Mental Contrasting and the Self-Regulation of Responding to Negative Feedback

Andreas Kappes, Gabriele Oettingen, Hyeonju Pak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Mentally contrasting a desired future with impeding reality promotes goal pursuit when expectations of success are high and curbs goal pursuit when expectations of success are low. Four studies tested whether mental contrasting affects responses to goal-relevant negative feedback. Mental contrasting promoted the processing of negative feedback (Studies 1 and 2), which in turn helped participants to form plans beneficial for goal pursuit (Study 2). Mental contrasting also protected the self-view of competence against negative feedback (Study 3) and facilitated beneficial attributions for negative feedback (Study 4). All effects occurred in line with expectations of success. These results suggest that mental contrasting regulates effective responses to negative feedback by bringing goal pursuit in line with expectations of success.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)845-857
Number of pages13
JournalPersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Volume38
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2012

Fingerprint

Mental Competency
Self-Control

Keywords

  • expectations
  • goal commitment
  • goal pursuit
  • mental contrasting
  • negative feedback
  • self-regulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology

Cite this

Mental Contrasting and the Self-Regulation of Responding to Negative Feedback. / Kappes, Andreas; Oettingen, Gabriele; Pak, Hyeonju.

In: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 38, No. 7, 07.2012, p. 845-857.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{24e13dd9e5fd4f988a56287c2e10a4f9,
title = "Mental Contrasting and the Self-Regulation of Responding to Negative Feedback",
abstract = "Mentally contrasting a desired future with impeding reality promotes goal pursuit when expectations of success are high and curbs goal pursuit when expectations of success are low. Four studies tested whether mental contrasting affects responses to goal-relevant negative feedback. Mental contrasting promoted the processing of negative feedback (Studies 1 and 2), which in turn helped participants to form plans beneficial for goal pursuit (Study 2). Mental contrasting also protected the self-view of competence against negative feedback (Study 3) and facilitated beneficial attributions for negative feedback (Study 4). All effects occurred in line with expectations of success. These results suggest that mental contrasting regulates effective responses to negative feedback by bringing goal pursuit in line with expectations of success.",
keywords = "expectations, goal commitment, goal pursuit, mental contrasting, negative feedback, self-regulation",
author = "Andreas Kappes and Gabriele Oettingen and Hyeonju Pak",
year = "2012",
month = "7",
doi = "10.1177/0146167212446833",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "38",
pages = "845--857",
journal = "Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin",
issn = "0146-1672",
publisher = "SAGE Publications Inc.",
number = "7",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Mental Contrasting and the Self-Regulation of Responding to Negative Feedback

AU - Kappes, Andreas

AU - Oettingen, Gabriele

AU - Pak, Hyeonju

PY - 2012/7

Y1 - 2012/7

N2 - Mentally contrasting a desired future with impeding reality promotes goal pursuit when expectations of success are high and curbs goal pursuit when expectations of success are low. Four studies tested whether mental contrasting affects responses to goal-relevant negative feedback. Mental contrasting promoted the processing of negative feedback (Studies 1 and 2), which in turn helped participants to form plans beneficial for goal pursuit (Study 2). Mental contrasting also protected the self-view of competence against negative feedback (Study 3) and facilitated beneficial attributions for negative feedback (Study 4). All effects occurred in line with expectations of success. These results suggest that mental contrasting regulates effective responses to negative feedback by bringing goal pursuit in line with expectations of success.

AB - Mentally contrasting a desired future with impeding reality promotes goal pursuit when expectations of success are high and curbs goal pursuit when expectations of success are low. Four studies tested whether mental contrasting affects responses to goal-relevant negative feedback. Mental contrasting promoted the processing of negative feedback (Studies 1 and 2), which in turn helped participants to form plans beneficial for goal pursuit (Study 2). Mental contrasting also protected the self-view of competence against negative feedback (Study 3) and facilitated beneficial attributions for negative feedback (Study 4). All effects occurred in line with expectations of success. These results suggest that mental contrasting regulates effective responses to negative feedback by bringing goal pursuit in line with expectations of success.

KW - expectations

KW - goal commitment

KW - goal pursuit

KW - mental contrasting

KW - negative feedback

KW - self-regulation

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84862027759&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84862027759&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1177/0146167212446833

DO - 10.1177/0146167212446833

M3 - Article

VL - 38

SP - 845

EP - 857

JO - Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin

JF - Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin

SN - 0146-1672

IS - 7

ER -