Mortality risk among recent-onset injection drug users in five U.S. cities

David Vlahov, Cunlin Wang, Danielle Ompad, Crystal M. Fuller, Wendy Caceres, Lawrence Ouellet, Peter Kerndt, Don C Des Jarlais, Richard S. Garfein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

To quantify the risk of death among recent-onset (<5 years) injection drug users, we enrolled 2089 injection drug users (IDUs) age ≤ 35 years (minimum age = 18 years) between 1997 and 1999. Median age was 24 years, 62.4% were male, 54.5% were non-Hispanic White, mean duration of injecting was 3 years, and 45.4% injected daily within the prior 6 months. Using the National Death Index, we identified 68 deaths over a follow-up period through December 2002 with a mortality rate of 7.10/1000 person years. Using age-, sex-, and race-adjusted data to the census and mortality, we calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) over time. The adjusted SMR (with national data as the reference) for IDUs was 3.66 for 1997, which increased to 9.78 by 1998, decreased slightly to 7.08 by 1999, and continuously declined to 2.54 by 2002. These data confirm considerable excess mortality among recent onset injection drug users compared to non-IDU peers in the general population and indicate need for interventions such as increased quality and accessibility to drug abuse** treatment and overdose prevention to prevent premature death among young IDUs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)413-428
Number of pages16
JournalSubstance Use and Misuse
Volume43
Issue number3-4
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2008

Fingerprint

Drug Users
mortality
drug
Injections
Mortality
death
Drug Overdose
Premature Mortality
Censuses
drug abuse
Substance-Related Disorders
census
human being
Population

Keywords

  • HIV infection
  • Injection drug use (IDU)
  • Mortality
  • Overdose
  • Standard mortality ratio
  • Substance use

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Psychology(all)

Cite this

Vlahov, D., Wang, C., Ompad, D., Fuller, C. M., Caceres, W., Ouellet, L., ... Garfein, R. S. (2008). Mortality risk among recent-onset injection drug users in five U.S. cities. Substance Use and Misuse, 43(3-4), 413-428. https://doi.org/10.1080/10826080701203013

Mortality risk among recent-onset injection drug users in five U.S. cities. / Vlahov, David; Wang, Cunlin; Ompad, Danielle; Fuller, Crystal M.; Caceres, Wendy; Ouellet, Lawrence; Kerndt, Peter; Jarlais, Don C Des; Garfein, Richard S.

In: Substance Use and Misuse, Vol. 43, No. 3-4, 02.2008, p. 413-428.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Vlahov, D, Wang, C, Ompad, D, Fuller, CM, Caceres, W, Ouellet, L, Kerndt, P, Jarlais, DCD & Garfein, RS 2008, 'Mortality risk among recent-onset injection drug users in five U.S. cities', Substance Use and Misuse, vol. 43, no. 3-4, pp. 413-428. https://doi.org/10.1080/10826080701203013
Vlahov, David ; Wang, Cunlin ; Ompad, Danielle ; Fuller, Crystal M. ; Caceres, Wendy ; Ouellet, Lawrence ; Kerndt, Peter ; Jarlais, Don C Des ; Garfein, Richard S. / Mortality risk among recent-onset injection drug users in five U.S. cities. In: Substance Use and Misuse. 2008 ; Vol. 43, No. 3-4. pp. 413-428.
@article{c9c618890d004a3795dba16385638a18,
title = "Mortality risk among recent-onset injection drug users in five U.S. cities",
abstract = "To quantify the risk of death among recent-onset (<5 years) injection drug users, we enrolled 2089 injection drug users (IDUs) age ≤ 35 years (minimum age = 18 years) between 1997 and 1999. Median age was 24 years, 62.4{\%} were male, 54.5{\%} were non-Hispanic White, mean duration of injecting was 3 years, and 45.4{\%} injected daily within the prior 6 months. Using the National Death Index, we identified 68 deaths over a follow-up period through December 2002 with a mortality rate of 7.10/1000 person years. Using age-, sex-, and race-adjusted data to the census and mortality, we calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) over time. The adjusted SMR (with national data as the reference) for IDUs was 3.66 for 1997, which increased to 9.78 by 1998, decreased slightly to 7.08 by 1999, and continuously declined to 2.54 by 2002. These data confirm considerable excess mortality among recent onset injection drug users compared to non-IDU peers in the general population and indicate need for interventions such as increased quality and accessibility to drug abuse** treatment and overdose prevention to prevent premature death among young IDUs.",
keywords = "HIV infection, Injection drug use (IDU), Mortality, Overdose, Standard mortality ratio, Substance use",
author = "David Vlahov and Cunlin Wang and Danielle Ompad and Fuller, {Crystal M.} and Wendy Caceres and Lawrence Ouellet and Peter Kerndt and Jarlais, {Don C Des} and Garfein, {Richard S.}",
year = "2008",
month = "2",
doi = "10.1080/10826080701203013",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "43",
pages = "413--428",
journal = "Substance Use and Misuse",
issn = "1082-6084",
publisher = "Informa Healthcare",
number = "3-4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Mortality risk among recent-onset injection drug users in five U.S. cities

AU - Vlahov, David

AU - Wang, Cunlin

AU - Ompad, Danielle

AU - Fuller, Crystal M.

AU - Caceres, Wendy

AU - Ouellet, Lawrence

AU - Kerndt, Peter

AU - Jarlais, Don C Des

AU - Garfein, Richard S.

PY - 2008/2

Y1 - 2008/2

N2 - To quantify the risk of death among recent-onset (<5 years) injection drug users, we enrolled 2089 injection drug users (IDUs) age ≤ 35 years (minimum age = 18 years) between 1997 and 1999. Median age was 24 years, 62.4% were male, 54.5% were non-Hispanic White, mean duration of injecting was 3 years, and 45.4% injected daily within the prior 6 months. Using the National Death Index, we identified 68 deaths over a follow-up period through December 2002 with a mortality rate of 7.10/1000 person years. Using age-, sex-, and race-adjusted data to the census and mortality, we calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) over time. The adjusted SMR (with national data as the reference) for IDUs was 3.66 for 1997, which increased to 9.78 by 1998, decreased slightly to 7.08 by 1999, and continuously declined to 2.54 by 2002. These data confirm considerable excess mortality among recent onset injection drug users compared to non-IDU peers in the general population and indicate need for interventions such as increased quality and accessibility to drug abuse** treatment and overdose prevention to prevent premature death among young IDUs.

AB - To quantify the risk of death among recent-onset (<5 years) injection drug users, we enrolled 2089 injection drug users (IDUs) age ≤ 35 years (minimum age = 18 years) between 1997 and 1999. Median age was 24 years, 62.4% were male, 54.5% were non-Hispanic White, mean duration of injecting was 3 years, and 45.4% injected daily within the prior 6 months. Using the National Death Index, we identified 68 deaths over a follow-up period through December 2002 with a mortality rate of 7.10/1000 person years. Using age-, sex-, and race-adjusted data to the census and mortality, we calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) over time. The adjusted SMR (with national data as the reference) for IDUs was 3.66 for 1997, which increased to 9.78 by 1998, decreased slightly to 7.08 by 1999, and continuously declined to 2.54 by 2002. These data confirm considerable excess mortality among recent onset injection drug users compared to non-IDU peers in the general population and indicate need for interventions such as increased quality and accessibility to drug abuse** treatment and overdose prevention to prevent premature death among young IDUs.

KW - HIV infection

KW - Injection drug use (IDU)

KW - Mortality

KW - Overdose

KW - Standard mortality ratio

KW - Substance use

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=41349084413&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=41349084413&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1080/10826080701203013

DO - 10.1080/10826080701203013

M3 - Article

VL - 43

SP - 413

EP - 428

JO - Substance Use and Misuse

JF - Substance Use and Misuse

SN - 1082-6084

IS - 3-4

ER -