Mechanisms in Multiple Risk Factor Interventions: Smoking, Physical-Activity, and Dietary-Fat Intake Among Manufacturing Workers

Karen M. Emmons, Bess H. Marcus, Laura Linnan, Joseph S. Rossi, David Abrams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background. Individuals who have multiple poor health behaviors account for a disproportionately large percentage of the preventable U.S. health care cost burden. Understanding the relationships between multiple risk factors is important for the design of both individual and public health interventions. There have been few efforts to examine the cooccurrence of psychosocial and motivational mechanisms that mediate smoking, dietary fat intake, and physical activity in a defined population of blue collar workers. Methods. The sample comprised 1,559 manufacturing workers who participated in a self-help physical activity intervention and who completed a computerized assessment battery about their smoking, dietary fat intake, physical activity, and demographic characteristics. Results. Twenty-six percent of the sample were smokers, 51% did not exercise regularly, and 35% consumed more than an estimated 40% of calories per day from fat. Almost half of the sample was in the later stages of readiness for physical activity and dietary fat intake, compared with only 3% for smoking. Only 12% of the smokers had smoking as their only risk factor. Smokers were significantly more likely to engage in poor dietary and physical activity behaviors, compared with nonsmokers. The relationship among smoking status and the other risk factors was apparent both in terms of dietary fat and physical activity behaviors, as well as mediators such as motivation for change. Lower dietary fat intake was associated with an absence of the other two risk factors. Conclusions. The results suggest that there are important mediating mechanisms both within and among workers with one or more risk factors. Smokers are a particularly important target for health promotion interventions, and it may be possible to make initial contact with them through other health programs at the worksite. The role of other lifestyle changes as a gateway to smoking cessation has not yet been explored, but may have potential for reaching smokers who are very low in their motivational readiness to change. The implications of these findings for research and the design of multiple risk factor interventions are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)481-489
Number of pages9
JournalPreventive Medicine
Volume23
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 1994

Fingerprint

Dietary Fats
Smoking
Health Behavior
Smoking Cessation
Health Promotion
Workplace
Health Care Costs
Life Style
Motivation
Research Design
Public Health
Fats
Demography
Health
Population

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Mechanisms in Multiple Risk Factor Interventions : Smoking, Physical-Activity, and Dietary-Fat Intake Among Manufacturing Workers. / Emmons, Karen M.; Marcus, Bess H.; Linnan, Laura; Rossi, Joseph S.; Abrams, David.

In: Preventive Medicine, Vol. 23, No. 4, 1994, p. 481-489.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Emmons, Karen M. ; Marcus, Bess H. ; Linnan, Laura ; Rossi, Joseph S. ; Abrams, David. / Mechanisms in Multiple Risk Factor Interventions : Smoking, Physical-Activity, and Dietary-Fat Intake Among Manufacturing Workers. In: Preventive Medicine. 1994 ; Vol. 23, No. 4. pp. 481-489.
@article{72f63879ead44afba0446b9927f2784b,
title = "Mechanisms in Multiple Risk Factor Interventions: Smoking, Physical-Activity, and Dietary-Fat Intake Among Manufacturing Workers",
abstract = "Background. Individuals who have multiple poor health behaviors account for a disproportionately large percentage of the preventable U.S. health care cost burden. Understanding the relationships between multiple risk factors is important for the design of both individual and public health interventions. There have been few efforts to examine the cooccurrence of psychosocial and motivational mechanisms that mediate smoking, dietary fat intake, and physical activity in a defined population of blue collar workers. Methods. The sample comprised 1,559 manufacturing workers who participated in a self-help physical activity intervention and who completed a computerized assessment battery about their smoking, dietary fat intake, physical activity, and demographic characteristics. Results. Twenty-six percent of the sample were smokers, 51{\%} did not exercise regularly, and 35{\%} consumed more than an estimated 40{\%} of calories per day from fat. Almost half of the sample was in the later stages of readiness for physical activity and dietary fat intake, compared with only 3{\%} for smoking. Only 12{\%} of the smokers had smoking as their only risk factor. Smokers were significantly more likely to engage in poor dietary and physical activity behaviors, compared with nonsmokers. The relationship among smoking status and the other risk factors was apparent both in terms of dietary fat and physical activity behaviors, as well as mediators such as motivation for change. Lower dietary fat intake was associated with an absence of the other two risk factors. Conclusions. The results suggest that there are important mediating mechanisms both within and among workers with one or more risk factors. Smokers are a particularly important target for health promotion interventions, and it may be possible to make initial contact with them through other health programs at the worksite. The role of other lifestyle changes as a gateway to smoking cessation has not yet been explored, but may have potential for reaching smokers who are very low in their motivational readiness to change. The implications of these findings for research and the design of multiple risk factor interventions are discussed.",
author = "Emmons, {Karen M.} and Marcus, {Bess H.} and Laura Linnan and Rossi, {Joseph S.} and David Abrams",
year = "1994",
doi = "10.1006/pmed.1994.1066",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "23",
pages = "481--489",
journal = "Preventive Medicine",
issn = "0091-7435",
publisher = "Academic Press Inc.",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Mechanisms in Multiple Risk Factor Interventions

T2 - Smoking, Physical-Activity, and Dietary-Fat Intake Among Manufacturing Workers

AU - Emmons, Karen M.

AU - Marcus, Bess H.

AU - Linnan, Laura

AU - Rossi, Joseph S.

AU - Abrams, David

PY - 1994

Y1 - 1994

N2 - Background. Individuals who have multiple poor health behaviors account for a disproportionately large percentage of the preventable U.S. health care cost burden. Understanding the relationships between multiple risk factors is important for the design of both individual and public health interventions. There have been few efforts to examine the cooccurrence of psychosocial and motivational mechanisms that mediate smoking, dietary fat intake, and physical activity in a defined population of blue collar workers. Methods. The sample comprised 1,559 manufacturing workers who participated in a self-help physical activity intervention and who completed a computerized assessment battery about their smoking, dietary fat intake, physical activity, and demographic characteristics. Results. Twenty-six percent of the sample were smokers, 51% did not exercise regularly, and 35% consumed more than an estimated 40% of calories per day from fat. Almost half of the sample was in the later stages of readiness for physical activity and dietary fat intake, compared with only 3% for smoking. Only 12% of the smokers had smoking as their only risk factor. Smokers were significantly more likely to engage in poor dietary and physical activity behaviors, compared with nonsmokers. The relationship among smoking status and the other risk factors was apparent both in terms of dietary fat and physical activity behaviors, as well as mediators such as motivation for change. Lower dietary fat intake was associated with an absence of the other two risk factors. Conclusions. The results suggest that there are important mediating mechanisms both within and among workers with one or more risk factors. Smokers are a particularly important target for health promotion interventions, and it may be possible to make initial contact with them through other health programs at the worksite. The role of other lifestyle changes as a gateway to smoking cessation has not yet been explored, but may have potential for reaching smokers who are very low in their motivational readiness to change. The implications of these findings for research and the design of multiple risk factor interventions are discussed.

AB - Background. Individuals who have multiple poor health behaviors account for a disproportionately large percentage of the preventable U.S. health care cost burden. Understanding the relationships between multiple risk factors is important for the design of both individual and public health interventions. There have been few efforts to examine the cooccurrence of psychosocial and motivational mechanisms that mediate smoking, dietary fat intake, and physical activity in a defined population of blue collar workers. Methods. The sample comprised 1,559 manufacturing workers who participated in a self-help physical activity intervention and who completed a computerized assessment battery about their smoking, dietary fat intake, physical activity, and demographic characteristics. Results. Twenty-six percent of the sample were smokers, 51% did not exercise regularly, and 35% consumed more than an estimated 40% of calories per day from fat. Almost half of the sample was in the later stages of readiness for physical activity and dietary fat intake, compared with only 3% for smoking. Only 12% of the smokers had smoking as their only risk factor. Smokers were significantly more likely to engage in poor dietary and physical activity behaviors, compared with nonsmokers. The relationship among smoking status and the other risk factors was apparent both in terms of dietary fat and physical activity behaviors, as well as mediators such as motivation for change. Lower dietary fat intake was associated with an absence of the other two risk factors. Conclusions. The results suggest that there are important mediating mechanisms both within and among workers with one or more risk factors. Smokers are a particularly important target for health promotion interventions, and it may be possible to make initial contact with them through other health programs at the worksite. The role of other lifestyle changes as a gateway to smoking cessation has not yet been explored, but may have potential for reaching smokers who are very low in their motivational readiness to change. The implications of these findings for research and the design of multiple risk factor interventions are discussed.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0027941659&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0027941659&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1006/pmed.1994.1066

DO - 10.1006/pmed.1994.1066

M3 - Article

C2 - 7971876

AN - SCOPUS:0027941659

VL - 23

SP - 481

EP - 489

JO - Preventive Medicine

JF - Preventive Medicine

SN - 0091-7435

IS - 4

ER -