Multi-wavelength observations of supernova 2011ei: Time-dependent classification of type IIb and Ib supernovae and implications for their progenitors

Dan Milisavljevic, Raffaella Margutti, Alicia M. Soderberg, Giuliano Pignata, Laura Chomiuk, Robert A. Fesen, Filomena Bufano, Nathan E. Sanders, Jerod T. Parrent, Stuart Parker, Paolo Mazzali, Elena Pian, Timothy Pickering, David A H Buckley, Steven M. Crawford, Amanda A S Gulbis, Christian Hettlage, Eric Hooper, Kenneth H. Nordsieck, Darragh O'DonoghueTim Oliver Husser, Stephen Potter, Alexei Kniazev, Paul Kotze, Encarni Romero-Colmenero, Petri Vaisanen, Marsha Wolf, Michael F. Bietenholz, Norbert Bartel, Claes Fransson, Emma S. Walker, Andreas Brunthaler, Sayan Chakraborti, Emily M. Levesque, Andrew MacFadyen, Colin Drescher, Greg Bock, Peter Marples, Joseph P. Anderson, Stefano Benetti, Daniel Reichart, Kevin Ivarsen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    We present X-ray, UV/optical, and radio observations of the stripped-envelope, core-collapse supernova (SN) 2011ei, one of the least luminous SNe IIb or Ib observed to date. Our observations begin with a discovery within 1 day of explosion and span several months afterward. Early optical spectra exhibit broad, Type II-like hydrogen Balmer profiles that subside rapidly and are replaced by Type Ib-like He-rich features on a timescale of one week. High-cadence monitoring of this transition suggests absorption attributable to a high-velocity (≳ 12, 000 km s-1) H-rich shell, which is likely present in many Type Ib events. Radio observations imply a shock velocity of v 0.13 c and a progenitor star average mass-loss rate of (assuming wind velocity vw = 103 km s-1). This is consistent with independent constraints from deep X-ray observations with Swift-XRT and Chandra. Overall, the multi-wavelength properties of SN 2011ei are consistent with the explosion of a lower-mass (3-4 M), compact (R* ≲ 1 × 1011 cm), He-core star. The star retained a thin hydrogen envelope at the time of explosion, and was embedded in an inhomogeneous circumstellar wind suggestive of modest episodic mass loss. We conclude that SN 2011ei's rapid spectral metamorphosis is indicative of time-dependent classifications that bias estimates of the relative explosion rates for Type IIb and Ib objects, and that important information about a progenitor star's evolutionary state and mass loss immediately prior to SN explosion can be inferred from timely multi-wavelength observations.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Article number71
    JournalAstrophysical Journal
    Volume767
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Apr 10 2013

    Fingerprint

    supernovae
    explosions
    explosion
    wavelength
    stars
    wavelengths
    radio observation
    envelopes
    hydrogen
    radio
    wind velocity
    metamorphosis
    optical spectrum
    x rays
    shock
    shell
    timescale
    monitoring
    estimates
    profiles

    Keywords

    • supernovae: general
    • supernovae: individual (SN 2011ei)

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Space and Planetary Science
    • Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Cite this

    Multi-wavelength observations of supernova 2011ei : Time-dependent classification of type IIb and Ib supernovae and implications for their progenitors. / Milisavljevic, Dan; Margutti, Raffaella; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Pignata, Giuliano; Chomiuk, Laura; Fesen, Robert A.; Bufano, Filomena; Sanders, Nathan E.; Parrent, Jerod T.; Parker, Stuart; Mazzali, Paolo; Pian, Elena; Pickering, Timothy; Buckley, David A H; Crawford, Steven M.; Gulbis, Amanda A S; Hettlage, Christian; Hooper, Eric; Nordsieck, Kenneth H.; O'Donoghue, Darragh; Husser, Tim Oliver; Potter, Stephen; Kniazev, Alexei; Kotze, Paul; Romero-Colmenero, Encarni; Vaisanen, Petri; Wolf, Marsha; Bietenholz, Michael F.; Bartel, Norbert; Fransson, Claes; Walker, Emma S.; Brunthaler, Andreas; Chakraborti, Sayan; Levesque, Emily M.; MacFadyen, Andrew; Drescher, Colin; Bock, Greg; Marples, Peter; Anderson, Joseph P.; Benetti, Stefano; Reichart, Daniel; Ivarsen, Kevin.

    In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 767, No. 1, 71, 10.04.2013.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Milisavljevic, D, Margutti, R, Soderberg, AM, Pignata, G, Chomiuk, L, Fesen, RA, Bufano, F, Sanders, NE, Parrent, JT, Parker, S, Mazzali, P, Pian, E, Pickering, T, Buckley, DAH, Crawford, SM, Gulbis, AAS, Hettlage, C, Hooper, E, Nordsieck, KH, O'Donoghue, D, Husser, TO, Potter, S, Kniazev, A, Kotze, P, Romero-Colmenero, E, Vaisanen, P, Wolf, M, Bietenholz, MF, Bartel, N, Fransson, C, Walker, ES, Brunthaler, A, Chakraborti, S, Levesque, EM, MacFadyen, A, Drescher, C, Bock, G, Marples, P, Anderson, JP, Benetti, S, Reichart, D & Ivarsen, K 2013, 'Multi-wavelength observations of supernova 2011ei: Time-dependent classification of type IIb and Ib supernovae and implications for their progenitors', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 767, no. 1, 71. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/767/1/71
    Milisavljevic, Dan ; Margutti, Raffaella ; Soderberg, Alicia M. ; Pignata, Giuliano ; Chomiuk, Laura ; Fesen, Robert A. ; Bufano, Filomena ; Sanders, Nathan E. ; Parrent, Jerod T. ; Parker, Stuart ; Mazzali, Paolo ; Pian, Elena ; Pickering, Timothy ; Buckley, David A H ; Crawford, Steven M. ; Gulbis, Amanda A S ; Hettlage, Christian ; Hooper, Eric ; Nordsieck, Kenneth H. ; O'Donoghue, Darragh ; Husser, Tim Oliver ; Potter, Stephen ; Kniazev, Alexei ; Kotze, Paul ; Romero-Colmenero, Encarni ; Vaisanen, Petri ; Wolf, Marsha ; Bietenholz, Michael F. ; Bartel, Norbert ; Fransson, Claes ; Walker, Emma S. ; Brunthaler, Andreas ; Chakraborti, Sayan ; Levesque, Emily M. ; MacFadyen, Andrew ; Drescher, Colin ; Bock, Greg ; Marples, Peter ; Anderson, Joseph P. ; Benetti, Stefano ; Reichart, Daniel ; Ivarsen, Kevin. / Multi-wavelength observations of supernova 2011ei : Time-dependent classification of type IIb and Ib supernovae and implications for their progenitors. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2013 ; Vol. 767, No. 1.
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    abstract = "We present X-ray, UV/optical, and radio observations of the stripped-envelope, core-collapse supernova (SN) 2011ei, one of the least luminous SNe IIb or Ib observed to date. Our observations begin with a discovery within 1 day of explosion and span several months afterward. Early optical spectra exhibit broad, Type II-like hydrogen Balmer profiles that subside rapidly and are replaced by Type Ib-like He-rich features on a timescale of one week. High-cadence monitoring of this transition suggests absorption attributable to a high-velocity (≳ 12, 000 km s-1) H-rich shell, which is likely present in many Type Ib events. Radio observations imply a shock velocity of v 0.13 c and a progenitor star average mass-loss rate of (assuming wind velocity vw = 103 km s-1). This is consistent with independent constraints from deep X-ray observations with Swift-XRT and Chandra. Overall, the multi-wavelength properties of SN 2011ei are consistent with the explosion of a lower-mass (3-4 M), compact (R* ≲ 1 × 1011 cm), He-core star. The star retained a thin hydrogen envelope at the time of explosion, and was embedded in an inhomogeneous circumstellar wind suggestive of modest episodic mass loss. We conclude that SN 2011ei's rapid spectral metamorphosis is indicative of time-dependent classifications that bias estimates of the relative explosion rates for Type IIb and Ib objects, and that important information about a progenitor star's evolutionary state and mass loss immediately prior to SN explosion can be inferred from timely multi-wavelength observations.",
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    AU - Margutti, Raffaella

    AU - Soderberg, Alicia M.

    AU - Pignata, Giuliano

    AU - Chomiuk, Laura

    AU - Fesen, Robert A.

    AU - Bufano, Filomena

    AU - Sanders, Nathan E.

    AU - Parrent, Jerod T.

    AU - Parker, Stuart

    AU - Mazzali, Paolo

    AU - Pian, Elena

    AU - Pickering, Timothy

    AU - Buckley, David A H

    AU - Crawford, Steven M.

    AU - Gulbis, Amanda A S

    AU - Hettlage, Christian

    AU - Hooper, Eric

    AU - Nordsieck, Kenneth H.

    AU - O'Donoghue, Darragh

    AU - Husser, Tim Oliver

    AU - Potter, Stephen

    AU - Kniazev, Alexei

    AU - Kotze, Paul

    AU - Romero-Colmenero, Encarni

    AU - Vaisanen, Petri

    AU - Wolf, Marsha

    AU - Bietenholz, Michael F.

    AU - Bartel, Norbert

    AU - Fransson, Claes

    AU - Walker, Emma S.

    AU - Brunthaler, Andreas

    AU - Chakraborti, Sayan

    AU - Levesque, Emily M.

    AU - MacFadyen, Andrew

    AU - Drescher, Colin

    AU - Bock, Greg

    AU - Marples, Peter

    AU - Anderson, Joseph P.

    AU - Benetti, Stefano

    AU - Reichart, Daniel

    AU - Ivarsen, Kevin

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    N2 - We present X-ray, UV/optical, and radio observations of the stripped-envelope, core-collapse supernova (SN) 2011ei, one of the least luminous SNe IIb or Ib observed to date. Our observations begin with a discovery within 1 day of explosion and span several months afterward. Early optical spectra exhibit broad, Type II-like hydrogen Balmer profiles that subside rapidly and are replaced by Type Ib-like He-rich features on a timescale of one week. High-cadence monitoring of this transition suggests absorption attributable to a high-velocity (≳ 12, 000 km s-1) H-rich shell, which is likely present in many Type Ib events. Radio observations imply a shock velocity of v 0.13 c and a progenitor star average mass-loss rate of (assuming wind velocity vw = 103 km s-1). This is consistent with independent constraints from deep X-ray observations with Swift-XRT and Chandra. Overall, the multi-wavelength properties of SN 2011ei are consistent with the explosion of a lower-mass (3-4 M), compact (R* ≲ 1 × 1011 cm), He-core star. The star retained a thin hydrogen envelope at the time of explosion, and was embedded in an inhomogeneous circumstellar wind suggestive of modest episodic mass loss. We conclude that SN 2011ei's rapid spectral metamorphosis is indicative of time-dependent classifications that bias estimates of the relative explosion rates for Type IIb and Ib objects, and that important information about a progenitor star's evolutionary state and mass loss immediately prior to SN explosion can be inferred from timely multi-wavelength observations.

    AB - We present X-ray, UV/optical, and radio observations of the stripped-envelope, core-collapse supernova (SN) 2011ei, one of the least luminous SNe IIb or Ib observed to date. Our observations begin with a discovery within 1 day of explosion and span several months afterward. Early optical spectra exhibit broad, Type II-like hydrogen Balmer profiles that subside rapidly and are replaced by Type Ib-like He-rich features on a timescale of one week. High-cadence monitoring of this transition suggests absorption attributable to a high-velocity (≳ 12, 000 km s-1) H-rich shell, which is likely present in many Type Ib events. Radio observations imply a shock velocity of v 0.13 c and a progenitor star average mass-loss rate of (assuming wind velocity vw = 103 km s-1). This is consistent with independent constraints from deep X-ray observations with Swift-XRT and Chandra. Overall, the multi-wavelength properties of SN 2011ei are consistent with the explosion of a lower-mass (3-4 M), compact (R* ≲ 1 × 1011 cm), He-core star. The star retained a thin hydrogen envelope at the time of explosion, and was embedded in an inhomogeneous circumstellar wind suggestive of modest episodic mass loss. We conclude that SN 2011ei's rapid spectral metamorphosis is indicative of time-dependent classifications that bias estimates of the relative explosion rates for Type IIb and Ib objects, and that important information about a progenitor star's evolutionary state and mass loss immediately prior to SN explosion can be inferred from timely multi-wavelength observations.

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    KW - supernovae: individual (SN 2011ei)

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