Muon counting using silicon photomultipliers in the AMIGA detector of the Pierre Auger observatory

A. Aab, P. Abreu, M. Aglietta, E. J. Ahn, I. Al Samarai, I. F.M. Albuquerque, I. Allekotte, P. Allison, A. Almela, J. Alvarez Castillo, J. Alvarez-Muñiz, M. Ambrosio, G. A. Anastasi, L. Anchordoqui, B. Andrada, S. Andringa, C. Aramo, F. Arqueros, N. Arsene, H. AsoreyP. Assis, J. Aublin, G. Avila, A. M. Badescu, A. Balaceanu, C. Baus, J. J. Beatty, K. H. Becker, J. A. Bellido, C. Berat, M. E. Bertaina, X. Bertou, P. L. Biermann, P. Billoir, J. Biteau, S. G. Blaess, A. Blanco, J. Blazek, C. Bleve, M. Boháčová, D. Boncioli, C. Bonifazi, N. Borodai, A. M. Botti, J. Brack, I. Brancus, T. Bretz, A. Bridgeman, F. L. Briechle, G. Farrar, The Pierre Auger collaboration

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

    Abstract

    AMIGA (Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array) is an upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory designed to extend its energy range of detection and to directly measure the muon content of the cosmic ray primary particle showers. The array will be formed by an infill of surface water-Cherenkov detectors associated with buried scintillation counters employed for muon counting. Each counter is composed of three scintillation modules, with a 10 m2 detection area per module. In this paper, a new generation of detectors, replacing the current multi-pixel photomultiplier tube (PMT) with silicon photo sensors (aka. SiPMs), is proposed. The selection of the new device and its front-end electronics is explained. A method to calibrate the counting system that ensures the performance of the detector is detailed. This method has the advantage of being able to be carried out in a remote place such as the one where the detectors are deployed. High efficiency results, i.e. 98 % efficiency for the highest tested overvoltage, combined with a low probability of accidental counting (∼2 %), show a promising performance for this new system.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Article numberP03002
    JournalJournal of Instrumentation
    Volume12
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Mar 3 2017

    Fingerprint

    Photomultipliers
    Observatories
    Observatory
    muons
    Counting
    observatories
    Silicon
    counting
    Scintillation
    Detector
    Detectors
    detectors
    silicon
    Cherenkov Detectors
    Module
    modules
    Cosmic Rays
    primary cosmic rays
    overvoltage
    Scintillation counters

    Keywords

    • Front-end electronics for detector readout
    • Pattern recognition, cluster finding, calibration and fitting methods
    • Performance of high energy physics detectors
    • Photon detectors for UV, visible and IR photons (solid-state) (PIN diodes, APDs, Si-PMTs, G-APDs, CCDs, EBCCDs, EMCCDs etc)

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Instrumentation
    • Mathematical Physics

    Cite this

    Aab, A., Abreu, P., Aglietta, M., Ahn, E. J., Al Samarai, I., Albuquerque, I. F. M., ... The Pierre Auger collaboration (2017). Muon counting using silicon photomultipliers in the AMIGA detector of the Pierre Auger observatory. Journal of Instrumentation, 12(3), [P03002]. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/12/03/P03002

    Muon counting using silicon photomultipliers in the AMIGA detector of the Pierre Auger observatory. / Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F.M.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anastasi, G. A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andrada, B.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balaceanu, A.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Biteau, J.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Botti, A. M.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Briechle, F. L.; Farrar, G.; The Pierre Auger collaboration.

    In: Journal of Instrumentation, Vol. 12, No. 3, P03002, 03.03.2017.

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

    Aab, A, Abreu, P, Aglietta, M, Ahn, EJ, Al Samarai, I, Albuquerque, IFM, Allekotte, I, Allison, P, Almela, A, Alvarez Castillo, J, Alvarez-Muñiz, J, Ambrosio, M, Anastasi, GA, Anchordoqui, L, Andrada, B, Andringa, S, Aramo, C, Arqueros, F, Arsene, N, Asorey, H, Assis, P, Aublin, J, Avila, G, Badescu, AM, Balaceanu, A, Baus, C, Beatty, JJ, Becker, KH, Bellido, JA, Berat, C, Bertaina, ME, Bertou, X, Biermann, PL, Billoir, P, Biteau, J, Blaess, SG, Blanco, A, Blazek, J, Bleve, C, Boháčová, M, Boncioli, D, Bonifazi, C, Borodai, N, Botti, AM, Brack, J, Brancus, I, Bretz, T, Bridgeman, A, Briechle, FL, Farrar, G & The Pierre Auger collaboration 2017, 'Muon counting using silicon photomultipliers in the AMIGA detector of the Pierre Auger observatory', Journal of Instrumentation, vol. 12, no. 3, P03002. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/12/03/P03002
    Aab, A. ; Abreu, P. ; Aglietta, M. ; Ahn, E. J. ; Al Samarai, I. ; Albuquerque, I. F.M. ; Allekotte, I. ; Allison, P. ; Almela, A. ; Alvarez Castillo, J. ; Alvarez-Muñiz, J. ; Ambrosio, M. ; Anastasi, G. A. ; Anchordoqui, L. ; Andrada, B. ; Andringa, S. ; Aramo, C. ; Arqueros, F. ; Arsene, N. ; Asorey, H. ; Assis, P. ; Aublin, J. ; Avila, G. ; Badescu, A. M. ; Balaceanu, A. ; Baus, C. ; Beatty, J. J. ; Becker, K. H. ; Bellido, J. A. ; Berat, C. ; Bertaina, M. E. ; Bertou, X. ; Biermann, P. L. ; Billoir, P. ; Biteau, J. ; Blaess, S. G. ; Blanco, A. ; Blazek, J. ; Bleve, C. ; Boháčová, M. ; Boncioli, D. ; Bonifazi, C. ; Borodai, N. ; Botti, A. M. ; Brack, J. ; Brancus, I. ; Bretz, T. ; Bridgeman, A. ; Briechle, F. L. ; Farrar, G. ; The Pierre Auger collaboration. / Muon counting using silicon photomultipliers in the AMIGA detector of the Pierre Auger observatory. In: Journal of Instrumentation. 2017 ; Vol. 12, No. 3.
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    abstract = "AMIGA (Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array) is an upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory designed to extend its energy range of detection and to directly measure the muon content of the cosmic ray primary particle showers. The array will be formed by an infill of surface water-Cherenkov detectors associated with buried scintillation counters employed for muon counting. Each counter is composed of three scintillation modules, with a 10 m2 detection area per module. In this paper, a new generation of detectors, replacing the current multi-pixel photomultiplier tube (PMT) with silicon photo sensors (aka. SiPMs), is proposed. The selection of the new device and its front-end electronics is explained. A method to calibrate the counting system that ensures the performance of the detector is detailed. This method has the advantage of being able to be carried out in a remote place such as the one where the detectors are deployed. High efficiency results, i.e. 98 {\%} efficiency for the highest tested overvoltage, combined with a low probability of accidental counting (∼2 {\%}), show a promising performance for this new system.",
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    T1 - Muon counting using silicon photomultipliers in the AMIGA detector of the Pierre Auger observatory

    AU - Aab, A.

    AU - Abreu, P.

    AU - Aglietta, M.

    AU - Ahn, E. J.

    AU - Al Samarai, I.

    AU - Albuquerque, I. F.M.

    AU - Allekotte, I.

    AU - Allison, P.

    AU - Almela, A.

    AU - Alvarez Castillo, J.

    AU - Alvarez-Muñiz, J.

    AU - Ambrosio, M.

    AU - Anastasi, G. A.

    AU - Anchordoqui, L.

    AU - Andrada, B.

    AU - Andringa, S.

    AU - Aramo, C.

    AU - Arqueros, F.

    AU - Arsene, N.

    AU - Asorey, H.

    AU - Assis, P.

    AU - Aublin, J.

    AU - Avila, G.

    AU - Badescu, A. M.

    AU - Balaceanu, A.

    AU - Baus, C.

    AU - Beatty, J. J.

    AU - Becker, K. H.

    AU - Bellido, J. A.

    AU - Berat, C.

    AU - Bertaina, M. E.

    AU - Bertou, X.

    AU - Biermann, P. L.

    AU - Billoir, P.

    AU - Biteau, J.

    AU - Blaess, S. G.

    AU - Blanco, A.

    AU - Blazek, J.

    AU - Bleve, C.

    AU - Boháčová, M.

    AU - Boncioli, D.

    AU - Bonifazi, C.

    AU - Borodai, N.

    AU - Botti, A. M.

    AU - Brack, J.

    AU - Brancus, I.

    AU - Bretz, T.

    AU - Bridgeman, A.

    AU - Briechle, F. L.

    AU - Farrar, G.

    AU - The Pierre Auger collaboration

    PY - 2017/3/3

    Y1 - 2017/3/3

    N2 - AMIGA (Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array) is an upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory designed to extend its energy range of detection and to directly measure the muon content of the cosmic ray primary particle showers. The array will be formed by an infill of surface water-Cherenkov detectors associated with buried scintillation counters employed for muon counting. Each counter is composed of three scintillation modules, with a 10 m2 detection area per module. In this paper, a new generation of detectors, replacing the current multi-pixel photomultiplier tube (PMT) with silicon photo sensors (aka. SiPMs), is proposed. The selection of the new device and its front-end electronics is explained. A method to calibrate the counting system that ensures the performance of the detector is detailed. This method has the advantage of being able to be carried out in a remote place such as the one where the detectors are deployed. High efficiency results, i.e. 98 % efficiency for the highest tested overvoltage, combined with a low probability of accidental counting (∼2 %), show a promising performance for this new system.

    AB - AMIGA (Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array) is an upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory designed to extend its energy range of detection and to directly measure the muon content of the cosmic ray primary particle showers. The array will be formed by an infill of surface water-Cherenkov detectors associated with buried scintillation counters employed for muon counting. Each counter is composed of three scintillation modules, with a 10 m2 detection area per module. In this paper, a new generation of detectors, replacing the current multi-pixel photomultiplier tube (PMT) with silicon photo sensors (aka. SiPMs), is proposed. The selection of the new device and its front-end electronics is explained. A method to calibrate the counting system that ensures the performance of the detector is detailed. This method has the advantage of being able to be carried out in a remote place such as the one where the detectors are deployed. High efficiency results, i.e. 98 % efficiency for the highest tested overvoltage, combined with a low probability of accidental counting (∼2 %), show a promising performance for this new system.

    KW - Front-end electronics for detector readout

    KW - Pattern recognition, cluster finding, calibration and fitting methods

    KW - Performance of high energy physics detectors

    KW - Photon detectors for UV, visible and IR photons (solid-state) (PIN diodes, APDs, Si-PMTs, G-APDs, CCDs, EBCCDs, EMCCDs etc)

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