Salinity gradient processes have a great potential to reduce the energy consumption in water treatment, especially when high salinity waters are in question. Even though the theoretical approaches for the salinity gradient processes are quite strong, there are still several issues before these processes can be applied in full scale. One of the most important challenges between theoretical and full scale applications is the development of commercial size membrane modules. In this chapter, we have summarised the previous approaches and attempts to develop economically feasible and thermodynamically efficient membrane modules. We have focused on the flat sheet and hollow fiber membranes, and their large scale applications.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Membrane-Based Salinity Gradient Processes for Water Treatment and Power Generation|
|State||Published - 2018|
Sarp, S., & Hilal, N. (2018). Membrane Modules for Large-Scale Salinity Gradient Process Applications. In Membrane-Based Salinity Gradient Processes for Water Treatment and Power Generation (pp. 223-242). Elsevier.