MicroCT analysis of hydroxyapatite bone repair scaffolds created via three-dimensional printing for evaluating the effects of scaffold architecture on bone ingrowth

Joshua L. Simon, E. Dianne Rekow, Van P. Thompson, Heather Beam, John L. Ricci, J. Russell Parsons

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Recent studies have shown that it is now possible to construct tissue-engineered bone repair scaffolds with tight pore size distributions and controlled geometries using 3-D Printing techniques (3DP). This study evaluated two hydroxyapatite (HA) 8-mm diameter discs with controlled architectures in a rabbit trephine defect at 8 and 16 weeks using a 2 X 2 factorial design. Input parameters were time and scaffold void volume at two levels. Three output variables were extracted from MicroCT data: bone volume ingrowth with respect to total region of interest, bone volume ingrowth with respect to available ingrowth volume, and soft tissue volume. The experiment measured two groups - Group 1: 500-μm x 500-μm channels parallel to the scaffold's long axis and penetrating up 3-mm from the bottom. Group 2: 800-μm x 800-μm struts spaced 500 μm apart set perpendicularly to each other in each printed layer. Rendered 3-dimensional MicroCT scans and undecalcified histological slides of implants revealed good integration with the surrounding tissue, and a sizeable amount of bone ingrowth into the device. Factorial analysis revealed that the effects of time were the greatest determinant of soft tissue ingrowth, while time and its interaction with void volume were the greatest determinants of bone volume ingrowth with respect to both total and available volume.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)371-377
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 1 2008



  • Factorial analysis
  • Scaffold
  • Scaffold architecture
  • Scaffold geometry
  • Tissue engineering

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys

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