Milagro limits and HAWC sensitivity for the rate-density of evaporating Primordial Black Holes

A. A. Abdo, A. U. Abeysekara, R. Alfaro, B. T. Allen, C. Alvarez, J. D. Álvarez, R. Arceo, J. C. Arteaga-Velázquez, T. Aune, H. A. Ayala Solares, A. S. Barber, B. M. Baughman, N. Bautista-Elivar, J. Becerra Gonzalez, E. Belmont, S. Y. Benzvi, D. Berley, M. Bonilla Rosales, J. Braun, R. A. Caballero-LopezK. S. Caballero-Mora, A. Carramiñana, M. Castillo, G. E. Christopher, U. Cotti, J. Cotzomi, E. De La Fuente, C. De León, T. Deyoung, R. Diaz Hernandez, L. Diaz-Cruz, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, B. L. Dingus, M. A. Duvernois, R. W. Ellsworth, D. W. Fiorino, N. Fraija, A. Galindo, F. Garfias, M. M. González, J. A. Goodman, V. Grabski, M. Gussert, Z. Hampel-Arias, J. P. Harding, E. Hays, C. M. Hoffman, C. M. Hui, P. Hüntemeyer, A. Imran, A. Iriarte, P. Karn, D. Kieda, B. E. Kolterman, G. J. Kunde, A. Lara, R. J. Lauer, W. H. Lee, D. Lennarz, H. León Vargas, E. C. Linares, J. T. Linnemann, M. Longo, R. Luna-Garcia, J. H. Macgibbon, A. Marinelli, S. S. Marinelli, H. Martinez, O. Martinez, J. Martínez-Castro, J. A J Matthews, J. McEnery, E. Mendoza Torres, A. I. Mincer, P. Miranda-Romagnoli, E. Moreno, T. Morgan, M. Mostafá, L. Nellen, P. Nemethy, M. Newbold, R. Noriega-Papaqui, T. Oceguera-Becerra, B. Patricelli, R. Pelayo, E. G. Pérez-Pérez, J. Pretz, C. Rivière, D. Rosa-González, E. Ruiz-Velasco, J. Ryan, H. Salazar, F. Salesa, A. Sandoval, P. M. Saz Parkinson, M. Schneider, S. Silich, G. Sinnis, A. J. Smith, D. Stump, K. Sparks Woodle, R. W. Springer, I. Taboada, P. A. Toale, K. Tollefson, I. Torres, T. N. Ukwatta, V. Vasileiou, L. Villaseñor, T. Weisgarber, S. Westerhoff, D. A. Williams, I. G. Wisher, J. Wood, G. B. Yodh, P. W. Younk, D. Zaborov, A. Zepeda, H. Zhou

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) are gravitationally collapsed objects that may have been created by density fluctuations in the early universe and could have arbitrarily small masses down to the Planck scale. Hawking showed that due to quantum effects, a black hole has a temperature inversely proportional to its mass and will emit all species of fundamental particles thermally. PBHs with initial masses of ∼5.0 × 1014 g should be expiring in the present epoch with bursts of high-energy particles, including gamma radiation in the GeV-TeV energy range. The Milagro high energy observatory, which operated from 2000 to 2008, is sensitive to the high end of the PBH evaporation gamma-ray spectrum. Due to its large field-of-view, more than 90% duty cycle and sensitivity up to 100 TeV gamma rays, the Milagro observatory is well suited to perform a search for PBH bursts. Based on a search on the Milagro data, we report new PBH burst rate density upper limits over a range of PBH observation times. In addition, we report the sensitivity of the Milagro successor, the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory, to PBH evaporation events.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)4-12
    Number of pages9
    JournalAstroparticle Physics
    Volume64
    DOIs
    StatePublished - 2014

    Fingerprint

    high altitude
    sensitivity
    water
    bursts
    observatories
    evaporation
    gamma rays
    gamma ray spectra
    particle energy
    field of view
    universe
    time measurement
    cycles
    energy

    Keywords

    • HAWC
    • Milagro
    • Primordial Black Holes
    • Very High Energy Bursts

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Cite this

    Abdo, A. A., Abeysekara, A. U., Alfaro, R., Allen, B. T., Alvarez, C., Álvarez, J. D., ... Zhou, H. (2014). Milagro limits and HAWC sensitivity for the rate-density of evaporating Primordial Black Holes. Astroparticle Physics, 64, 4-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2014.10.007

    Milagro limits and HAWC sensitivity for the rate-density of evaporating Primordial Black Holes. / Abdo, A. A.; Abeysekara, A. U.; Alfaro, R.; Allen, B. T.; Alvarez, C.; Álvarez, J. D.; Arceo, R.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Aune, T.; Ayala Solares, H. A.; Barber, A. S.; Baughman, B. M.; Bautista-Elivar, N.; Becerra Gonzalez, J.; Belmont, E.; Benzvi, S. Y.; Berley, D.; Bonilla Rosales, M.; Braun, J.; Caballero-Lopez, R. A.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Carramiñana, A.; Castillo, M.; Christopher, G. E.; Cotti, U.; Cotzomi, J.; De La Fuente, E.; De León, C.; Deyoung, T.; Diaz Hernandez, R.; Diaz-Cruz, L.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dingus, B. L.; Duvernois, M. A.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Fiorino, D. W.; Fraija, N.; Galindo, A.; Garfias, F.; González, M. M.; Goodman, J. A.; Grabski, V.; Gussert, M.; Hampel-Arias, Z.; Harding, J. P.; Hays, E.; Hoffman, C. M.; Hui, C. M.; Hüntemeyer, P.; Imran, A.; Iriarte, A.; Karn, P.; Kieda, D.; Kolterman, B. E.; Kunde, G. J.; Lara, A.; Lauer, R. J.; Lee, W. H.; Lennarz, D.; León Vargas, H.; Linares, E. C.; Linnemann, J. T.; Longo, M.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Macgibbon, J. H.; Marinelli, A.; Marinelli, S. S.; Martinez, H.; Martinez, O.; Martínez-Castro, J.; Matthews, J. A J; McEnery, J.; Mendoza Torres, E.; Mincer, A. I.; Miranda-Romagnoli, P.; Moreno, E.; Morgan, T.; Mostafá, M.; Nellen, L.; Nemethy, P.; Newbold, M.; Noriega-Papaqui, R.; Oceguera-Becerra, T.; Patricelli, B.; Pelayo, R.; Pérez-Pérez, E. G.; Pretz, J.; Rivière, C.; Rosa-González, D.; Ruiz-Velasco, E.; Ryan, J.; Salazar, H.; Salesa, F.; Sandoval, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Schneider, M.; Silich, S.; Sinnis, G.; Smith, A. J.; Stump, D.; Sparks Woodle, K.; Springer, R. W.; Taboada, I.; Toale, P. A.; Tollefson, K.; Torres, I.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Vasileiou, V.; Villaseñor, L.; Weisgarber, T.; Westerhoff, S.; Williams, D. A.; Wisher, I. G.; Wood, J.; Yodh, G. B.; Younk, P. W.; Zaborov, D.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, H.

    In: Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 64, 2014, p. 4-12.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abdo, AA, Abeysekara, AU, Alfaro, R, Allen, BT, Alvarez, C, Álvarez, JD, Arceo, R, Arteaga-Velázquez, JC, Aune, T, Ayala Solares, HA, Barber, AS, Baughman, BM, Bautista-Elivar, N, Becerra Gonzalez, J, Belmont, E, Benzvi, SY, Berley, D, Bonilla Rosales, M, Braun, J, Caballero-Lopez, RA, Caballero-Mora, KS, Carramiñana, A, Castillo, M, Christopher, GE, Cotti, U, Cotzomi, J, De La Fuente, E, De León, C, Deyoung, T, Diaz Hernandez, R, Diaz-Cruz, L, Díaz-Vélez, JC, Dingus, BL, Duvernois, MA, Ellsworth, RW, Fiorino, DW, Fraija, N, Galindo, A, Garfias, F, González, MM, Goodman, JA, Grabski, V, Gussert, M, Hampel-Arias, Z, Harding, JP, Hays, E, Hoffman, CM, Hui, CM, Hüntemeyer, P, Imran, A, Iriarte, A, Karn, P, Kieda, D, Kolterman, BE, Kunde, GJ, Lara, A, Lauer, RJ, Lee, WH, Lennarz, D, León Vargas, H, Linares, EC, Linnemann, JT, Longo, M, Luna-Garcia, R, Macgibbon, JH, Marinelli, A, Marinelli, SS, Martinez, H, Martinez, O, Martínez-Castro, J, Matthews, JAJ, McEnery, J, Mendoza Torres, E, Mincer, AI, Miranda-Romagnoli, P, Moreno, E, Morgan, T, Mostafá, M, Nellen, L, Nemethy, P, Newbold, M, Noriega-Papaqui, R, Oceguera-Becerra, T, Patricelli, B, Pelayo, R, Pérez-Pérez, EG, Pretz, J, Rivière, C, Rosa-González, D, Ruiz-Velasco, E, Ryan, J, Salazar, H, Salesa, F, Sandoval, A, Saz Parkinson, PM, Schneider, M, Silich, S, Sinnis, G, Smith, AJ, Stump, D, Sparks Woodle, K, Springer, RW, Taboada, I, Toale, PA, Tollefson, K, Torres, I, Ukwatta, TN, Vasileiou, V, Villaseñor, L, Weisgarber, T, Westerhoff, S, Williams, DA, Wisher, IG, Wood, J, Yodh, GB, Younk, PW, Zaborov, D, Zepeda, A & Zhou, H 2014, 'Milagro limits and HAWC sensitivity for the rate-density of evaporating Primordial Black Holes', Astroparticle Physics, vol. 64, pp. 4-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2014.10.007
    Abdo, A. A. ; Abeysekara, A. U. ; Alfaro, R. ; Allen, B. T. ; Alvarez, C. ; Álvarez, J. D. ; Arceo, R. ; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C. ; Aune, T. ; Ayala Solares, H. A. ; Barber, A. S. ; Baughman, B. M. ; Bautista-Elivar, N. ; Becerra Gonzalez, J. ; Belmont, E. ; Benzvi, S. Y. ; Berley, D. ; Bonilla Rosales, M. ; Braun, J. ; Caballero-Lopez, R. A. ; Caballero-Mora, K. S. ; Carramiñana, A. ; Castillo, M. ; Christopher, G. E. ; Cotti, U. ; Cotzomi, J. ; De La Fuente, E. ; De León, C. ; Deyoung, T. ; Diaz Hernandez, R. ; Diaz-Cruz, L. ; Díaz-Vélez, J. C. ; Dingus, B. L. ; Duvernois, M. A. ; Ellsworth, R. W. ; Fiorino, D. W. ; Fraija, N. ; Galindo, A. ; Garfias, F. ; González, M. M. ; Goodman, J. A. ; Grabski, V. ; Gussert, M. ; Hampel-Arias, Z. ; Harding, J. P. ; Hays, E. ; Hoffman, C. M. ; Hui, C. M. ; Hüntemeyer, P. ; Imran, A. ; Iriarte, A. ; Karn, P. ; Kieda, D. ; Kolterman, B. E. ; Kunde, G. J. ; Lara, A. ; Lauer, R. J. ; Lee, W. H. ; Lennarz, D. ; León Vargas, H. ; Linares, E. C. ; Linnemann, J. T. ; Longo, M. ; Luna-Garcia, R. ; Macgibbon, J. H. ; Marinelli, A. ; Marinelli, S. S. ; Martinez, H. ; Martinez, O. ; Martínez-Castro, J. ; Matthews, J. A J ; McEnery, J. ; Mendoza Torres, E. ; Mincer, A. I. ; Miranda-Romagnoli, P. ; Moreno, E. ; Morgan, T. ; Mostafá, M. ; Nellen, L. ; Nemethy, P. ; Newbold, M. ; Noriega-Papaqui, R. ; Oceguera-Becerra, T. ; Patricelli, B. ; Pelayo, R. ; Pérez-Pérez, E. G. ; Pretz, J. ; Rivière, C. ; Rosa-González, D. ; Ruiz-Velasco, E. ; Ryan, J. ; Salazar, H. ; Salesa, F. ; Sandoval, A. ; Saz Parkinson, P. M. ; Schneider, M. ; Silich, S. ; Sinnis, G. ; Smith, A. J. ; Stump, D. ; Sparks Woodle, K. ; Springer, R. W. ; Taboada, I. ; Toale, P. A. ; Tollefson, K. ; Torres, I. ; Ukwatta, T. N. ; Vasileiou, V. ; Villaseñor, L. ; Weisgarber, T. ; Westerhoff, S. ; Williams, D. A. ; Wisher, I. G. ; Wood, J. ; Yodh, G. B. ; Younk, P. W. ; Zaborov, D. ; Zepeda, A. ; Zhou, H. / Milagro limits and HAWC sensitivity for the rate-density of evaporating Primordial Black Holes. In: Astroparticle Physics. 2014 ; Vol. 64. pp. 4-12.
    @article{e8f0d686e06f466dbb35f6ff42049647,
    title = "Milagro limits and HAWC sensitivity for the rate-density of evaporating Primordial Black Holes",
    abstract = "Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) are gravitationally collapsed objects that may have been created by density fluctuations in the early universe and could have arbitrarily small masses down to the Planck scale. Hawking showed that due to quantum effects, a black hole has a temperature inversely proportional to its mass and will emit all species of fundamental particles thermally. PBHs with initial masses of ∼5.0 × 1014 g should be expiring in the present epoch with bursts of high-energy particles, including gamma radiation in the GeV-TeV energy range. The Milagro high energy observatory, which operated from 2000 to 2008, is sensitive to the high end of the PBH evaporation gamma-ray spectrum. Due to its large field-of-view, more than 90{\%} duty cycle and sensitivity up to 100 TeV gamma rays, the Milagro observatory is well suited to perform a search for PBH bursts. Based on a search on the Milagro data, we report new PBH burst rate density upper limits over a range of PBH observation times. In addition, we report the sensitivity of the Milagro successor, the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory, to PBH evaporation events.",
    keywords = "HAWC, Milagro, Primordial Black Holes, Very High Energy Bursts",
    author = "Abdo, {A. A.} and Abeysekara, {A. U.} and R. Alfaro and Allen, {B. T.} and C. Alvarez and {\'A}lvarez, {J. D.} and R. Arceo and Arteaga-Vel{\'a}zquez, {J. C.} and T. Aune and {Ayala Solares}, {H. A.} and Barber, {A. S.} and Baughman, {B. M.} and N. Bautista-Elivar and {Becerra Gonzalez}, J. and E. Belmont and Benzvi, {S. Y.} and D. Berley and {Bonilla Rosales}, M. and J. Braun and Caballero-Lopez, {R. A.} and Caballero-Mora, {K. S.} and A. Carrami{\~n}ana and M. Castillo and Christopher, {G. E.} and U. Cotti and J. Cotzomi and {De La Fuente}, E. and {De Le{\'o}n}, C. and T. Deyoung and {Diaz Hernandez}, R. and L. Diaz-Cruz and D{\'i}az-V{\'e}lez, {J. C.} and Dingus, {B. L.} and Duvernois, {M. A.} and Ellsworth, {R. W.} and Fiorino, {D. W.} and N. Fraija and A. Galindo and F. Garfias and Gonz{\'a}lez, {M. M.} and Goodman, {J. A.} and V. Grabski and M. Gussert and Z. Hampel-Arias and Harding, {J. P.} and E. Hays and Hoffman, {C. M.} and Hui, {C. M.} and P. H{\"u}ntemeyer and A. Imran and A. Iriarte and P. Karn and D. Kieda and Kolterman, {B. E.} and Kunde, {G. J.} and A. Lara and Lauer, {R. J.} and Lee, {W. H.} and D. Lennarz and {Le{\'o}n Vargas}, H. and Linares, {E. C.} and Linnemann, {J. T.} and M. Longo and R. Luna-Garcia and Macgibbon, {J. H.} and A. Marinelli and Marinelli, {S. S.} and H. Martinez and O. Martinez and J. Mart{\'i}nez-Castro and Matthews, {J. A J} and J. McEnery and {Mendoza Torres}, E. and Mincer, {A. I.} and P. Miranda-Romagnoli and E. Moreno and T. Morgan and M. Mostaf{\'a} and L. Nellen and P. Nemethy and M. Newbold and R. Noriega-Papaqui and T. Oceguera-Becerra and B. Patricelli and R. Pelayo and P{\'e}rez-P{\'e}rez, {E. G.} and J. Pretz and C. Rivi{\`e}re and D. Rosa-Gonz{\'a}lez and E. Ruiz-Velasco and J. Ryan and H. Salazar and F. Salesa and A. Sandoval and {Saz Parkinson}, {P. M.} and M. Schneider and S. Silich and G. Sinnis and Smith, {A. J.} and D. Stump and {Sparks Woodle}, K. and Springer, {R. W.} and I. Taboada and Toale, {P. A.} and K. Tollefson and I. Torres and Ukwatta, {T. N.} and V. Vasileiou and L. Villase{\~n}or and T. Weisgarber and S. Westerhoff and Williams, {D. A.} and Wisher, {I. G.} and J. Wood and Yodh, {G. B.} and Younk, {P. W.} and D. Zaborov and A. Zepeda and H. Zhou",
    year = "2014",
    doi = "10.1016/j.astropartphys.2014.10.007",
    language = "English (US)",
    volume = "64",
    pages = "4--12",
    journal = "Astroparticle Physics",
    issn = "0927-6505",
    publisher = "Elsevier",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Milagro limits and HAWC sensitivity for the rate-density of evaporating Primordial Black Holes

    AU - Abdo, A. A.

    AU - Abeysekara, A. U.

    AU - Alfaro, R.

    AU - Allen, B. T.

    AU - Alvarez, C.

    AU - Álvarez, J. D.

    AU - Arceo, R.

    AU - Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.

    AU - Aune, T.

    AU - Ayala Solares, H. A.

    AU - Barber, A. S.

    AU - Baughman, B. M.

    AU - Bautista-Elivar, N.

    AU - Becerra Gonzalez, J.

    AU - Belmont, E.

    AU - Benzvi, S. Y.

    AU - Berley, D.

    AU - Bonilla Rosales, M.

    AU - Braun, J.

    AU - Caballero-Lopez, R. A.

    AU - Caballero-Mora, K. S.

    AU - Carramiñana, A.

    AU - Castillo, M.

    AU - Christopher, G. E.

    AU - Cotti, U.

    AU - Cotzomi, J.

    AU - De La Fuente, E.

    AU - De León, C.

    AU - Deyoung, T.

    AU - Diaz Hernandez, R.

    AU - Diaz-Cruz, L.

    AU - Díaz-Vélez, J. C.

    AU - Dingus, B. L.

    AU - Duvernois, M. A.

    AU - Ellsworth, R. W.

    AU - Fiorino, D. W.

    AU - Fraija, N.

    AU - Galindo, A.

    AU - Garfias, F.

    AU - González, M. M.

    AU - Goodman, J. A.

    AU - Grabski, V.

    AU - Gussert, M.

    AU - Hampel-Arias, Z.

    AU - Harding, J. P.

    AU - Hays, E.

    AU - Hoffman, C. M.

    AU - Hui, C. M.

    AU - Hüntemeyer, P.

    AU - Imran, A.

    AU - Iriarte, A.

    AU - Karn, P.

    AU - Kieda, D.

    AU - Kolterman, B. E.

    AU - Kunde, G. J.

    AU - Lara, A.

    AU - Lauer, R. J.

    AU - Lee, W. H.

    AU - Lennarz, D.

    AU - León Vargas, H.

    AU - Linares, E. C.

    AU - Linnemann, J. T.

    AU - Longo, M.

    AU - Luna-Garcia, R.

    AU - Macgibbon, J. H.

    AU - Marinelli, A.

    AU - Marinelli, S. S.

    AU - Martinez, H.

    AU - Martinez, O.

    AU - Martínez-Castro, J.

    AU - Matthews, J. A J

    AU - McEnery, J.

    AU - Mendoza Torres, E.

    AU - Mincer, A. I.

    AU - Miranda-Romagnoli, P.

    AU - Moreno, E.

    AU - Morgan, T.

    AU - Mostafá, M.

    AU - Nellen, L.

    AU - Nemethy, P.

    AU - Newbold, M.

    AU - Noriega-Papaqui, R.

    AU - Oceguera-Becerra, T.

    AU - Patricelli, B.

    AU - Pelayo, R.

    AU - Pérez-Pérez, E. G.

    AU - Pretz, J.

    AU - Rivière, C.

    AU - Rosa-González, D.

    AU - Ruiz-Velasco, E.

    AU - Ryan, J.

    AU - Salazar, H.

    AU - Salesa, F.

    AU - Sandoval, A.

    AU - Saz Parkinson, P. M.

    AU - Schneider, M.

    AU - Silich, S.

    AU - Sinnis, G.

    AU - Smith, A. J.

    AU - Stump, D.

    AU - Sparks Woodle, K.

    AU - Springer, R. W.

    AU - Taboada, I.

    AU - Toale, P. A.

    AU - Tollefson, K.

    AU - Torres, I.

    AU - Ukwatta, T. N.

    AU - Vasileiou, V.

    AU - Villaseñor, L.

    AU - Weisgarber, T.

    AU - Westerhoff, S.

    AU - Williams, D. A.

    AU - Wisher, I. G.

    AU - Wood, J.

    AU - Yodh, G. B.

    AU - Younk, P. W.

    AU - Zaborov, D.

    AU - Zepeda, A.

    AU - Zhou, H.

    PY - 2014

    Y1 - 2014

    N2 - Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) are gravitationally collapsed objects that may have been created by density fluctuations in the early universe and could have arbitrarily small masses down to the Planck scale. Hawking showed that due to quantum effects, a black hole has a temperature inversely proportional to its mass and will emit all species of fundamental particles thermally. PBHs with initial masses of ∼5.0 × 1014 g should be expiring in the present epoch with bursts of high-energy particles, including gamma radiation in the GeV-TeV energy range. The Milagro high energy observatory, which operated from 2000 to 2008, is sensitive to the high end of the PBH evaporation gamma-ray spectrum. Due to its large field-of-view, more than 90% duty cycle and sensitivity up to 100 TeV gamma rays, the Milagro observatory is well suited to perform a search for PBH bursts. Based on a search on the Milagro data, we report new PBH burst rate density upper limits over a range of PBH observation times. In addition, we report the sensitivity of the Milagro successor, the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory, to PBH evaporation events.

    AB - Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) are gravitationally collapsed objects that may have been created by density fluctuations in the early universe and could have arbitrarily small masses down to the Planck scale. Hawking showed that due to quantum effects, a black hole has a temperature inversely proportional to its mass and will emit all species of fundamental particles thermally. PBHs with initial masses of ∼5.0 × 1014 g should be expiring in the present epoch with bursts of high-energy particles, including gamma radiation in the GeV-TeV energy range. The Milagro high energy observatory, which operated from 2000 to 2008, is sensitive to the high end of the PBH evaporation gamma-ray spectrum. Due to its large field-of-view, more than 90% duty cycle and sensitivity up to 100 TeV gamma rays, the Milagro observatory is well suited to perform a search for PBH bursts. Based on a search on the Milagro data, we report new PBH burst rate density upper limits over a range of PBH observation times. In addition, we report the sensitivity of the Milagro successor, the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory, to PBH evaporation events.

    KW - HAWC

    KW - Milagro

    KW - Primordial Black Holes

    KW - Very High Energy Bursts

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84914107023&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84914107023&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2014.10.007

    DO - 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2014.10.007

    M3 - Article

    VL - 64

    SP - 4

    EP - 12

    JO - Astroparticle Physics

    JF - Astroparticle Physics

    SN - 0927-6505

    ER -