Measurement of sound speed vs. depth in South Pole ice for neutrino astronomy

R. Abbasi, Y. Abdou, M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, K. Andeen, J. Auffenberg, X. Bai, M. Baker, S. W. Barwick, R. Bay, J. L. Bazo Alba, K. Beattie, J. J. Beatty, S. Bechet, J. K. Becker, K. H. Becker, Mohamed Lotfi Benabderrhmane, J. BerdermannP. Berghaus, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Bertrand, D. Z. Besson, M. Bissok, E. Blaufuss, D. J. Boersma, C. Bohm, J. Bolmont, S. Böser, O. Botner, L. Bradley, J. Braun, D. Breder, T. Castermans, D. Chirkin, B. Christy, J. Clem, S. Cohen, D. F. Cowen, M. V. D'Agostino, M. Danninger, C. T. Day, C. De Clercq, L. Demirörs, O. Depaepe, F. Descamps, P. Desiati, G. De Vries-Uiterweerd, T. Deyoung, J. C. Diaz-Velez, J. Dreyer, J. P. Dumm, M. R. Duvoort, W. R. Edwards, R. Ehrlich, J. Eisch, R. W. Ellsworth, O. Engdegrd, S. Euler, P. A. Evenson, O. Fadiran, A. R. Fazely, T. Feusels, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, M. M. Foerster, B. D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, R. Franke, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, R. Ganugapati, L. Gerhardt, L. Gladstone, A. Goldschmidt, J. A. Goodman, R. Gozzini, D. Grant, T. Griesel, A. Groß, S. Grullon, R. M. Gunasingha, M. Gurtner, C. Ha, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, K. Han, K. Hanson, Y. Hasegawa, J. Heise, K. Helbing, P. Herquet, S. Hickford, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, K. Hoshina, D. Hubert, W. Huelsnitz, J. P. Hülß, P. O. Hulth, K. Hultqvist, S. Hussain, R. L. Imlay, M. Inaba, A. Ishihara, J. Jacobsen, G. S. Japaridze, H. Johansson, J. M. Joseph, K. H. Kampert, A. Kappes, T. Karg, A. Karle, J. L. Kelley, P. Kenny, J. Kiryluk, F. Kislat, S. R. Klein, S. Klepser, S. Knops, G. Kohnen, H. Kolanoski, L. Köpke, M. Kowalski, T. Kowarik, M. Krasberg, K. Kuehn, T. Kuwabara, M. Labare, S. Lafebre, K. Laihem, H. Landsman, R. Lauer, H. Leich, D. Lennarz, A. Lucke, J. Lundberg, J. Lünemann, J. Madsen, P. Majumdar, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, H. S. Matis, C. P. McParland, K. Meagher, M. Merck, P. Mészáros, E. Middell, N. Milke, H. Miyamoto, A. Mohr, T. Montaruli, R. Morse, S. M. Movit, K. Münich, R. Nahnhauer, J. W. Nam, P. Nießen, D. R. Nygren, S. Odrowski, A. Olivas, M. Olivo, M. Ono, S. Panknin, S. Patton, C. Pérez De Los Heros, J. Petrovic, A. Piegsa, D. Pieloth, A. C. Pohl, R. Porrata, N. Potthoff, P. B. Price, M. Prikockis, G. T. Przybylski, K. Rawlins, P. Redl, E. Resconi, W. Rhode, M. Ribordy, A. Rizzo, J. P. Rodrigues, P. Roth, F. Rothmaier, C. Rott, C. Roucelle, D. Rutledge, D. Ryckbosch, H. G. Sander, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, S. Schlenstedt, T. Schmidt, D. Schneider, A. Schukraft, O. Schulz, M. Schunck, D. Seckel, B. Semburg, S. H. Seo, Y. Sestayo, S. Seunarine, A. Silvestri, A. Slipak, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, G. Stephens, T. Stezelberger, R. G. Stokstad, M. C. Stoufer, S. Stoyanov, E. A. Strahler, T. Straszheim, K. H. Sulanke, G. W. Sullivan, Q. Swillens, I. Taboada, O. Tarasova, A. Tepe, S. Ter-Antonyan, C. Terranova, S. Tilav, M. Tluczykont, P. A. Toale, D. Tosi, D. Turan, N. Van Eijndhoven, J. Vandenbroucke, A. Van Overloop, C. Vogt, B. Voigt, C. Walck, T. Waldenmaier, M. Walter, C. Wendt, S. Westerhoff, N. Whitehorn, C. H. Wiebusch, A. Wiedemann, G. Wikström, D. R. Williams, R. Wischnewski, H. Wissing, K. Woschnagg, X. W. Xu, G. Yodh, S. Yoshida

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

We have measured the speed of both pressure waves and shear waves as a function of depth between 80 and 500 m depth in South Pole ice with better than 1% precision. The measurements were made using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS), an array of transmitters and sensors deployed in the ice at the South Pole in order to measure the acoustic properties relevant to acoustic detection of astrophysical neutrinos. The transmitters and sensors use piezoceramics operating at ∼5-25 kHz. Between 200 m and 500 m depth, the measured profile is consistent with zero variation of the sound speed with depth, resulting in zero refraction, for both pressure and shear waves. We also performed a complementary study featuring an explosive signal propagating vertically from 50 to 2250 m depth, from which we determined a value for the pressure wave speed consistent with that determined for shallower depths, higher frequencies, and horizontal propagation with the SPATS sensors. The sound speed profile presented here can be used to achieve good acoustic source position and emission time reconstruction in general, and neutrino direction and energy reconstruction in particular. The reconstructed quantities could also help separate neutrino signals from background.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)277-286
Number of pages10
JournalAstroparticle Physics
Volume33
Issue number5-6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2010

Fingerprint

astronomy
ice
poles
neutrinos
acoustics
elastic waves
transmitters
S waves
sensors
sound detecting and ranging
acoustic properties
profiles
refraction
astrophysics
propagation

Keywords

  • Acoustics
  • Neutrino astronomy
  • Pressure waves
  • Shear waves
  • Sound speed
  • South Pole

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

Cite this

Abbasi, R., Abdou, Y., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., ... Yoshida, S. (2010). Measurement of sound speed vs. depth in South Pole ice for neutrino astronomy. Astroparticle Physics, 33(5-6), 277-286. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2010.01.012

Measurement of sound speed vs. depth in South Pole ice for neutrino astronomy. / Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K. H.; Lotfi Benabderrhmane, Mohamed; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bolmont, J.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Bradley, L.; Braun, J.; Breder, D.; Castermans, T.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Cohen, S.; Cowen, D. F.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Danninger, M.; Day, C. T.; De Clercq, C.; Demirörs, L.; Depaepe, O.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; De Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; Deyoung, T.; Diaz-Velez, J. C.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Duvoort, M. R.; Edwards, W. R.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegrd, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Foerster, M. M.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Ganugapati, R.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Gozzini, R.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gunasingha, R. M.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Hasegawa, Y.; Heise, J.; Helbing, K.; Herquet, P.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hülß, J. P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Imlay, R. L.; Inaba, M.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Joseph, J. M.; Kampert, K. H.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kenny, P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klein, S. R.; Klepser, S.; Knops, S.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Kuehn, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lafebre, S.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Lauer, R.; Leich, H.; Lennarz, D.; Lucke, A.; Lundberg, J.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Majumdar, P.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; McParland, C. P.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miyamoto, H.; Mohr, A.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Münich, K.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Nießen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; Ono, M.; Panknin, S.; Patton, S.; Pérez De Los Heros, C.; Petrovic, J.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Pohl, A. C.; Porrata, R.; Potthoff, N.; Price, P. B.; Prikockis, M.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Roth, P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Roucelle, C.; Rutledge, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H. G.; Sarkar, S.; Satalecka, K.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schukraft, A.; Schulz, O.; Schunck, M.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Slipak, A.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stephens, G.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stoufer, M. C.; Stoyanov, S.; Strahler, E. A.; Straszheim, T.; Sulanke, K. H.; Sullivan, G. W.; Swillens, Q.; Taboada, I.; Tarasova, O.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terranova, C.; Tilav, S.; Tluczykont, M.; Toale, P. A.; Tosi, D.; Turan, D.; Van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Overloop, A.; Vogt, C.; Voigt, B.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Walter, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wiedemann, A.; Wikström, G.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, X. W.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.

In: Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 33, No. 5-6, 01.06.2010, p. 277-286.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abbasi, R, Abdou, Y, Ackermann, M, Adams, J, Aguilar, JA, Ahlers, M, Andeen, K, Auffenberg, J, Bai, X, Baker, M, Barwick, SW, Bay, R, Bazo Alba, JL, Beattie, K, Beatty, JJ, Bechet, S, Becker, JK, Becker, KH, Lotfi Benabderrhmane, M, Berdermann, J, Berghaus, P, Berley, D, Bernardini, E, Bertrand, D, Besson, DZ, Bissok, M, Blaufuss, E, Boersma, DJ, Bohm, C, Bolmont, J, Böser, S, Botner, O, Bradley, L, Braun, J, Breder, D, Castermans, T, Chirkin, D, Christy, B, Clem, J, Cohen, S, Cowen, DF, D'Agostino, MV, Danninger, M, Day, CT, De Clercq, C, Demirörs, L, Depaepe, O, Descamps, F, Desiati, P, De Vries-Uiterweerd, G, Deyoung, T, Diaz-Velez, JC, Dreyer, J, Dumm, JP, Duvoort, MR, Edwards, WR, Ehrlich, R, Eisch, J, Ellsworth, RW, Engdegrd, O, Euler, S, Evenson, PA, Fadiran, O, Fazely, AR, Feusels, T, Filimonov, K, Finley, C, Foerster, MM, Fox, BD, Franckowiak, A, Franke, R, Gaisser, TK, Gallagher, J, Ganugapati, R, Gerhardt, L, Gladstone, L, Goldschmidt, A, Goodman, JA, Gozzini, R, Grant, D, Griesel, T, Groß, A, Grullon, S, Gunasingha, RM, Gurtner, M, Ha, C, Hallgren, A, Halzen, F, Han, K, Hanson, K, Hasegawa, Y, Heise, J, Helbing, K, Herquet, P, Hickford, S, Hill, GC, Hoffman, KD, Hoshina, K, Hubert, D, Huelsnitz, W, Hülß, JP, Hulth, PO, Hultqvist, K, Hussain, S, Imlay, RL, Inaba, M, Ishihara, A, Jacobsen, J, Japaridze, GS, Johansson, H, Joseph, JM, Kampert, KH, Kappes, A, Karg, T, Karle, A, Kelley, JL, Kenny, P, Kiryluk, J, Kislat, F, Klein, SR, Klepser, S, Knops, S, Kohnen, G, Kolanoski, H, Köpke, L, Kowalski, M, Kowarik, T, Krasberg, M, Kuehn, K, Kuwabara, T, Labare, M, Lafebre, S, Laihem, K, Landsman, H, Lauer, R, Leich, H, Lennarz, D, Lucke, A, Lundberg, J, Lünemann, J, Madsen, J, Majumdar, P, Maruyama, R, Mase, K, Matis, HS, McParland, CP, Meagher, K, Merck, M, Mészáros, P, Middell, E, Milke, N, Miyamoto, H, Mohr, A, Montaruli, T, Morse, R, Movit, SM, Münich, K, Nahnhauer, R, Nam, JW, Nießen, P, Nygren, DR, Odrowski, S, Olivas, A, Olivo, M, Ono, M, Panknin, S, Patton, S, Pérez De Los Heros, C, Petrovic, J, Piegsa, A, Pieloth, D, Pohl, AC, Porrata, R, Potthoff, N, Price, PB, Prikockis, M, Przybylski, GT, Rawlins, K, Redl, P, Resconi, E, Rhode, W, Ribordy, M, Rizzo, A, Rodrigues, JP, Roth, P, Rothmaier, F, Rott, C, Roucelle, C, Rutledge, D, Ryckbosch, D, Sander, HG, Sarkar, S, Satalecka, K, Schlenstedt, S, Schmidt, T, Schneider, D, Schukraft, A, Schulz, O, Schunck, M, Seckel, D, Semburg, B, Seo, SH, Sestayo, Y, Seunarine, S, Silvestri, A, Slipak, A, Spiczak, GM, Spiering, C, Stamatikos, M, Stanev, T, Stephens, G, Stezelberger, T, Stokstad, RG, Stoufer, MC, Stoyanov, S, Strahler, EA, Straszheim, T, Sulanke, KH, Sullivan, GW, Swillens, Q, Taboada, I, Tarasova, O, Tepe, A, Ter-Antonyan, S, Terranova, C, Tilav, S, Tluczykont, M, Toale, PA, Tosi, D, Turan, D, Van Eijndhoven, N, Vandenbroucke, J, Van Overloop, A, Vogt, C, Voigt, B, Walck, C, Waldenmaier, T, Walter, M, Wendt, C, Westerhoff, S, Whitehorn, N, Wiebusch, CH, Wiedemann, A, Wikström, G, Williams, DR, Wischnewski, R, Wissing, H, Woschnagg, K, Xu, XW, Yodh, G & Yoshida, S 2010, 'Measurement of sound speed vs. depth in South Pole ice for neutrino astronomy', Astroparticle Physics, vol. 33, no. 5-6, pp. 277-286. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2010.01.012
Abbasi R, Abdou Y, Ackermann M, Adams J, Aguilar JA, Ahlers M et al. Measurement of sound speed vs. depth in South Pole ice for neutrino astronomy. Astroparticle Physics. 2010 Jun 1;33(5-6):277-286. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2010.01.012
Abbasi, R. ; Abdou, Y. ; Ackermann, M. ; Adams, J. ; Aguilar, J. A. ; Ahlers, M. ; Andeen, K. ; Auffenberg, J. ; Bai, X. ; Baker, M. ; Barwick, S. W. ; Bay, R. ; Bazo Alba, J. L. ; Beattie, K. ; Beatty, J. J. ; Bechet, S. ; Becker, J. K. ; Becker, K. H. ; Lotfi Benabderrhmane, Mohamed ; Berdermann, J. ; Berghaus, P. ; Berley, D. ; Bernardini, E. ; Bertrand, D. ; Besson, D. Z. ; Bissok, M. ; Blaufuss, E. ; Boersma, D. J. ; Bohm, C. ; Bolmont, J. ; Böser, S. ; Botner, O. ; Bradley, L. ; Braun, J. ; Breder, D. ; Castermans, T. ; Chirkin, D. ; Christy, B. ; Clem, J. ; Cohen, S. ; Cowen, D. F. ; D'Agostino, M. V. ; Danninger, M. ; Day, C. T. ; De Clercq, C. ; Demirörs, L. ; Depaepe, O. ; Descamps, F. ; Desiati, P. ; De Vries-Uiterweerd, G. ; Deyoung, T. ; Diaz-Velez, J. C. ; Dreyer, J. ; Dumm, J. P. ; Duvoort, M. R. ; Edwards, W. R. ; Ehrlich, R. ; Eisch, J. ; Ellsworth, R. W. ; Engdegrd, O. ; Euler, S. ; Evenson, P. A. ; Fadiran, O. ; Fazely, A. R. ; Feusels, T. ; Filimonov, K. ; Finley, C. ; Foerster, M. M. ; Fox, B. D. ; Franckowiak, A. ; Franke, R. ; Gaisser, T. K. ; Gallagher, J. ; Ganugapati, R. ; Gerhardt, L. ; Gladstone, L. ; Goldschmidt, A. ; Goodman, J. A. ; Gozzini, R. ; Grant, D. ; Griesel, T. ; Groß, A. ; Grullon, S. ; Gunasingha, R. M. ; Gurtner, M. ; Ha, C. ; Hallgren, A. ; Halzen, F. ; Han, K. ; Hanson, K. ; Hasegawa, Y. ; Heise, J. ; Helbing, K. ; Herquet, P. ; Hickford, S. ; Hill, G. C. ; Hoffman, K. D. ; Hoshina, K. ; Hubert, D. ; Huelsnitz, W. ; Hülß, J. P. ; Hulth, P. O. ; Hultqvist, K. ; Hussain, S. ; Imlay, R. L. ; Inaba, M. ; Ishihara, A. ; Jacobsen, J. ; Japaridze, G. S. ; Johansson, H. ; Joseph, J. M. ; Kampert, K. H. ; Kappes, A. ; Karg, T. ; Karle, A. ; Kelley, J. L. ; Kenny, P. ; Kiryluk, J. ; Kislat, F. ; Klein, S. R. ; Klepser, S. ; Knops, S. ; Kohnen, G. ; Kolanoski, H. ; Köpke, L. ; Kowalski, M. ; Kowarik, T. ; Krasberg, M. ; Kuehn, K. ; Kuwabara, T. ; Labare, M. ; Lafebre, S. ; Laihem, K. ; Landsman, H. ; Lauer, R. ; Leich, H. ; Lennarz, D. ; Lucke, A. ; Lundberg, J. ; Lünemann, J. ; Madsen, J. ; Majumdar, P. ; Maruyama, R. ; Mase, K. ; Matis, H. S. ; McParland, C. P. ; Meagher, K. ; Merck, M. ; Mészáros, P. ; Middell, E. ; Milke, N. ; Miyamoto, H. ; Mohr, A. ; Montaruli, T. ; Morse, R. ; Movit, S. M. ; Münich, K. ; Nahnhauer, R. ; Nam, J. W. ; Nießen, P. ; Nygren, D. R. ; Odrowski, S. ; Olivas, A. ; Olivo, M. ; Ono, M. ; Panknin, S. ; Patton, S. ; Pérez De Los Heros, C. ; Petrovic, J. ; Piegsa, A. ; Pieloth, D. ; Pohl, A. C. ; Porrata, R. ; Potthoff, N. ; Price, P. B. ; Prikockis, M. ; Przybylski, G. T. ; Rawlins, K. ; Redl, P. ; Resconi, E. ; Rhode, W. ; Ribordy, M. ; Rizzo, A. ; Rodrigues, J. P. ; Roth, P. ; Rothmaier, F. ; Rott, C. ; Roucelle, C. ; Rutledge, D. ; Ryckbosch, D. ; Sander, H. G. ; Sarkar, S. ; Satalecka, K. ; Schlenstedt, S. ; Schmidt, T. ; Schneider, D. ; Schukraft, A. ; Schulz, O. ; Schunck, M. ; Seckel, D. ; Semburg, B. ; Seo, S. H. ; Sestayo, Y. ; Seunarine, S. ; Silvestri, A. ; Slipak, A. ; Spiczak, G. M. ; Spiering, C. ; Stamatikos, M. ; Stanev, T. ; Stephens, G. ; Stezelberger, T. ; Stokstad, R. G. ; Stoufer, M. C. ; Stoyanov, S. ; Strahler, E. A. ; Straszheim, T. ; Sulanke, K. H. ; Sullivan, G. W. ; Swillens, Q. ; Taboada, I. ; Tarasova, O. ; Tepe, A. ; Ter-Antonyan, S. ; Terranova, C. ; Tilav, S. ; Tluczykont, M. ; Toale, P. A. ; Tosi, D. ; Turan, D. ; Van Eijndhoven, N. ; Vandenbroucke, J. ; Van Overloop, A. ; Vogt, C. ; Voigt, B. ; Walck, C. ; Waldenmaier, T. ; Walter, M. ; Wendt, C. ; Westerhoff, S. ; Whitehorn, N. ; Wiebusch, C. H. ; Wiedemann, A. ; Wikström, G. ; Williams, D. R. ; Wischnewski, R. ; Wissing, H. ; Woschnagg, K. ; Xu, X. W. ; Yodh, G. ; Yoshida, S. / Measurement of sound speed vs. depth in South Pole ice for neutrino astronomy. In: Astroparticle Physics. 2010 ; Vol. 33, No. 5-6. pp. 277-286.
@article{be58b9609c9e4f6884687879972d155f,
title = "Measurement of sound speed vs. depth in South Pole ice for neutrino astronomy",
abstract = "We have measured the speed of both pressure waves and shear waves as a function of depth between 80 and 500 m depth in South Pole ice with better than 1{\%} precision. The measurements were made using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS), an array of transmitters and sensors deployed in the ice at the South Pole in order to measure the acoustic properties relevant to acoustic detection of astrophysical neutrinos. The transmitters and sensors use piezoceramics operating at ∼5-25 kHz. Between 200 m and 500 m depth, the measured profile is consistent with zero variation of the sound speed with depth, resulting in zero refraction, for both pressure and shear waves. We also performed a complementary study featuring an explosive signal propagating vertically from 50 to 2250 m depth, from which we determined a value for the pressure wave speed consistent with that determined for shallower depths, higher frequencies, and horizontal propagation with the SPATS sensors. The sound speed profile presented here can be used to achieve good acoustic source position and emission time reconstruction in general, and neutrino direction and energy reconstruction in particular. The reconstructed quantities could also help separate neutrino signals from background.",
keywords = "Acoustics, Neutrino astronomy, Pressure waves, Shear waves, Sound speed, South Pole",
author = "R. Abbasi and Y. Abdou and M. Ackermann and J. Adams and Aguilar, {J. A.} and M. Ahlers and K. Andeen and J. Auffenberg and X. Bai and M. Baker and Barwick, {S. W.} and R. Bay and {Bazo Alba}, {J. L.} and K. Beattie and Beatty, {J. J.} and S. Bechet and Becker, {J. K.} and Becker, {K. H.} and {Lotfi Benabderrhmane}, Mohamed and J. Berdermann and P. Berghaus and D. Berley and E. Bernardini and D. Bertrand and Besson, {D. Z.} and M. Bissok and E. Blaufuss and Boersma, {D. J.} and C. Bohm and J. Bolmont and S. B{\"o}ser and O. Botner and L. Bradley and J. Braun and D. Breder and T. Castermans and D. Chirkin and B. Christy and J. Clem and S. Cohen and Cowen, {D. F.} and D'Agostino, {M. V.} and M. Danninger and Day, {C. T.} and {De Clercq}, C. and L. Demir{\"o}rs and O. Depaepe and F. Descamps and P. Desiati and {De Vries-Uiterweerd}, G. and T. Deyoung and Diaz-Velez, {J. C.} and J. Dreyer and Dumm, {J. P.} and Duvoort, {M. R.} and Edwards, {W. R.} and R. Ehrlich and J. Eisch and Ellsworth, {R. W.} and O. Engdegrd and S. Euler and Evenson, {P. A.} and O. Fadiran and Fazely, {A. R.} and T. Feusels and K. Filimonov and C. Finley and Foerster, {M. M.} and Fox, {B. D.} and A. Franckowiak and R. Franke and Gaisser, {T. K.} and J. Gallagher and R. Ganugapati and L. Gerhardt and L. Gladstone and A. Goldschmidt and Goodman, {J. A.} and R. Gozzini and D. Grant and T. Griesel and A. Gro{\ss} and S. Grullon and Gunasingha, {R. M.} and M. Gurtner and C. Ha and A. Hallgren and F. Halzen and K. Han and K. Hanson and Y. Hasegawa and J. Heise and K. Helbing and P. Herquet and S. Hickford and Hill, {G. C.} and Hoffman, {K. D.} and K. Hoshina and D. Hubert and W. Huelsnitz and H{\"u}l{\ss}, {J. P.} and Hulth, {P. O.} and K. Hultqvist and S. Hussain and Imlay, {R. L.} and M. Inaba and A. Ishihara and J. Jacobsen and Japaridze, {G. S.} and H. Johansson and Joseph, {J. M.} and Kampert, {K. H.} and A. Kappes and T. Karg and A. Karle and Kelley, {J. L.} and P. Kenny and J. Kiryluk and F. Kislat and Klein, {S. R.} and S. Klepser and S. Knops and G. Kohnen and H. Kolanoski and L. K{\"o}pke and M. Kowalski and T. Kowarik and M. Krasberg and K. Kuehn and T. Kuwabara and M. Labare and S. Lafebre and K. Laihem and H. Landsman and R. Lauer and H. Leich and D. Lennarz and A. Lucke and J. Lundberg and J. L{\"u}nemann and J. Madsen and P. Majumdar and R. Maruyama and K. Mase and Matis, {H. S.} and McParland, {C. P.} and K. Meagher and M. Merck and P. M{\'e}sz{\'a}ros and E. Middell and N. Milke and H. Miyamoto and A. Mohr and T. Montaruli and R. Morse and Movit, {S. M.} and K. M{\"u}nich and R. Nahnhauer and Nam, {J. W.} and P. Nie{\ss}en and Nygren, {D. R.} and S. Odrowski and A. Olivas and M. Olivo and M. Ono and S. Panknin and S. Patton and {P{\'e}rez De Los Heros}, C. and J. Petrovic and A. Piegsa and D. Pieloth and Pohl, {A. C.} and R. Porrata and N. Potthoff and Price, {P. B.} and M. Prikockis and Przybylski, {G. T.} and K. Rawlins and P. Redl and E. Resconi and W. Rhode and M. Ribordy and A. Rizzo and Rodrigues, {J. P.} and P. Roth and F. Rothmaier and C. Rott and C. Roucelle and D. Rutledge and D. Ryckbosch and Sander, {H. G.} and S. Sarkar and K. Satalecka and S. Schlenstedt and T. Schmidt and D. Schneider and A. Schukraft and O. Schulz and M. Schunck and D. Seckel and B. Semburg and Seo, {S. H.} and Y. Sestayo and S. Seunarine and A. Silvestri and A. Slipak and Spiczak, {G. M.} and C. Spiering and M. Stamatikos and T. Stanev and G. Stephens and T. Stezelberger and Stokstad, {R. G.} and Stoufer, {M. C.} and S. Stoyanov and Strahler, {E. A.} and T. Straszheim and Sulanke, {K. H.} and Sullivan, {G. W.} and Q. Swillens and I. Taboada and O. Tarasova and A. Tepe and S. Ter-Antonyan and C. Terranova and S. Tilav and M. Tluczykont and Toale, {P. A.} and D. Tosi and D. Turan and {Van Eijndhoven}, N. and J. Vandenbroucke and {Van Overloop}, A. and C. Vogt and B. Voigt and C. Walck and T. Waldenmaier and M. Walter and C. Wendt and S. Westerhoff and N. Whitehorn and Wiebusch, {C. H.} and A. Wiedemann and G. Wikstr{\"o}m and Williams, {D. R.} and R. Wischnewski and H. Wissing and K. Woschnagg and Xu, {X. W.} and G. Yodh and S. Yoshida",
year = "2010",
month = "6",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.astropartphys.2010.01.012",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "33",
pages = "277--286",
journal = "Astroparticle Physics",
issn = "0927-6505",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "5-6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Measurement of sound speed vs. depth in South Pole ice for neutrino astronomy

AU - Abbasi, R.

AU - Abdou, Y.

AU - Ackermann, M.

AU - Adams, J.

AU - Aguilar, J. A.

AU - Ahlers, M.

AU - Andeen, K.

AU - Auffenberg, J.

AU - Bai, X.

AU - Baker, M.

AU - Barwick, S. W.

AU - Bay, R.

AU - Bazo Alba, J. L.

AU - Beattie, K.

AU - Beatty, J. J.

AU - Bechet, S.

AU - Becker, J. K.

AU - Becker, K. H.

AU - Lotfi Benabderrhmane, Mohamed

AU - Berdermann, J.

AU - Berghaus, P.

AU - Berley, D.

AU - Bernardini, E.

AU - Bertrand, D.

AU - Besson, D. Z.

AU - Bissok, M.

AU - Blaufuss, E.

AU - Boersma, D. J.

AU - Bohm, C.

AU - Bolmont, J.

AU - Böser, S.

AU - Botner, O.

AU - Bradley, L.

AU - Braun, J.

AU - Breder, D.

AU - Castermans, T.

AU - Chirkin, D.

AU - Christy, B.

AU - Clem, J.

AU - Cohen, S.

AU - Cowen, D. F.

AU - D'Agostino, M. V.

AU - Danninger, M.

AU - Day, C. T.

AU - De Clercq, C.

AU - Demirörs, L.

AU - Depaepe, O.

AU - Descamps, F.

AU - Desiati, P.

AU - De Vries-Uiterweerd, G.

AU - Deyoung, T.

AU - Diaz-Velez, J. C.

AU - Dreyer, J.

AU - Dumm, J. P.

AU - Duvoort, M. R.

AU - Edwards, W. R.

AU - Ehrlich, R.

AU - Eisch, J.

AU - Ellsworth, R. W.

AU - Engdegrd, O.

AU - Euler, S.

AU - Evenson, P. A.

AU - Fadiran, O.

AU - Fazely, A. R.

AU - Feusels, T.

AU - Filimonov, K.

AU - Finley, C.

AU - Foerster, M. M.

AU - Fox, B. D.

AU - Franckowiak, A.

AU - Franke, R.

AU - Gaisser, T. K.

AU - Gallagher, J.

AU - Ganugapati, R.

AU - Gerhardt, L.

AU - Gladstone, L.

AU - Goldschmidt, A.

AU - Goodman, J. A.

AU - Gozzini, R.

AU - Grant, D.

AU - Griesel, T.

AU - Groß, A.

AU - Grullon, S.

AU - Gunasingha, R. M.

AU - Gurtner, M.

AU - Ha, C.

AU - Hallgren, A.

AU - Halzen, F.

AU - Han, K.

AU - Hanson, K.

AU - Hasegawa, Y.

AU - Heise, J.

AU - Helbing, K.

AU - Herquet, P.

AU - Hickford, S.

AU - Hill, G. C.

AU - Hoffman, K. D.

AU - Hoshina, K.

AU - Hubert, D.

AU - Huelsnitz, W.

AU - Hülß, J. P.

AU - Hulth, P. O.

AU - Hultqvist, K.

AU - Hussain, S.

AU - Imlay, R. L.

AU - Inaba, M.

AU - Ishihara, A.

AU - Jacobsen, J.

AU - Japaridze, G. S.

AU - Johansson, H.

AU - Joseph, J. M.

AU - Kampert, K. H.

AU - Kappes, A.

AU - Karg, T.

AU - Karle, A.

AU - Kelley, J. L.

AU - Kenny, P.

AU - Kiryluk, J.

AU - Kislat, F.

AU - Klein, S. R.

AU - Klepser, S.

AU - Knops, S.

AU - Kohnen, G.

AU - Kolanoski, H.

AU - Köpke, L.

AU - Kowalski, M.

AU - Kowarik, T.

AU - Krasberg, M.

AU - Kuehn, K.

AU - Kuwabara, T.

AU - Labare, M.

AU - Lafebre, S.

AU - Laihem, K.

AU - Landsman, H.

AU - Lauer, R.

AU - Leich, H.

AU - Lennarz, D.

AU - Lucke, A.

AU - Lundberg, J.

AU - Lünemann, J.

AU - Madsen, J.

AU - Majumdar, P.

AU - Maruyama, R.

AU - Mase, K.

AU - Matis, H. S.

AU - McParland, C. P.

AU - Meagher, K.

AU - Merck, M.

AU - Mészáros, P.

AU - Middell, E.

AU - Milke, N.

AU - Miyamoto, H.

AU - Mohr, A.

AU - Montaruli, T.

AU - Morse, R.

AU - Movit, S. M.

AU - Münich, K.

AU - Nahnhauer, R.

AU - Nam, J. W.

AU - Nießen, P.

AU - Nygren, D. R.

AU - Odrowski, S.

AU - Olivas, A.

AU - Olivo, M.

AU - Ono, M.

AU - Panknin, S.

AU - Patton, S.

AU - Pérez De Los Heros, C.

AU - Petrovic, J.

AU - Piegsa, A.

AU - Pieloth, D.

AU - Pohl, A. C.

AU - Porrata, R.

AU - Potthoff, N.

AU - Price, P. B.

AU - Prikockis, M.

AU - Przybylski, G. T.

AU - Rawlins, K.

AU - Redl, P.

AU - Resconi, E.

AU - Rhode, W.

AU - Ribordy, M.

AU - Rizzo, A.

AU - Rodrigues, J. P.

AU - Roth, P.

AU - Rothmaier, F.

AU - Rott, C.

AU - Roucelle, C.

AU - Rutledge, D.

AU - Ryckbosch, D.

AU - Sander, H. G.

AU - Sarkar, S.

AU - Satalecka, K.

AU - Schlenstedt, S.

AU - Schmidt, T.

AU - Schneider, D.

AU - Schukraft, A.

AU - Schulz, O.

AU - Schunck, M.

AU - Seckel, D.

AU - Semburg, B.

AU - Seo, S. H.

AU - Sestayo, Y.

AU - Seunarine, S.

AU - Silvestri, A.

AU - Slipak, A.

AU - Spiczak, G. M.

AU - Spiering, C.

AU - Stamatikos, M.

AU - Stanev, T.

AU - Stephens, G.

AU - Stezelberger, T.

AU - Stokstad, R. G.

AU - Stoufer, M. C.

AU - Stoyanov, S.

AU - Strahler, E. A.

AU - Straszheim, T.

AU - Sulanke, K. H.

AU - Sullivan, G. W.

AU - Swillens, Q.

AU - Taboada, I.

AU - Tarasova, O.

AU - Tepe, A.

AU - Ter-Antonyan, S.

AU - Terranova, C.

AU - Tilav, S.

AU - Tluczykont, M.

AU - Toale, P. A.

AU - Tosi, D.

AU - Turan, D.

AU - Van Eijndhoven, N.

AU - Vandenbroucke, J.

AU - Van Overloop, A.

AU - Vogt, C.

AU - Voigt, B.

AU - Walck, C.

AU - Waldenmaier, T.

AU - Walter, M.

AU - Wendt, C.

AU - Westerhoff, S.

AU - Whitehorn, N.

AU - Wiebusch, C. H.

AU - Wiedemann, A.

AU - Wikström, G.

AU - Williams, D. R.

AU - Wischnewski, R.

AU - Wissing, H.

AU - Woschnagg, K.

AU - Xu, X. W.

AU - Yodh, G.

AU - Yoshida, S.

PY - 2010/6/1

Y1 - 2010/6/1

N2 - We have measured the speed of both pressure waves and shear waves as a function of depth between 80 and 500 m depth in South Pole ice with better than 1% precision. The measurements were made using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS), an array of transmitters and sensors deployed in the ice at the South Pole in order to measure the acoustic properties relevant to acoustic detection of astrophysical neutrinos. The transmitters and sensors use piezoceramics operating at ∼5-25 kHz. Between 200 m and 500 m depth, the measured profile is consistent with zero variation of the sound speed with depth, resulting in zero refraction, for both pressure and shear waves. We also performed a complementary study featuring an explosive signal propagating vertically from 50 to 2250 m depth, from which we determined a value for the pressure wave speed consistent with that determined for shallower depths, higher frequencies, and horizontal propagation with the SPATS sensors. The sound speed profile presented here can be used to achieve good acoustic source position and emission time reconstruction in general, and neutrino direction and energy reconstruction in particular. The reconstructed quantities could also help separate neutrino signals from background.

AB - We have measured the speed of both pressure waves and shear waves as a function of depth between 80 and 500 m depth in South Pole ice with better than 1% precision. The measurements were made using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS), an array of transmitters and sensors deployed in the ice at the South Pole in order to measure the acoustic properties relevant to acoustic detection of astrophysical neutrinos. The transmitters and sensors use piezoceramics operating at ∼5-25 kHz. Between 200 m and 500 m depth, the measured profile is consistent with zero variation of the sound speed with depth, resulting in zero refraction, for both pressure and shear waves. We also performed a complementary study featuring an explosive signal propagating vertically from 50 to 2250 m depth, from which we determined a value for the pressure wave speed consistent with that determined for shallower depths, higher frequencies, and horizontal propagation with the SPATS sensors. The sound speed profile presented here can be used to achieve good acoustic source position and emission time reconstruction in general, and neutrino direction and energy reconstruction in particular. The reconstructed quantities could also help separate neutrino signals from background.

KW - Acoustics

KW - Neutrino astronomy

KW - Pressure waves

KW - Shear waves

KW - Sound speed

KW - South Pole

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=77955176407&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=77955176407&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2010.01.012

DO - 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2010.01.012

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:77955176407

VL - 33

SP - 277

EP - 286

JO - Astroparticle Physics

JF - Astroparticle Physics

SN - 0927-6505

IS - 5-6

ER -