Aglietta, M, Ahn, EJ, Al Samarai, I, Albuquerque, IFM, Allekotte, I, Allison, P, Almela, A, Alvarez Castillo, J, Alvarez-Muñiz, J, Alves Batista, R, Ambrosio, M, Aminaei, A, Anastasi, GA, Anchordoqui, L, Andringa, S, Aramo, C, Arqueros, F, Arsene, N, Asorey, H, Assis, P, Aublin, J, Avila, G, Awal, N, Badescu, AM, Baus, C, Beatty, JJ, Becker, KH, Bellido, JA, Berat, C, Bertaina, ME, Bertou, X, Biermann, PL, Billoir, P, Blaess, SG, Blanco, A, Blanco, M, Blazek, J, Bleve, C, Blümer, H, Bohácová, M, Boncioli, D, Bonifazi, C, Borodai, N, Brack, J, Brancus, I, Bretz, T, Bridgeman, A, Brogueira, P, Buchholz, P, Bueno, A, Buitink, S, Buscemi, M, Caballero-Mora, KS, Caccianiga, B, Caccianiga, L, Candusso, M, Caramete, L, Caruso, R, Castellina, A, Cataldi, G, Cazon, L, Cester, R, Chavez, AG, Chiavassa, A, Chinellato, JA, Chudoba, J, Cilmo, M, Clay, RW, Cocciolo, G, Colalillo, R, Coleman, A, Collica, L, Coluccia, MR, Conceição, R, Contreras, F, Cooper, MJ, Cordier, A, Coutu, S, Covault, CE, Cronin, J, Dallier, R, Daniel, B, Dasso, S, Daumiller, K, Dawson, BR, De Almeida, RM, De Jong, SJ, De Mauro, G, De Mello Neto, JRT, De Mitri, I, De Oliveira, J, De Souza, V, Del Peral, L, Deligny, O, Dhital, N, Di Giulio, C, Di Matteo, A, Diaz, JC, Díaz Castro, ML, Diogo, F, Dobrigkeit, C, Docters, W, D'Olivo, JC, Dorofeev, A, Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q, Dos Anjos, RC, Dova, MT, Ebr, J, Engel, R, Erdmann, M, Erfani, M, Escobar, CO, Eser, J, Espadanal, J, Etchegoyen, A, Falcke, H, Fang, K, Farrar, G, Fauth, AC, Fazzini, N, Ferguson, AP, Fick, B, Figueira, JM, Filevich, A, Filipcic, A, Fratu, O, Freire, MM, Fujii, T, García, B, García-Gámez, D, Garcia-Pinto, D, Gate, F, Gemmeke, H, Gherghel-Lascu, A, Ghia, PL, Giaccari, U, Giammarchi, M, Giller, M, Glas, D, Glaser, C, Glass, H, Golup, G, Gómez Berisso, M, Gómez Vitale, PF, González, N, Gookin, B, Gordon, J, Gorgi, A, Gorham, P, Gouffon, P, Griffith, N, Grillo, AF, Grubb, TD, Guarino, F, Guedes, GP, Hampel, MR, Hansen, P, Harari, D, Harrison, TA, Hartmann, S, Harton, JL, Haungs, A, Hebbeker, T, Heck, D, Heimann, P, Hervé, AE, Hill, GC, Hojvat, C, Hollon, N, Holt, E, Homola, P, Hörandel, JR, Horvath, P, Hrabovský, M, Huber, D, Huege, T, Insolia, A, Isar, PG, Jandt, I, Jansen, S, Jarne, C, Johnsen, JA, Josebachuili, M, Kääpä, A, Kambeitz, O, Kampert, KH, Kasper, P, Katkov, I, Keilhauer, B, Kemp, E, Kieckhafer, RM, Klages, HO, Kleifges, M, Kleinfeller, J, Krause, R, Krohm, N, Kuempel, D, Kukec Mezek, G, Kunka, N, Kuotb Awad, AW, LaHurd, D, Lang, A, Latronico, L, Lauer, R, Lauscher, M, Lautridou, P, Le Coz, S, Lebrun, D, Lebrun, P, Leigui De Oliveira, MA, Letessier-Selvon, A, Lhenry-Yvon, I, Link, K, Lopes, L, López, R, López Casado, A, Louedec, K, Lucero, A, Malacari, M, Mallamaci, M, Maller, J, Mandat, D, Mantsch, P, Mariazzi, AG, Marin, V, Maris, IC, Marsella, G, Martello, D, Martinez, H, Martínez Bravo, O, Martraire, D, Masías Meza, JJ, Mathes, HJ, Mathys, S, Matthews, J, J. Matthews, JA, Matthiae, G, Maurizio, D, Mayotte, E, Mazur, PO, Medina, C, Medina-Tanco, G, Meissner, R, B. Mello, VB, Melo, D, Menshikov, A, Messina, S, Micheletti, MI, Middendorf, L, Minaya, IA, Miramonti, L, Mitrica, B, Molina-Bueno, L, Mollerach, S, Montanet, F, Morello, C, Mostafá, M, Moura, CA, Müller, G, Muller, MA, Müller, S, Navas, S, Necesal, P, Nellen, L, Nelles, A, Neuser, J, Nguyen, PH, Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M, Niechciol, M, Niemietz, L, Niggemann, T, Nitz, D, Nosek, D, Novotny, V, Nožka, L, Núñez, LA, Ochilo, L, Oikonomou, F, Olinto, A, Pacheco, N, Pakk Selmi-Dei, D, Palatka, M, Pallotta, J, Papenbreer, P, Parente, G, Parra, A, Paul, T, Pech, M, Pękala, J, Pelayo, R, Pepe, IM, Perrone, L, Petermann, E, Peters, C, Petrera, S, Petrov, Y, Phuntsok, J, Piegaia, R, Pierog, T, Pieroni, P, Pimenta, M, Pirronello, V, Platino, M, Plum, M, Porcelli, A, Porowski, C, Prado, RR, Privitera, P, Prouza, M, Quel, EJ, Querchfeld, S, Quinn, S, Rautenberg, J, Ravel, O, Ravignani, D, Reinert, D, Revenu, B, Ridky, J, Risse, M, Ristori, P, Rizi, V, Rodrigues De Carvalho, W, Rodriguez Rojo, J, Rodríguez-Frías, MD, Rogozin, D, Rosado, J, Roth, M, Roulet, E, Rovero, AC, Saffi, SJ, Saftoiu, A, Salazar, H, Saleh, A, Salesa Greus, F, Salina, G, Sanabria Gomez, JD, Sánchez, F, Sanchez-Lucas, P, Santos, EM, Santos, E, Sarazin, F, Sarkar, B, Sarmento, R, Sarmiento-Cano, C, Sato, R, Scarso, C, Schauer, M, Scherini, V, Schieler, H, Schmidt, D, Scholten, O, Schoorlemmer, H, Schovánek, P, Schröder, FG, Schulz, A, Schulz, J, Schumacher, J, Sciutto, SJ, Segreto, A, Settimo, M, Shadkam, A, Shellard, RC, Sigl, G, Sima, O, Smialkowski, A, Šmída, R, Snow, GR, Sommers, P, Sonntag, S, Sorokin, J, Squartini, R, Srivastava, YN, Stanca, D, Stanic, S, Stapleton, J, Stasielak, J, Stephan, M, Stutz, A, Suarez, F, Suarez Durán, M, Suomijärvi, T, Supanitsky, AD, Sutherland, MS, Swain, J, Szadkowski, Z, Taborda, OA, Tapia, A, Tepe, A, Theodoro, VM, Timmermans, C, Todero Peixoto, CJ, Toma, G, Tomankova, L, Tomé, B, Tonachini, A, Torralba Elipe, G, Torres Machado, D, Travnicek, P, Trini, M, Ulrich, R, Unger, M, Urban, M, Valdés Galicia, JF, Valiño, I, Valore, L, Van Aar, G, Van Bodegom, P, Van Den Berg, AM, Van Velzen, S, Van Vliet, A, Varela, E, Vargas Cárdenas, B, Varner, G, Vasquez, R, Vázquez, JR, Vázquez, RA, Veberic, D, Verzi, V, Vicha, J, Videla, M, Villaseñor, L, Vlcek, B, Vorobiov, S, Wahlberg, H, Wainberg, O, Walz, D, Watson, AA, Weber, M, Weidenhaupt, K, Weindl, A, Werner, F, Widom, A, Wiencke, L, Wilczynski, H, Winchen, T, Wittkowski, D, Wundheiler, B, Wykes, S, Yang, L, Yapici, T, Yushkov, A, Zas, E, Zavrtanik, D, Zavrtanik, M, Zepeda, A, Zimmermann, B, Ziolkowski, M & Zuccarello, F 2016, 'Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers', Journal of Instrumentation, vol. 11, no. 1, P01018. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/11/01/P01018
    Aab, A. ; Abreu, P. ; Aglietta, M. ; Ahn, E. J. ; Al Samarai, I. ; Albuquerque, I. F M ; Allekotte, I. ; Allison, P. ; Almela, A. ; Alvarez Castillo, J. ; Alvarez-Muñiz, J. ; Alves Batista, R. ; Ambrosio, M. ; Aminaei, A. ; Anastasi, G. A. ; Anchordoqui, L. ; Andringa, S. ; Aramo, C. ; Arqueros, F. ; Arsene, N. ; Asorey, H. ; Assis, P. ; Aublin, J. ; Avila, G. ; Awal, N. ; Badescu, A. M. ; Baus, C. ; Beatty, J. J. ; Becker, K. H. ; Bellido, J. A. ; Berat, C. ; Bertaina, M. E. ; Bertou, X. ; Biermann, P. L. ; Billoir, P. ; Blaess, S. G. ; Blanco, A. ; Blanco, M. ; Blazek, J. ; Bleve, C. ; Blümer, H. ; Bohácová, M. ; Boncioli, D. ; Bonifazi, C. ; Borodai, N. ; Brack, J. ; Brancus, I. ; Bretz, T. ; Bridgeman, A. ; Brogueira, P. ; Buchholz, P. ; Bueno, A. ; Buitink, S. ; Buscemi, M. ; Caballero-Mora, K. S. ; Caccianiga, B. ; Caccianiga, L. ; Candusso, M. ; Caramete, L. ; Caruso, R. ; Castellina, A. ; Cataldi, G. ; Cazon, L. ; Cester, R. ; Chavez, A. G. ; Chiavassa, A. ; Chinellato, J. A. ; Chudoba, J. ; Cilmo, M. ; Clay, R. W. ; Cocciolo, G. ; Colalillo, R. ; Coleman, A. ; Collica, L. ; Coluccia, M. R. ; Conceição, R. ; Contreras, F. ; Cooper, M. J. ; Cordier, A. ; Coutu, S. ; Covault, C. E. ; Cronin, J. ; Dallier, R. ; Daniel, B. ; Dasso, S. ; Daumiller, K. ; Dawson, B. R. ; De Almeida, R. M. ; De Jong, S. J. ; De Mauro, G. ; De Mello Neto, J. R T ; De Mitri, I. ; De Oliveira, J. ; De Souza, V. ; Del Peral, L. ; Deligny, O. ; Dhital, N. ; Di Giulio, C. ; Di Matteo, A. ; Diaz, J. C. ; Díaz Castro, M. L. ; Diogo, F. ; Dobrigkeit, C. ; Docters, W. ; D'Olivo, J. C. ; Dorofeev, A. ; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q. ; Dos Anjos, R. C. ; Dova, M. T. ; Ebr, J. ; Engel, R. ; Erdmann, M. ; Erfani, M. ; Escobar, C. O. ; Eser, J. ; Espadanal, J. ; Etchegoyen, A. ; Falcke, H. ; Fang, K. ; Farrar, G. ; Fauth, A. C. ; Fazzini, N. ; Ferguson, A. P. ; Fick, B. ; Figueira, J. M. ; Filevich, A. ; Filipcic, A. ; Fratu, O. ; Freire, M. M. ; Fujii, T. ; García, B. ; García-Gámez, D. ; Garcia-Pinto, D. ; Gate, F. ; Gemmeke, H. ; Gherghel-Lascu, A. ; Ghia, P. L. ; Giaccari, U. ; Giammarchi, M. ; Giller, M. ; Glas, D. ; Glaser, C. ; Glass, H. ; Golup, G. ; Gómez Berisso, M. ; Gómez Vitale, P. F. ; González, N. ; Gookin, B. ; Gordon, J. ; Gorgi, A. ; Gorham, P. ; Gouffon, P. ; Griffith, N. ; Grillo, A. F. ; Grubb, T. D. ; Guarino, F. ; Guedes, G. P. ; Hampel, M. R. ; Hansen, P. ; Harari, D. ; Harrison, T. A. ; Hartmann, S. ; Harton, J. L. ; Haungs, A. ; Hebbeker, T. ; Heck, D. ; Heimann, P. ; Hervé, A. E. ; Hill, G. C. ; Hojvat, C. ; Hollon, N. ; Holt, E. ; Homola, P. ; Hörandel, J. R. ; Horvath, P. ; Hrabovský, M. ; Huber, D. ; Huege, T. ; Insolia, A. ; Isar, P. G. ; Jandt, I. ; Jansen, S. ; Jarne, C. ; Johnsen, J. A. ; Josebachuili, M. ; Kääpä, A. ; Kambeitz, O. ; Kampert, K. H. ; Kasper, P. ; Katkov, I. ; Keilhauer, B. ; Kemp, E. ; Kieckhafer, R. M. ; Klages, H. O. ; Kleifges, M. ; Kleinfeller, J. ; Krause, R. ; Krohm, N. ; Kuempel, D. ; Kukec Mezek, G. ; Kunka, N. ; Kuotb Awad, A. W. ; LaHurd, D. ; Lang, A. ; Latronico, L. ; Lauer, R. ; Lauscher, M. ; Lautridou, P. ; Le Coz, S. ; Lebrun, D. ; Lebrun, P. ; Leigui De Oliveira, M. A. ; Letessier-Selvon, A. ; Lhenry-Yvon, I. ; Link, K. ; Lopes, L. ; López, R. ; López Casado, A. ; Louedec, K. ; Lucero, A. ; Malacari, M. ; Mallamaci, M. ; Maller, J. ; Mandat, D. ; Mantsch, P. ; Mariazzi, A. G. ; Marin, V. ; Maris, I. C. ; Marsella, G. ; Martello, D. ; Martinez, H. ; Martínez Bravo, O. ; Martraire, D. ; Masías Meza, J. J. ; Mathes, H. J. ; Mathys, S. ; Matthews, J. ; J. Matthews, J. A. ; Matthiae, G. ; Maurizio, D. ; Mayotte, E. ; Mazur, P. O. ; Medina, C. ; Medina-Tanco, G. ; Meissner, R. ; B. Mello, V. B. ; Melo, D. ; Menshikov, A. ; Messina, S. ; Micheletti, M. I. ; Middendorf, L. ; Minaya, I. A. ; Miramonti, L. ; Mitrica, B. ; Molina-Bueno, L. ; Mollerach, S. ; Montanet, F. ; Morello, C. ; Mostafá, M. ; Moura, C. A. ; Müller, G. ; Muller, M. A. ; Müller, S. ; Navas, S. ; Necesal, P. ; Nellen, L. ; Nelles, A. ; Neuser, J. ; Nguyen, P. H. ; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M. ; Niechciol, M. ; Niemietz, L. ; Niggemann, T. ; Nitz, D. ; Nosek, D. ; Novotny, V. ; Nožka, L. ; Núñez, L. A. ; Ochilo, L. ; Oikonomou, F. ; Olinto, A. ; Pacheco, N. ; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D. ; Palatka, M. ; Pallotta, J. ; Papenbreer, P. ; Parente, G. ; Parra, A. ; Paul, T. ; Pech, M. ; Pękala, J. ; Pelayo, R. ; Pepe, I. M. ; Perrone, L. ; Petermann, E. ; Peters, C. ; Petrera, S. ; Petrov, Y. ; Phuntsok, J. ; Piegaia, R. ; Pierog, T. ; Pieroni, P. ; Pimenta, M. ; Pirronello, V. ; Platino, M. ; Plum, M. ; Porcelli, A. ; Porowski, C. ; Prado, R. R. ; Privitera, P. ; Prouza, M. ; Quel, E. J. ; Querchfeld, S. ; Quinn, S. ; Rautenberg, J. ; Ravel, O. ; Ravignani, D. ; Reinert, D. ; Revenu, B. ; Ridky, J. ; Risse, M. ; Ristori, P. ; Rizi, V. ; Rodrigues De Carvalho, W. ; Rodriguez Rojo, J. ; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D. ; Rogozin, D. ; Rosado, J. ; Roth, M. ; Roulet, E. ; Rovero, A. C. ; Saffi, S. J. ; Saftoiu, A. ; Salazar, H. ; Saleh, A. ; Salesa Greus, F. ; Salina, G. ; Sanabria Gomez, J. D. ; Sánchez, F. ; Sanchez-Lucas, P. ; Santos, E. M. ; Santos, E. ; Sarazin, F. ; Sarkar, B. ; Sarmento, R. ; Sarmiento-Cano, C. ; Sato, R. ; Scarso, C. ; Schauer, M. ; Scherini, V. ; Schieler, H. ; Schmidt, D. ; Scholten, O. ; Schoorlemmer, H. ; Schovánek, P. ; Schröder, F. G. ; Schulz, A. ; Schulz, J. ; Schumacher, J. ; Sciutto, S. J. ; Segreto, A. ; Settimo, M. ; Shadkam, A. ; Shellard, R. C. ; Sigl, G. ; Sima, O. ; Smialkowski, A. ; Šmída, R. ; Snow, G. R. ; Sommers, P. ; Sonntag, S. ; Sorokin, J. ; Squartini, R. ; Srivastava, Y. N. ; Stanca, D. ; Stanic, S. ; Stapleton, J. ; Stasielak, J. ; Stephan, M. ; Stutz, A. ; Suarez, F. ; Suarez Durán, M. ; Suomijärvi, T. ; Supanitsky, A. D. ; Sutherland, M. S. ; Swain, J. ; Szadkowski, Z. ; Taborda, O. A. ; Tapia, A. ; Tepe, A. ; Theodoro, V. M. ; Timmermans, C. ; Todero Peixoto, C. J. ; Toma, G. ; Tomankova, L. ; Tomé, B. ; Tonachini, A. ; Torralba Elipe, G. ; Torres Machado, D. ; Travnicek, P. ; Trini, M. ; Ulrich, R. ; Unger, M. ; Urban, M. ; Valdés Galicia, J. F. ; Valiño, I. ; Valore, L. ; Van Aar, G. ; Van Bodegom, P. ; Van Den Berg, A. M. ; Van Velzen, S. ; Van Vliet, A. ; Varela, E. ; Vargas Cárdenas, B. ; Varner, G. ; Vasquez, R. ; Vázquez, J. R. ; Vázquez, R. A. ; Veberic, D. ; Verzi, V. ; Vicha, J. ; Videla, M. ; Villaseñor, L. ; Vlcek, B. ; Vorobiov, S. ; Wahlberg, H. ; Wainberg, O. ; Walz, D. ; Watson, A. A. ; Weber, M. ; Weidenhaupt, K. ; Weindl, A. ; Werner, F. ; Widom, A. ; Wiencke, L. ; Wilczynski, H. ; Winchen, T. ; Wittkowski, D. ; Wundheiler, B. ; Wykes, S. ; Yang, L. ; Yapici, T. ; Yushkov, A. ; Zas, E. ; Zavrtanik, D. ; Zavrtanik, M. ; Zepeda, A. ; Zimmermann, B. ; Ziolkowski, M. ; Zuccarello, F. / Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers. In: Journal of Instrumentation. 2016 ; Vol. 11, No. 1.
    @article{98a0fdfd810e48d1b81e057ca7dc2a27,
    title = "Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers",
    abstract = "To exploit the full potential of radio measurements of cosmic-ray air showers at MHz frequencies, a detector timing synchronization within 1 ns is needed. Large distributed radio detector arrays such as the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) rely on timing via the Global Positioning System (GPS) for the synchronization of individual detector station clocks. Unfortunately, GPS timing is expected to have an accuracy no better than about 5 ns. In practice, in particular in AERA, the GPS clocks exhibit drifts on the order of tens of ns. We developed a technique to correct for the GPS drifts, and an independent method is used to cross-check that indeed we reach a nanosecond-scale timing accuracy by this correction. First, we operate a {"}beacon transmitter{"} which emits defined sine waves detected by AERA antennas recorded within the physics data. The relative phasing of these sine waves can be used to correct for GPS clock drifts. In addition to this, we observe radio pulses emitted by commercial airplanes, the position of which we determine in real time from Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcasts intercepted with a software-defined radio. From the known source location and the measured arrival times of the pulses we determine relative timing offsets between radio detector stations. We demonstrate with a combined analysis that the two methods give a consistent timing calibration with an accuracy of 2 ns or better. Consequently, the beacon method alone can be used in the future to continuously determine and correct for GPS clock drifts in each individual event measured by AERA.",
    keywords = "Calibration and fitting methods, Cluster finding, Detector alignment and calibration methods (lasers, sources, particle-beams), Pattern recognition, Timing detectors",
    author = "A. Aab and P. Abreu and M. Aglietta and Ahn, {E. J.} and {Al Samarai}, I. and Albuquerque, {I. F M} and I. Allekotte and P. Allison and A. Almela and {Alvarez Castillo}, J. and J. Alvarez-Mu{\~n}iz and {Alves Batista}, R. and M. Ambrosio and A. Aminaei and Anastasi, {G. A.} and L. Anchordoqui and S. Andringa and C. Aramo and F. Arqueros and N. Arsene and H. Asorey and P. Assis and J. Aublin and G. Avila and N. Awal and Badescu, {A. M.} and C. Baus and Beatty, {J. J.} and Becker, {K. H.} and Bellido, {J. A.} and C. Berat and Bertaina, {M. E.} and X. Bertou and Biermann, {P. L.} and P. Billoir and Blaess, {S. G.} and A. Blanco and M. Blanco and J. Blazek and C. Bleve and H. Bl{\"u}mer and M. Boh{\'a}cov{\'a} and D. Boncioli and C. Bonifazi and N. Borodai and J. Brack and I. Brancus and T. Bretz and A. Bridgeman and P. Brogueira and P. Buchholz and A. Bueno and S. Buitink and M. Buscemi and Caballero-Mora, {K. S.} and B. Caccianiga and L. Caccianiga and M. Candusso and L. Caramete and R. Caruso and A. Castellina and G. Cataldi and L. Cazon and R. Cester and Chavez, {A. G.} and A. Chiavassa and Chinellato, {J. A.} and J. Chudoba and M. Cilmo and Clay, {R. W.} and G. Cocciolo and R. Colalillo and A. Coleman and L. Collica and Coluccia, {M. R.} and R. Concei{\cc}{\~a}o and F. Contreras and Cooper, {M. J.} and A. Cordier and S. Coutu and Covault, {C. E.} and J. Cronin and R. Dallier and B. Daniel and S. Dasso and K. Daumiller and Dawson, {B. R.} and {De Almeida}, {R. M.} and {De Jong}, {S. J.} and {De Mauro}, G. and {De Mello Neto}, {J. R T} and {De Mitri}, I. and {De Oliveira}, J. and {De Souza}, V. and {Del Peral}, L. and O. Deligny and N. Dhital and {Di Giulio}, C. and {Di Matteo}, A. and Diaz, {J. C.} and {D{\'i}az Castro}, {M. L.} and F. Diogo and C. Dobrigkeit and W. Docters and D'Olivo, {J. C.} and A. Dorofeev and {Dorosti Hasankiadeh}, Q. and {Dos Anjos}, {R. C.} and Dova, {M. T.} and J. Ebr and R. Engel and M. Erdmann and M. Erfani and Escobar, {C. O.} and J. Eser and J. Espadanal and A. Etchegoyen and H. Falcke and K. Fang and G. Farrar and Fauth, {A. C.} and N. Fazzini and Ferguson, {A. P.} and B. Fick and Figueira, {J. M.} and A. Filevich and A. Filipcic and O. Fratu and Freire, {M. M.} and T. Fujii and B. Garc{\'i}a and D. Garc{\'i}a-G{\'a}mez and D. Garcia-Pinto and F. Gate and H. Gemmeke and A. Gherghel-Lascu and Ghia, {P. L.} and U. Giaccari and M. Giammarchi and M. Giller and D. Glas and C. Glaser and H. Glass and G. Golup and {G{\'o}mez Berisso}, M. and {G{\'o}mez Vitale}, {P. F.} and N. Gonz{\'a}lez and B. Gookin and J. Gordon and A. Gorgi and P. Gorham and P. Gouffon and N. Griffith and Grillo, {A. F.} and Grubb, {T. D.} and F. Guarino and Guedes, {G. P.} and Hampel, {M. R.} and P. Hansen and D. Harari and Harrison, {T. A.} and S. Hartmann and Harton, {J. L.} and A. Haungs and T. Hebbeker and D. Heck and P. Heimann and Herv{\'e}, {A. E.} and Hill, {G. C.} and C. Hojvat and N. Hollon and E. Holt and P. Homola and H{\"o}randel, {J. R.} and P. Horvath and M. Hrabovsk{\'y} and D. Huber and T. Huege and A. Insolia and Isar, {P. G.} and I. Jandt and S. Jansen and C. Jarne and Johnsen, {J. A.} and M. Josebachuili and A. K{\"a}{\"a}p{\"a} and O. Kambeitz and Kampert, {K. H.} and P. Kasper and I. Katkov and B. Keilhauer and E. Kemp and Kieckhafer, {R. M.} and Klages, {H. O.} and M. Kleifges and J. Kleinfeller and R. Krause and N. Krohm and D. Kuempel and {Kukec Mezek}, G. and N. Kunka and {Kuotb Awad}, {A. W.} and D. LaHurd and A. Lang and L. Latronico and R. Lauer and M. Lauscher and P. Lautridou and {Le Coz}, S. and D. Lebrun and P. Lebrun and {Leigui De Oliveira}, {M. A.} and A. Letessier-Selvon and I. Lhenry-Yvon and K. Link and L. Lopes and R. L{\'o}pez and {L{\'o}pez Casado}, A. and K. Louedec and A. Lucero and M. Malacari and M. Mallamaci and J. Maller and D. Mandat and P. Mantsch and Mariazzi, {A. G.} and V. Marin and Maris, {I. C.} and G. Marsella and D. Martello and H. Martinez and {Mart{\'i}nez Bravo}, O. and D. Martraire and {Mas{\'i}as Meza}, {J. J.} and Mathes, {H. J.} and S. Mathys and J. Matthews and {J. Matthews}, {J. A.} and G. Matthiae and D. Maurizio and E. Mayotte and Mazur, {P. O.} and C. Medina and G. Medina-Tanco and R. Meissner and {B. Mello}, {V. B.} and D. Melo and A. Menshikov and S. Messina and Micheletti, {M. I.} and L. Middendorf and Minaya, {I. A.} and L. Miramonti and B. Mitrica and L. Molina-Bueno and S. Mollerach and F. Montanet and C. Morello and M. Mostaf{\'a} and Moura, {C. A.} and G. M{\"u}ller and Muller, {M. A.} and S. M{\"u}ller and S. Navas and P. Necesal and L. Nellen and A. Nelles and J. Neuser and Nguyen, {P. H.} and M. Niculescu-Oglinzanu and M. Niechciol and L. Niemietz and T. Niggemann and D. Nitz and D. Nosek and V. Novotny and L. Nožka and N{\'u}{\~n}ez, {L. A.} and L. Ochilo and F. Oikonomou and A. Olinto and N. Pacheco and {Pakk Selmi-Dei}, D. and M. Palatka and J. Pallotta and P. Papenbreer and G. Parente and A. Parra and T. Paul and M. Pech and J. Pękala and R. Pelayo and Pepe, {I. M.} and L. Perrone and E. Petermann and C. Peters and S. Petrera and Y. Petrov and J. Phuntsok and R. Piegaia and T. Pierog and P. Pieroni and M. Pimenta and V. Pirronello and M. Platino and M. Plum and A. Porcelli and C. Porowski and Prado, {R. R.} and P. Privitera and M. Prouza and Quel, {E. J.} and S. Querchfeld and S. Quinn and J. Rautenberg and O. Ravel and D. Ravignani and D. Reinert and B. Revenu and J. Ridky and M. Risse and P. Ristori and V. Rizi and {Rodrigues De Carvalho}, W. and {Rodriguez Rojo}, J. and Rodr{\'i}guez-Fr{\'i}as, {M. D.} and D. Rogozin and J. Rosado and M. Roth and E. Roulet and Rovero, {A. C.} and Saffi, {S. J.} and A. Saftoiu and H. Salazar and A. Saleh and {Salesa Greus}, F. and G. Salina and {Sanabria Gomez}, {J. D.} and F. S{\'a}nchez and P. Sanchez-Lucas and Santos, {E. M.} and E. Santos and F. Sarazin and B. Sarkar and R. Sarmento and C. Sarmiento-Cano and R. Sato and C. Scarso and M. Schauer and V. Scherini and H. Schieler and D. Schmidt and O. Scholten and H. Schoorlemmer and P. Schov{\'a}nek and Schr{\"o}der, {F. G.} and A. Schulz and J. Schulz and J. Schumacher and Sciutto, {S. J.} and A. Segreto and M. Settimo and A. Shadkam and Shellard, {R. C.} and G. Sigl and O. Sima and A. Smialkowski and R. Šm{\'i}da and Snow, {G. R.} and P. Sommers and S. Sonntag and J. Sorokin and R. Squartini and Srivastava, {Y. N.} and D. Stanca and S. Stanic and J. Stapleton and J. Stasielak and M. Stephan and A. Stutz and F. Suarez and {Suarez Dur{\'a}n}, M. and T. Suomij{\"a}rvi and Supanitsky, {A. D.} and Sutherland, {M. S.} and J. Swain and Z. Szadkowski and Taborda, {O. A.} and A. Tapia and A. Tepe and Theodoro, {V. M.} and C. Timmermans and {Todero Peixoto}, {C. J.} and G. Toma and L. Tomankova and B. Tom{\'e} and A. Tonachini and {Torralba Elipe}, G. and {Torres Machado}, D. and P. Travnicek and M. Trini and R. Ulrich and M. Unger and M. Urban and {Vald{\'e}s Galicia}, {J. F.} and I. Vali{\~n}o and L. Valore and {Van Aar}, G. and {Van Bodegom}, P. and {Van Den Berg}, {A. M.} and {Van Velzen}, S. and {Van Vliet}, A. and E. Varela and {Vargas C{\'a}rdenas}, B. and G. Varner and R. Vasquez and V{\'a}zquez, {J. R.} and V{\'a}zquez, {R. A.} and D. Veberic and V. Verzi and J. Vicha and M. Videla and L. Villase{\~n}or and B. Vlcek and S. Vorobiov and H. Wahlberg and O. Wainberg and D. Walz and Watson, {A. A.} and M. Weber and K. Weidenhaupt and A. Weindl and F. Werner and A. Widom and L. Wiencke and H. Wilczynski and T. Winchen and D. Wittkowski and B. Wundheiler and S. Wykes and L. Yang and T. Yapici and A. Yushkov and E. Zas and D. Zavrtanik and M. Zavrtanik and A. Zepeda and B. Zimmermann and M. Ziolkowski and F. Zuccarello",
    year = "2016",
    month = "1",
    day = "29",
    doi = "10.1088/1748-0221/11/01/P01018",
    language = "English (US)",
    volume = "11",
    journal = "Journal of Instrumentation",
    issn = "1748-0221",
    publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",
    number = "1",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers

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    AU - Abreu, P.

    AU - Aglietta, M.

    AU - Ahn, E. J.

    AU - Al Samarai, I.

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    AU - Allekotte, I.

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    AU - Almela, A.

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    AU - Alves Batista, R.

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    AU - Deligny, O.

    AU - Dhital, N.

    AU - Di Giulio, C.

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    AU - Erdmann, M.

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    AU - Eser, J.

    AU - Espadanal, J.

    AU - Etchegoyen, A.

    AU - Falcke, H.

    AU - Fang, K.

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    AU - Fauth, A. C.

    AU - Fazzini, N.

    AU - Ferguson, A. P.

    AU - Fick, B.

    AU - Figueira, J. M.

    AU - Filevich, A.

    AU - Filipcic, A.

    AU - Fratu, O.

    AU - Freire, M. M.

    AU - Fujii, T.

    AU - García, B.

    AU - García-Gámez, D.

    AU - Garcia-Pinto, D.

    AU - Gate, F.

    AU - Gemmeke, H.

    AU - Gherghel-Lascu, A.

    AU - Ghia, P. L.

    AU - Giaccari, U.

    AU - Giammarchi, M.

    AU - Giller, M.

    AU - Glas, D.

    AU - Glaser, C.

    AU - Glass, H.

    AU - Golup, G.

    AU - Gómez Berisso, M.

    AU - Gómez Vitale, P. F.

    AU - González, N.

    AU - Gookin, B.

    AU - Gordon, J.

    AU - Gorgi, A.

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    AU - Grillo, A. F.

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    AU - Guarino, F.

    AU - Guedes, G. P.

    AU - Hampel, M. R.

    AU - Hansen, P.

    AU - Harari, D.

    AU - Harrison, T. A.

    AU - Hartmann, S.

    AU - Harton, J. L.

    AU - Haungs, A.

    AU - Hebbeker, T.

    AU - Heck, D.

    AU - Heimann, P.

    AU - Hervé, A. E.

    AU - Hill, G. C.

    AU - Hojvat, C.

    AU - Hollon, N.

    AU - Holt, E.

    AU - Homola, P.

    AU - Hörandel, J. R.

    AU - Horvath, P.

    AU - Hrabovský, M.

    AU - Huber, D.

    AU - Huege, T.

    AU - Insolia, A.

    AU - Isar, P. G.

    AU - Jandt, I.

    AU - Jansen, S.

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    AU - Josebachuili, M.

    AU - Kääpä, A.

    AU - Kambeitz, O.

    AU - Kampert, K. H.

    AU - Kasper, P.

    AU - Katkov, I.

    AU - Keilhauer, B.

    AU - Kemp, E.

    AU - Kieckhafer, R. M.

    AU - Klages, H. O.

    AU - Kleifges, M.

    AU - Kleinfeller, J.

    AU - Krause, R.

    AU - Krohm, N.

    AU - Kuempel, D.

    AU - Kukec Mezek, G.

    AU - Kunka, N.

    AU - Kuotb Awad, A. W.

    AU - LaHurd, D.

    AU - Lang, A.

    AU - Latronico, L.

    AU - Lauer, R.

    AU - Lauscher, M.

    AU - Lautridou, P.

    AU - Le Coz, S.

    AU - Lebrun, D.

    AU - Lebrun, P.

    AU - Leigui De Oliveira, M. A.

    AU - Letessier-Selvon, A.

    AU - Lhenry-Yvon, I.

    AU - Link, K.

    AU - Lopes, L.

    AU - López, R.

    AU - López Casado, A.

    AU - Louedec, K.

    AU - Lucero, A.

    AU - Malacari, M.

    AU - Mallamaci, M.

    AU - Maller, J.

    AU - Mandat, D.

    AU - Mantsch, P.

    AU - Mariazzi, A. G.

    AU - Marin, V.

    AU - Maris, I. C.

    AU - Marsella, G.

    AU - Martello, D.

    AU - Martinez, H.

    AU - Martínez Bravo, O.

    AU - Martraire, D.

    AU - Masías Meza, J. J.

    AU - Mathes, H. J.

    AU - Mathys, S.

    AU - Matthews, J.

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    AU - Matthiae, G.

    AU - Maurizio, D.

    AU - Mayotte, E.

    AU - Mazur, P. O.

    AU - Medina, C.

    AU - Medina-Tanco, G.

    AU - Meissner, R.

    AU - B. Mello, V. B.

    AU - Melo, D.

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    AU - Mollerach, S.

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    AU - Müller, G.

    AU - Muller, M. A.

    AU - Müller, S.

    AU - Navas, S.

    AU - Necesal, P.

    AU - Nellen, L.

    AU - Nelles, A.

    AU - Neuser, J.

    AU - Nguyen, P. H.

    AU - Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.

    AU - Niechciol, M.

    AU - Niemietz, L.

    AU - Niggemann, T.

    AU - Nitz, D.

    AU - Nosek, D.

    AU - Novotny, V.

    AU - Nožka, L.

    AU - Núñez, L. A.

    AU - Ochilo, L.

    AU - Oikonomou, F.

    AU - Olinto, A.

    AU - Pacheco, N.

    AU - Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.

    AU - Palatka, M.

    AU - Pallotta, J.

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    AU - Pepe, I. M.

    AU - Perrone, L.

    AU - Petermann, E.

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    AU - Petrov, Y.

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    AU - Risse, M.

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    AU - Schulz, A.

    AU - Schulz, J.

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    AU - Settimo, M.

    AU - Shadkam, A.

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    AU - Snow, G. R.

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    AU - Squartini, R.

    AU - Srivastava, Y. N.

    AU - Stanca, D.

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    AU - Stutz, A.

    AU - Suarez, F.

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    AU - Supanitsky, A. D.

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    AU - Szadkowski, Z.

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    AU - Toma, G.

    AU - Tomankova, L.

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    AU - Valdés Galicia, J. F.

    AU - Valiño, I.

    AU - Valore, L.

    AU - Van Aar, G.

    AU - Van Bodegom, P.

    AU - Van Den Berg, A. M.

    AU - Van Velzen, S.

    AU - Van Vliet, A.

    AU - Varela, E.

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    AU - Varner, G.

    AU - Vasquez, R.

    AU - Vázquez, J. R.

    AU - Vázquez, R. A.

    AU - Veberic, D.

    AU - Verzi, V.

    AU - Vicha, J.

    AU - Videla, M.

    AU - Villaseñor, L.

    AU - Vlcek, B.

    AU - Vorobiov, S.

    AU - Wahlberg, H.

    AU - Wainberg, O.

    AU - Walz, D.

    AU - Watson, A. A.

    AU - Weber, M.

    AU - Weidenhaupt, K.

    AU - Weindl, A.

    AU - Werner, F.

    AU - Widom, A.

    AU - Wiencke, L.

    AU - Wilczynski, H.

    AU - Winchen, T.

    AU - Wittkowski, D.

    AU - Wundheiler, B.

    AU - Wykes, S.

    AU - Yang, L.

    AU - Yapici, T.

    AU - Yushkov, A.

    AU - Zas, E.

    AU - Zavrtanik, D.

    AU - Zavrtanik, M.

    AU - Zepeda, A.

    AU - Zimmermann, B.

    AU - Ziolkowski, M.

    AU - Zuccarello, F.

    PY - 2016/1/29

    Y1 - 2016/1/29

    N2 - To exploit the full potential of radio measurements of cosmic-ray air showers at MHz frequencies, a detector timing synchronization within 1 ns is needed. Large distributed radio detector arrays such as the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) rely on timing via the Global Positioning System (GPS) for the synchronization of individual detector station clocks. Unfortunately, GPS timing is expected to have an accuracy no better than about 5 ns. In practice, in particular in AERA, the GPS clocks exhibit drifts on the order of tens of ns. We developed a technique to correct for the GPS drifts, and an independent method is used to cross-check that indeed we reach a nanosecond-scale timing accuracy by this correction. First, we operate a "beacon transmitter" which emits defined sine waves detected by AERA antennas recorded within the physics data. The relative phasing of these sine waves can be used to correct for GPS clock drifts. In addition to this, we observe radio pulses emitted by commercial airplanes, the position of which we determine in real time from Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcasts intercepted with a software-defined radio. From the known source location and the measured arrival times of the pulses we determine relative timing offsets between radio detector stations. We demonstrate with a combined analysis that the two methods give a consistent timing calibration with an accuracy of 2 ns or better. Consequently, the beacon method alone can be used in the future to continuously determine and correct for GPS clock drifts in each individual event measured by AERA.

    AB - To exploit the full potential of radio measurements of cosmic-ray air showers at MHz frequencies, a detector timing synchronization within 1 ns is needed. Large distributed radio detector arrays such as the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) rely on timing via the Global Positioning System (GPS) for the synchronization of individual detector station clocks. Unfortunately, GPS timing is expected to have an accuracy no better than about 5 ns. In practice, in particular in AERA, the GPS clocks exhibit drifts on the order of tens of ns. We developed a technique to correct for the GPS drifts, and an independent method is used to cross-check that indeed we reach a nanosecond-scale timing accuracy by this correction. First, we operate a "beacon transmitter" which emits defined sine waves detected by AERA antennas recorded within the physics data. The relative phasing of these sine waves can be used to correct for GPS clock drifts. In addition to this, we observe radio pulses emitted by commercial airplanes, the position of which we determine in real time from Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcasts intercepted with a software-defined radio. From the known source location and the measured arrival times of the pulses we determine relative timing offsets between radio detector stations. We demonstrate with a combined analysis that the two methods give a consistent timing calibration with an accuracy of 2 ns or better. Consequently, the beacon method alone can be used in the future to continuously determine and correct for GPS clock drifts in each individual event measured by AERA.

    KW - Calibration and fitting methods

    KW - Cluster finding

    KW - Detector alignment and calibration methods (lasers, sources, particle-beams)

    KW - Pattern recognition

    KW - Timing detectors

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    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84957933092&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1088/1748-0221/11/01/P01018

    DO - 10.1088/1748-0221/11/01/P01018

    M3 - Article

    VL - 11

    JO - Journal of Instrumentation

    JF - Journal of Instrumentation

    SN - 1748-0221

    IS - 1

    M1 - P01018

    ER -