Measurement of sound speed vs. depth in South Pole ice for neutrino astronomy

R. Abbasi, Y. Abdou, M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, K. Andeen, J. Auffenberg, X. Bai, M. Baker, S. W. Barwick, R. Bay, J. L. Bazo Alba, K. Beattie, J. J. Beatty, S. Bechet, J. K. Becker, K. H. Becker, Mohamed Lotfi Benabderrhmane, J. Berdermann & 231 others P. Berghaus, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Bertrand, D. Z. Besson, M. Bissok, E. Blaufuss, D. J. Boersma, C. Bohm, J. Bolmont, S. Böser, O. Botner, L. Bradley, J. Braun, D. Breder, T. Castermans, D. Chirkin, B. Christy, J. Clem, S. Cohen, D. F. Cowen, M. V. D'Agostino, M. Danninger, C. T. Day, C. De Clercq, L. Demirörs, O. Depaepe, F. Descamps, P. Desiati, G. De Vries-Uiterweerd, T. Deyoung, J. C. Diaz-Velez, J. Dreyer, J. P. Dumm, M. R. Duvoort, W. R. Edwards, R. Ehrlich, J. Eisch, R. W. Ellsworth, O. Engdegrd, S. Euler, P. A. Evenson, O. Fadiran, A. R. Fazely, T. Feusels, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, M. M. Foerster, B. D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, R. Franke, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, R. Ganugapati, L. Gerhardt, L. Gladstone, A. Goldschmidt, J. A. Goodman, R. Gozzini, D. Grant, T. Griesel, A. Groß, S. Grullon, R. M. Gunasingha, M. Gurtner, C. Ha, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, K. Han, K. Hanson, Y. Hasegawa, J. Heise, K. Helbing, P. Herquet, S. Hickford, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, K. Hoshina, D. Hubert, W. Huelsnitz, J. P. Hülß, P. O. Hulth, K. Hultqvist, S. Hussain, R. L. Imlay, M. Inaba, A. Ishihara, J. Jacobsen, G. S. Japaridze, H. Johansson, J. M. Joseph, K. H. Kampert, A. Kappes, T. Karg, A. Karle, J. L. Kelley, P. Kenny, J. Kiryluk, F. Kislat, S. R. Klein, S. Klepser, S. Knops, G. Kohnen, H. Kolanoski, L. Köpke, M. Kowalski, T. Kowarik, M. Krasberg, K. Kuehn, T. Kuwabara, M. Labare, S. Lafebre, K. Laihem, H. Landsman, R. Lauer, H. Leich, D. Lennarz, A. Lucke, J. Lundberg, J. Lünemann, J. Madsen, P. Majumdar, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, H. S. Matis, C. P. McParland, K. Meagher, M. Merck, P. Mészáros, E. Middell, N. Milke, H. Miyamoto, A. Mohr, T. Montaruli, R. Morse, S. M. Movit, K. Münich, R. Nahnhauer, J. W. Nam, P. Nießen, D. R. Nygren, S. Odrowski, A. Olivas, M. Olivo, M. Ono, S. Panknin, S. Patton, C. Pérez De Los Heros, J. Petrovic, A. Piegsa, D. Pieloth, A. C. Pohl, R. Porrata, N. Potthoff, P. B. Price, M. Prikockis, G. T. Przybylski, K. Rawlins, P. Redl, E. Resconi, W. Rhode, M. Ribordy, A. Rizzo, J. P. Rodrigues, P. Roth, F. Rothmaier, C. Rott, C. Roucelle, D. Rutledge, D. Ryckbosch, H. G. Sander, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, S. Schlenstedt, T. Schmidt, D. Schneider, A. Schukraft, O. Schulz, M. Schunck, D. Seckel, B. Semburg, S. H. Seo, Y. Sestayo, S. Seunarine, A. Silvestri, A. Slipak, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, G. Stephens, T. Stezelberger, R. G. Stokstad, M. C. Stoufer, S. Stoyanov, E. A. Strahler, T. Straszheim, K. H. Sulanke, G. W. Sullivan, Q. Swillens, I. Taboada, O. Tarasova, A. Tepe, S. Ter-Antonyan, C. Terranova, S. Tilav, M. Tluczykont, P. A. Toale, D. Tosi, D. Turan, N. Van Eijndhoven, J. Vandenbroucke, A. Van Overloop, C. Vogt, B. Voigt, C. Walck, T. Waldenmaier, M. Walter, C. Wendt, S. Westerhoff, N. Whitehorn, C. H. Wiebusch, A. Wiedemann, G. Wikström, D. R. Williams, R. Wischnewski, H. Wissing, K. Woschnagg, X. W. Xu, G. Yodh, S. Yoshida

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    We have measured the speed of both pressure waves and shear waves as a function of depth between 80 and 500 m depth in South Pole ice with better than 1% precision. The measurements were made using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS), an array of transmitters and sensors deployed in the ice at the South Pole in order to measure the acoustic properties relevant to acoustic detection of astrophysical neutrinos. The transmitters and sensors use piezoceramics operating at ∼5-25 kHz. Between 200 m and 500 m depth, the measured profile is consistent with zero variation of the sound speed with depth, resulting in zero refraction, for both pressure and shear waves. We also performed a complementary study featuring an explosive signal propagating vertically from 50 to 2250 m depth, from which we determined a value for the pressure wave speed consistent with that determined for shallower depths, higher frequencies, and horizontal propagation with the SPATS sensors. The sound speed profile presented here can be used to achieve good acoustic source position and emission time reconstruction in general, and neutrino direction and energy reconstruction in particular. The reconstructed quantities could also help separate neutrino signals from background.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)277-286
    Number of pages10
    JournalAstroparticle Physics
    Volume33
    Issue number5-6
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Jun 1 2010

    Fingerprint

    astronomy
    ice
    poles
    neutrinos
    acoustics
    elastic waves
    transmitters
    S waves
    sensors
    sound detecting and ranging
    acoustic properties
    profiles
    refraction
    astrophysics
    propagation

    Keywords

    • Acoustics
    • Neutrino astronomy
    • Pressure waves
    • Shear waves
    • Sound speed
    • South Pole

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Cite this

    Abbasi, R., Abdou, Y., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., ... Yoshida, S. (2010). Measurement of sound speed vs. depth in South Pole ice for neutrino astronomy. Astroparticle Physics, 33(5-6), 277-286. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2010.01.012

    Measurement of sound speed vs. depth in South Pole ice for neutrino astronomy. / Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K. H.; Lotfi Benabderrhmane, Mohamed; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bolmont, J.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Bradley, L.; Braun, J.; Breder, D.; Castermans, T.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Cohen, S.; Cowen, D. F.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Danninger, M.; Day, C. T.; De Clercq, C.; Demirörs, L.; Depaepe, O.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; De Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; Deyoung, T.; Diaz-Velez, J. C.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Duvoort, M. R.; Edwards, W. R.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegrd, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Foerster, M. M.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Ganugapati, R.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Gozzini, R.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gunasingha, R. M.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Hasegawa, Y.; Heise, J.; Helbing, K.; Herquet, P.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hülß, J. P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Imlay, R. L.; Inaba, M.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Joseph, J. M.; Kampert, K. H.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kenny, P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klein, S. R.; Klepser, S.; Knops, S.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Kuehn, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lafebre, S.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Lauer, R.; Leich, H.; Lennarz, D.; Lucke, A.; Lundberg, J.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Majumdar, P.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; McParland, C. P.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miyamoto, H.; Mohr, A.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Münich, K.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Nießen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; Ono, M.; Panknin, S.; Patton, S.; Pérez De Los Heros, C.; Petrovic, J.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Pohl, A. C.; Porrata, R.; Potthoff, N.; Price, P. B.; Prikockis, M.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Roth, P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Roucelle, C.; Rutledge, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H. G.; Sarkar, S.; Satalecka, K.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schukraft, A.; Schulz, O.; Schunck, M.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Slipak, A.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stephens, G.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stoufer, M. C.; Stoyanov, S.; Strahler, E. A.; Straszheim, T.; Sulanke, K. H.; Sullivan, G. W.; Swillens, Q.; Taboada, I.; Tarasova, O.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terranova, C.; Tilav, S.; Tluczykont, M.; Toale, P. A.; Tosi, D.; Turan, D.; Van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Overloop, A.; Vogt, C.; Voigt, B.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Walter, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wiedemann, A.; Wikström, G.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, X. W.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.

    In: Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 33, No. 5-6, 01.06.2010, p. 277-286.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abbasi, R, Abdou, Y, Ackermann, M, Adams, J, Aguilar, JA, Ahlers, M, Andeen, K, Auffenberg, J, Bai, X, Baker, M, Barwick, SW, Bay, R, Bazo Alba, JL, Beattie, K, Beatty, JJ, Bechet, S, Becker, JK, Becker, KH, Lotfi Benabderrhmane, M, Berdermann, J, Berghaus, P, Berley, D, Bernardini, E, Bertrand, D, Besson, DZ, Bissok, M, Blaufuss, E, Boersma, DJ, Bohm, C, Bolmont, J, Böser, S, Botner, O, Bradley, L, Braun, J, Breder, D, Castermans, T, Chirkin, D, Christy, B, Clem, J, Cohen, S, Cowen, DF, D'Agostino, MV, Danninger, M, Day, CT, De Clercq, C, Demirörs, L, Depaepe, O, Descamps, F, Desiati, P, De Vries-Uiterweerd, G, Deyoung, T, Diaz-Velez, JC, Dreyer, J, Dumm, JP, Duvoort, MR, Edwards, WR, Ehrlich, R, Eisch, J, Ellsworth, RW, Engdegrd, O, Euler, S, Evenson, PA, Fadiran, O, Fazely, AR, Feusels, T, Filimonov, K, Finley, C, Foerster, MM, Fox, BD, Franckowiak, A, Franke, R, Gaisser, TK, Gallagher, J, Ganugapati, R, Gerhardt, L, Gladstone, L, Goldschmidt, A, Goodman, JA, Gozzini, R, Grant, D, Griesel, T, Groß, A, Grullon, S, Gunasingha, RM, Gurtner, M, Ha, C, Hallgren, A, Halzen, F, Han, K, Hanson, K, Hasegawa, Y, Heise, J, Helbing, K, Herquet, P, Hickford, S, Hill, GC, Hoffman, KD, Hoshina, K, Hubert, D, Huelsnitz, W, Hülß, JP, Hulth, PO, Hultqvist, K, Hussain, S, Imlay, RL, Inaba, M, Ishihara, A, Jacobsen, J, Japaridze, GS, Johansson, H, Joseph, JM, Kampert, KH, Kappes, A, Karg, T, Karle, A, Kelley, JL, Kenny, P, Kiryluk, J, Kislat, F, Klein, SR, Klepser, S, Knops, S, Kohnen, G, Kolanoski, H, Köpke, L, Kowalski, M, Kowarik, T, Krasberg, M, Kuehn, K, Kuwabara, T, Labare, M, Lafebre, S, Laihem, K, Landsman, H, Lauer, R, Leich, H, Lennarz, D, Lucke, A, Lundberg, J, Lünemann, J, Madsen, J, Majumdar, P, Maruyama, R, Mase, K, Matis, HS, McParland, CP, Meagher, K, Merck, M, Mészáros, P, Middell, E, Milke, N, Miyamoto, H, Mohr, A, Montaruli, T, Morse, R, Movit, SM, Münich, K, Nahnhauer, R, Nam, JW, Nießen, P, Nygren, DR, Odrowski, S, Olivas, A, Olivo, M, Ono, M, Panknin, S, Patton, S, Pérez De Los Heros, C, Petrovic, J, Piegsa, A, Pieloth, D, Pohl, AC, Porrata, R, Potthoff, N, Price, PB, Prikockis, M, Przybylski, GT, Rawlins, K, Redl, P, Resconi, E, Rhode, W, Ribordy, M, Rizzo, A, Rodrigues, JP, Roth, P, Rothmaier, F, Rott, C, Roucelle, C, Rutledge, D, Ryckbosch, D, Sander, HG, Sarkar, S, Satalecka, K, Schlenstedt, S, Schmidt, T, Schneider, D, Schukraft, A, Schulz, O, Schunck, M, Seckel, D, Semburg, B, Seo, SH, Sestayo, Y, Seunarine, S, Silvestri, A, Slipak, A, Spiczak, GM, Spiering, C, Stamatikos, M, Stanev, T, Stephens, G, Stezelberger, T, Stokstad, RG, Stoufer, MC, Stoyanov, S, Strahler, EA, Straszheim, T, Sulanke, KH, Sullivan, GW, Swillens, Q, Taboada, I, Tarasova, O, Tepe, A, Ter-Antonyan, S, Terranova, C, Tilav, S, Tluczykont, M, Toale, PA, Tosi, D, Turan, D, Van Eijndhoven, N, Vandenbroucke, J, Van Overloop, A, Vogt, C, Voigt, B, Walck, C, Waldenmaier, T, Walter, M, Wendt, C, Westerhoff, S, Whitehorn, N, Wiebusch, CH, Wiedemann, A, Wikström, G, Williams, DR, Wischnewski, R, Wissing, H, Woschnagg, K, Xu, XW, Yodh, G & Yoshida, S 2010, 'Measurement of sound speed vs. depth in South Pole ice for neutrino astronomy', Astroparticle Physics, vol. 33, no. 5-6, pp. 277-286. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2010.01.012
    Abbasi R, Abdou Y, Ackermann M, Adams J, Aguilar JA, Ahlers M et al. Measurement of sound speed vs. depth in South Pole ice for neutrino astronomy. Astroparticle Physics. 2010 Jun 1;33(5-6):277-286. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2010.01.012
    Abbasi, R. ; Abdou, Y. ; Ackermann, M. ; Adams, J. ; Aguilar, J. A. ; Ahlers, M. ; Andeen, K. ; Auffenberg, J. ; Bai, X. ; Baker, M. ; Barwick, S. W. ; Bay, R. ; Bazo Alba, J. L. ; Beattie, K. ; Beatty, J. J. ; Bechet, S. ; Becker, J. K. ; Becker, K. H. ; Lotfi Benabderrhmane, Mohamed ; Berdermann, J. ; Berghaus, P. ; Berley, D. ; Bernardini, E. ; Bertrand, D. ; Besson, D. Z. ; Bissok, M. ; Blaufuss, E. ; Boersma, D. J. ; Bohm, C. ; Bolmont, J. ; Böser, S. ; Botner, O. ; Bradley, L. ; Braun, J. ; Breder, D. ; Castermans, T. ; Chirkin, D. ; Christy, B. ; Clem, J. ; Cohen, S. ; Cowen, D. F. ; D'Agostino, M. V. ; Danninger, M. ; Day, C. T. ; De Clercq, C. ; Demirörs, L. ; Depaepe, O. ; Descamps, F. ; Desiati, P. ; De Vries-Uiterweerd, G. ; Deyoung, T. ; Diaz-Velez, J. C. ; Dreyer, J. ; Dumm, J. P. ; Duvoort, M. R. ; Edwards, W. R. ; Ehrlich, R. ; Eisch, J. ; Ellsworth, R. W. ; Engdegrd, O. ; Euler, S. ; Evenson, P. A. ; Fadiran, O. ; Fazely, A. R. ; Feusels, T. ; Filimonov, K. ; Finley, C. ; Foerster, M. M. ; Fox, B. D. ; Franckowiak, A. ; Franke, R. ; Gaisser, T. K. ; Gallagher, J. ; Ganugapati, R. ; Gerhardt, L. ; Gladstone, L. ; Goldschmidt, A. ; Goodman, J. A. ; Gozzini, R. ; Grant, D. ; Griesel, T. ; Groß, A. ; Grullon, S. ; Gunasingha, R. M. ; Gurtner, M. ; Ha, C. ; Hallgren, A. ; Halzen, F. ; Han, K. ; Hanson, K. ; Hasegawa, Y. ; Heise, J. ; Helbing, K. ; Herquet, P. ; Hickford, S. ; Hill, G. C. ; Hoffman, K. D. ; Hoshina, K. ; Hubert, D. ; Huelsnitz, W. ; Hülß, J. P. ; Hulth, P. O. ; Hultqvist, K. ; Hussain, S. ; Imlay, R. L. ; Inaba, M. ; Ishihara, A. ; Jacobsen, J. ; Japaridze, G. S. ; Johansson, H. ; Joseph, J. M. ; Kampert, K. H. ; Kappes, A. ; Karg, T. ; Karle, A. ; Kelley, J. L. ; Kenny, P. ; Kiryluk, J. ; Kislat, F. ; Klein, S. R. ; Klepser, S. ; Knops, S. ; Kohnen, G. ; Kolanoski, H. ; Köpke, L. ; Kowalski, M. ; Kowarik, T. ; Krasberg, M. ; Kuehn, K. ; Kuwabara, T. ; Labare, M. ; Lafebre, S. ; Laihem, K. ; Landsman, H. ; Lauer, R. ; Leich, H. ; Lennarz, D. ; Lucke, A. ; Lundberg, J. ; Lünemann, J. ; Madsen, J. ; Majumdar, P. ; Maruyama, R. ; Mase, K. ; Matis, H. S. ; McParland, C. P. ; Meagher, K. ; Merck, M. ; Mészáros, P. ; Middell, E. ; Milke, N. ; Miyamoto, H. ; Mohr, A. ; Montaruli, T. ; Morse, R. ; Movit, S. M. ; Münich, K. ; Nahnhauer, R. ; Nam, J. W. ; Nießen, P. ; Nygren, D. R. ; Odrowski, S. ; Olivas, A. ; Olivo, M. ; Ono, M. ; Panknin, S. ; Patton, S. ; Pérez De Los Heros, C. ; Petrovic, J. ; Piegsa, A. ; Pieloth, D. ; Pohl, A. C. ; Porrata, R. ; Potthoff, N. ; Price, P. B. ; Prikockis, M. ; Przybylski, G. T. ; Rawlins, K. ; Redl, P. ; Resconi, E. ; Rhode, W. ; Ribordy, M. ; Rizzo, A. ; Rodrigues, J. P. ; Roth, P. ; Rothmaier, F. ; Rott, C. ; Roucelle, C. ; Rutledge, D. ; Ryckbosch, D. ; Sander, H. G. ; Sarkar, S. ; Satalecka, K. ; Schlenstedt, S. ; Schmidt, T. ; Schneider, D. ; Schukraft, A. ; Schulz, O. ; Schunck, M. ; Seckel, D. ; Semburg, B. ; Seo, S. H. ; Sestayo, Y. ; Seunarine, S. ; Silvestri, A. ; Slipak, A. ; Spiczak, G. M. ; Spiering, C. ; Stamatikos, M. ; Stanev, T. ; Stephens, G. ; Stezelberger, T. ; Stokstad, R. G. ; Stoufer, M. C. ; Stoyanov, S. ; Strahler, E. A. ; Straszheim, T. ; Sulanke, K. H. ; Sullivan, G. W. ; Swillens, Q. ; Taboada, I. ; Tarasova, O. ; Tepe, A. ; Ter-Antonyan, S. ; Terranova, C. ; Tilav, S. ; Tluczykont, M. ; Toale, P. A. ; Tosi, D. ; Turan, D. ; Van Eijndhoven, N. ; Vandenbroucke, J. ; Van Overloop, A. ; Vogt, C. ; Voigt, B. ; Walck, C. ; Waldenmaier, T. ; Walter, M. ; Wendt, C. ; Westerhoff, S. ; Whitehorn, N. ; Wiebusch, C. H. ; Wiedemann, A. ; Wikström, G. ; Williams, D. R. ; Wischnewski, R. ; Wissing, H. ; Woschnagg, K. ; Xu, X. W. ; Yodh, G. ; Yoshida, S. / Measurement of sound speed vs. depth in South Pole ice for neutrino astronomy. In: Astroparticle Physics. 2010 ; Vol. 33, No. 5-6. pp. 277-286.
    @article{20dfa92aef33488b8cfc943241bb4df0,
    title = "Measurement of sound speed vs. depth in South Pole ice for neutrino astronomy",
    abstract = "We have measured the speed of both pressure waves and shear waves as a function of depth between 80 and 500 m depth in South Pole ice with better than 1{\%} precision. The measurements were made using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS), an array of transmitters and sensors deployed in the ice at the South Pole in order to measure the acoustic properties relevant to acoustic detection of astrophysical neutrinos. The transmitters and sensors use piezoceramics operating at ∼5-25 kHz. Between 200 m and 500 m depth, the measured profile is consistent with zero variation of the sound speed with depth, resulting in zero refraction, for both pressure and shear waves. We also performed a complementary study featuring an explosive signal propagating vertically from 50 to 2250 m depth, from which we determined a value for the pressure wave speed consistent with that determined for shallower depths, higher frequencies, and horizontal propagation with the SPATS sensors. The sound speed profile presented here can be used to achieve good acoustic source position and emission time reconstruction in general, and neutrino direction and energy reconstruction in particular. The reconstructed quantities could also help separate neutrino signals from background.",
    keywords = "Acoustics, Neutrino astronomy, Pressure waves, Shear waves, Sound speed, South Pole",
    author = "R. Abbasi and Y. Abdou and M. Ackermann and J. Adams and Aguilar, {J. A.} and M. Ahlers and K. Andeen and J. Auffenberg and X. Bai and M. Baker and Barwick, {S. W.} and R. Bay and {Bazo Alba}, {J. L.} and K. Beattie and Beatty, {J. J.} and S. Bechet and Becker, {J. K.} and Becker, {K. H.} and {Lotfi Benabderrhmane}, Mohamed and J. Berdermann and P. Berghaus and D. Berley and E. Bernardini and D. Bertrand and Besson, {D. Z.} and M. Bissok and E. Blaufuss and Boersma, {D. J.} and C. Bohm and J. Bolmont and S. B{\"o}ser and O. Botner and L. Bradley and J. Braun and D. Breder and T. Castermans and D. Chirkin and B. Christy and J. Clem and S. Cohen and Cowen, {D. F.} and D'Agostino, {M. V.} and M. Danninger and Day, {C. T.} and {De Clercq}, C. and L. Demir{\"o}rs and O. Depaepe and F. Descamps and P. Desiati and {De Vries-Uiterweerd}, G. and T. Deyoung and Diaz-Velez, {J. C.} and J. Dreyer and Dumm, {J. P.} and Duvoort, {M. R.} and Edwards, {W. R.} and R. Ehrlich and J. Eisch and Ellsworth, {R. W.} and O. Engdegrd and S. Euler and Evenson, {P. A.} and O. Fadiran and Fazely, {A. R.} and T. Feusels and K. Filimonov and C. Finley and Foerster, {M. M.} and Fox, {B. D.} and A. Franckowiak and R. Franke and Gaisser, {T. K.} and J. Gallagher and R. Ganugapati and L. Gerhardt and L. Gladstone and A. Goldschmidt and Goodman, {J. A.} and R. Gozzini and D. Grant and T. Griesel and A. Gro{\ss} and S. Grullon and Gunasingha, {R. M.} and M. Gurtner and C. Ha and A. Hallgren and F. Halzen and K. Han and K. Hanson and Y. Hasegawa and J. Heise and K. Helbing and P. Herquet and S. Hickford and Hill, {G. C.} and Hoffman, {K. D.} and K. Hoshina and D. Hubert and W. Huelsnitz and H{\"u}l{\ss}, {J. P.} and Hulth, {P. O.} and K. Hultqvist and S. Hussain and Imlay, {R. L.} and M. Inaba and A. Ishihara and J. Jacobsen and Japaridze, {G. S.} and H. Johansson and Joseph, {J. M.} and Kampert, {K. H.} and A. Kappes and T. Karg and A. Karle and Kelley, {J. L.} and P. Kenny and J. Kiryluk and F. Kislat and Klein, {S. R.} and S. Klepser and S. Knops and G. Kohnen and H. Kolanoski and L. K{\"o}pke and M. Kowalski and T. Kowarik and M. Krasberg and K. Kuehn and T. Kuwabara and M. Labare and S. Lafebre and K. Laihem and H. Landsman and R. Lauer and H. Leich and D. Lennarz and A. Lucke and J. Lundberg and J. L{\"u}nemann and J. Madsen and P. Majumdar and R. Maruyama and K. Mase and Matis, {H. S.} and McParland, {C. P.} and K. Meagher and M. Merck and P. M{\'e}sz{\'a}ros and E. Middell and N. Milke and H. Miyamoto and A. Mohr and T. Montaruli and R. Morse and Movit, {S. M.} and K. M{\"u}nich and R. Nahnhauer and Nam, {J. W.} and P. Nie{\ss}en and Nygren, {D. R.} and S. Odrowski and A. Olivas and M. Olivo and M. Ono and S. Panknin and S. Patton and {P{\'e}rez De Los Heros}, C. and J. Petrovic and A. Piegsa and D. Pieloth and Pohl, {A. C.} and R. Porrata and N. Potthoff and Price, {P. B.} and M. Prikockis and Przybylski, {G. T.} and K. Rawlins and P. Redl and E. Resconi and W. Rhode and M. Ribordy and A. Rizzo and Rodrigues, {J. P.} and P. Roth and F. Rothmaier and C. Rott and C. Roucelle and D. Rutledge and D. Ryckbosch and Sander, {H. G.} and S. Sarkar and K. Satalecka and S. Schlenstedt and T. Schmidt and D. Schneider and A. Schukraft and O. Schulz and M. Schunck and D. Seckel and B. Semburg and Seo, {S. H.} and Y. Sestayo and S. Seunarine and A. Silvestri and A. Slipak and Spiczak, {G. M.} and C. Spiering and M. Stamatikos and T. Stanev and G. Stephens and T. Stezelberger and Stokstad, {R. G.} and Stoufer, {M. C.} and S. Stoyanov and Strahler, {E. A.} and T. Straszheim and Sulanke, {K. H.} and Sullivan, {G. W.} and Q. Swillens and I. Taboada and O. Tarasova and A. Tepe and S. Ter-Antonyan and C. Terranova and S. Tilav and M. Tluczykont and Toale, {P. A.} and D. Tosi and D. Turan and {Van Eijndhoven}, N. and J. Vandenbroucke and {Van Overloop}, A. and C. Vogt and B. Voigt and C. Walck and T. Waldenmaier and M. Walter and C. Wendt and S. Westerhoff and N. Whitehorn and Wiebusch, {C. H.} and A. Wiedemann and G. Wikstr{\"o}m and Williams, {D. R.} and R. Wischnewski and H. Wissing and K. Woschnagg and Xu, {X. W.} and G. Yodh and S. Yoshida",
    year = "2010",
    month = "6",
    day = "1",
    doi = "10.1016/j.astropartphys.2010.01.012",
    language = "English (US)",
    volume = "33",
    pages = "277--286",
    journal = "Astroparticle Physics",
    issn = "0927-6505",
    publisher = "Elsevier",
    number = "5-6",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Measurement of sound speed vs. depth in South Pole ice for neutrino astronomy

    AU - Abbasi, R.

    AU - Abdou, Y.

    AU - Ackermann, M.

    AU - Adams, J.

    AU - Aguilar, J. A.

    AU - Ahlers, M.

    AU - Andeen, K.

    AU - Auffenberg, J.

    AU - Bai, X.

    AU - Baker, M.

    AU - Barwick, S. W.

    AU - Bay, R.

    AU - Bazo Alba, J. L.

    AU - Beattie, K.

    AU - Beatty, J. J.

    AU - Bechet, S.

    AU - Becker, J. K.

    AU - Becker, K. H.

    AU - Lotfi Benabderrhmane, Mohamed

    AU - Berdermann, J.

    AU - Berghaus, P.

    AU - Berley, D.

    AU - Bernardini, E.

    AU - Bertrand, D.

    AU - Besson, D. Z.

    AU - Bissok, M.

    AU - Blaufuss, E.

    AU - Boersma, D. J.

    AU - Bohm, C.

    AU - Bolmont, J.

    AU - Böser, S.

    AU - Botner, O.

    AU - Bradley, L.

    AU - Braun, J.

    AU - Breder, D.

    AU - Castermans, T.

    AU - Chirkin, D.

    AU - Christy, B.

    AU - Clem, J.

    AU - Cohen, S.

    AU - Cowen, D. F.

    AU - D'Agostino, M. V.

    AU - Danninger, M.

    AU - Day, C. T.

    AU - De Clercq, C.

    AU - Demirörs, L.

    AU - Depaepe, O.

    AU - Descamps, F.

    AU - Desiati, P.

    AU - De Vries-Uiterweerd, G.

    AU - Deyoung, T.

    AU - Diaz-Velez, J. C.

    AU - Dreyer, J.

    AU - Dumm, J. P.

    AU - Duvoort, M. R.

    AU - Edwards, W. R.

    AU - Ehrlich, R.

    AU - Eisch, J.

    AU - Ellsworth, R. W.

    AU - Engdegrd, O.

    AU - Euler, S.

    AU - Evenson, P. A.

    AU - Fadiran, O.

    AU - Fazely, A. R.

    AU - Feusels, T.

    AU - Filimonov, K.

    AU - Finley, C.

    AU - Foerster, M. M.

    AU - Fox, B. D.

    AU - Franckowiak, A.

    AU - Franke, R.

    AU - Gaisser, T. K.

    AU - Gallagher, J.

    AU - Ganugapati, R.

    AU - Gerhardt, L.

    AU - Gladstone, L.

    AU - Goldschmidt, A.

    AU - Goodman, J. A.

    AU - Gozzini, R.

    AU - Grant, D.

    AU - Griesel, T.

    AU - Groß, A.

    AU - Grullon, S.

    AU - Gunasingha, R. M.

    AU - Gurtner, M.

    AU - Ha, C.

    AU - Hallgren, A.

    AU - Halzen, F.

    AU - Han, K.

    AU - Hanson, K.

    AU - Hasegawa, Y.

    AU - Heise, J.

    AU - Helbing, K.

    AU - Herquet, P.

    AU - Hickford, S.

    AU - Hill, G. C.

    AU - Hoffman, K. D.

    AU - Hoshina, K.

    AU - Hubert, D.

    AU - Huelsnitz, W.

    AU - Hülß, J. P.

    AU - Hulth, P. O.

    AU - Hultqvist, K.

    AU - Hussain, S.

    AU - Imlay, R. L.

    AU - Inaba, M.

    AU - Ishihara, A.

    AU - Jacobsen, J.

    AU - Japaridze, G. S.

    AU - Johansson, H.

    AU - Joseph, J. M.

    AU - Kampert, K. H.

    AU - Kappes, A.

    AU - Karg, T.

    AU - Karle, A.

    AU - Kelley, J. L.

    AU - Kenny, P.

    AU - Kiryluk, J.

    AU - Kislat, F.

    AU - Klein, S. R.

    AU - Klepser, S.

    AU - Knops, S.

    AU - Kohnen, G.

    AU - Kolanoski, H.

    AU - Köpke, L.

    AU - Kowalski, M.

    AU - Kowarik, T.

    AU - Krasberg, M.

    AU - Kuehn, K.

    AU - Kuwabara, T.

    AU - Labare, M.

    AU - Lafebre, S.

    AU - Laihem, K.

    AU - Landsman, H.

    AU - Lauer, R.

    AU - Leich, H.

    AU - Lennarz, D.

    AU - Lucke, A.

    AU - Lundberg, J.

    AU - Lünemann, J.

    AU - Madsen, J.

    AU - Majumdar, P.

    AU - Maruyama, R.

    AU - Mase, K.

    AU - Matis, H. S.

    AU - McParland, C. P.

    AU - Meagher, K.

    AU - Merck, M.

    AU - Mészáros, P.

    AU - Middell, E.

    AU - Milke, N.

    AU - Miyamoto, H.

    AU - Mohr, A.

    AU - Montaruli, T.

    AU - Morse, R.

    AU - Movit, S. M.

    AU - Münich, K.

    AU - Nahnhauer, R.

    AU - Nam, J. W.

    AU - Nießen, P.

    AU - Nygren, D. R.

    AU - Odrowski, S.

    AU - Olivas, A.

    AU - Olivo, M.

    AU - Ono, M.

    AU - Panknin, S.

    AU - Patton, S.

    AU - Pérez De Los Heros, C.

    AU - Petrovic, J.

    AU - Piegsa, A.

    AU - Pieloth, D.

    AU - Pohl, A. C.

    AU - Porrata, R.

    AU - Potthoff, N.

    AU - Price, P. B.

    AU - Prikockis, M.

    AU - Przybylski, G. T.

    AU - Rawlins, K.

    AU - Redl, P.

    AU - Resconi, E.

    AU - Rhode, W.

    AU - Ribordy, M.

    AU - Rizzo, A.

    AU - Rodrigues, J. P.

    AU - Roth, P.

    AU - Rothmaier, F.

    AU - Rott, C.

    AU - Roucelle, C.

    AU - Rutledge, D.

    AU - Ryckbosch, D.

    AU - Sander, H. G.

    AU - Sarkar, S.

    AU - Satalecka, K.

    AU - Schlenstedt, S.

    AU - Schmidt, T.

    AU - Schneider, D.

    AU - Schukraft, A.

    AU - Schulz, O.

    AU - Schunck, M.

    AU - Seckel, D.

    AU - Semburg, B.

    AU - Seo, S. H.

    AU - Sestayo, Y.

    AU - Seunarine, S.

    AU - Silvestri, A.

    AU - Slipak, A.

    AU - Spiczak, G. M.

    AU - Spiering, C.

    AU - Stamatikos, M.

    AU - Stanev, T.

    AU - Stephens, G.

    AU - Stezelberger, T.

    AU - Stokstad, R. G.

    AU - Stoufer, M. C.

    AU - Stoyanov, S.

    AU - Strahler, E. A.

    AU - Straszheim, T.

    AU - Sulanke, K. H.

    AU - Sullivan, G. W.

    AU - Swillens, Q.

    AU - Taboada, I.

    AU - Tarasova, O.

    AU - Tepe, A.

    AU - Ter-Antonyan, S.

    AU - Terranova, C.

    AU - Tilav, S.

    AU - Tluczykont, M.

    AU - Toale, P. A.

    AU - Tosi, D.

    AU - Turan, D.

    AU - Van Eijndhoven, N.

    AU - Vandenbroucke, J.

    AU - Van Overloop, A.

    AU - Vogt, C.

    AU - Voigt, B.

    AU - Walck, C.

    AU - Waldenmaier, T.

    AU - Walter, M.

    AU - Wendt, C.

    AU - Westerhoff, S.

    AU - Whitehorn, N.

    AU - Wiebusch, C. H.

    AU - Wiedemann, A.

    AU - Wikström, G.

    AU - Williams, D. R.

    AU - Wischnewski, R.

    AU - Wissing, H.

    AU - Woschnagg, K.

    AU - Xu, X. W.

    AU - Yodh, G.

    AU - Yoshida, S.

    PY - 2010/6/1

    Y1 - 2010/6/1

    N2 - We have measured the speed of both pressure waves and shear waves as a function of depth between 80 and 500 m depth in South Pole ice with better than 1% precision. The measurements were made using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS), an array of transmitters and sensors deployed in the ice at the South Pole in order to measure the acoustic properties relevant to acoustic detection of astrophysical neutrinos. The transmitters and sensors use piezoceramics operating at ∼5-25 kHz. Between 200 m and 500 m depth, the measured profile is consistent with zero variation of the sound speed with depth, resulting in zero refraction, for both pressure and shear waves. We also performed a complementary study featuring an explosive signal propagating vertically from 50 to 2250 m depth, from which we determined a value for the pressure wave speed consistent with that determined for shallower depths, higher frequencies, and horizontal propagation with the SPATS sensors. The sound speed profile presented here can be used to achieve good acoustic source position and emission time reconstruction in general, and neutrino direction and energy reconstruction in particular. The reconstructed quantities could also help separate neutrino signals from background.

    AB - We have measured the speed of both pressure waves and shear waves as a function of depth between 80 and 500 m depth in South Pole ice with better than 1% precision. The measurements were made using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS), an array of transmitters and sensors deployed in the ice at the South Pole in order to measure the acoustic properties relevant to acoustic detection of astrophysical neutrinos. The transmitters and sensors use piezoceramics operating at ∼5-25 kHz. Between 200 m and 500 m depth, the measured profile is consistent with zero variation of the sound speed with depth, resulting in zero refraction, for both pressure and shear waves. We also performed a complementary study featuring an explosive signal propagating vertically from 50 to 2250 m depth, from which we determined a value for the pressure wave speed consistent with that determined for shallower depths, higher frequencies, and horizontal propagation with the SPATS sensors. The sound speed profile presented here can be used to achieve good acoustic source position and emission time reconstruction in general, and neutrino direction and energy reconstruction in particular. The reconstructed quantities could also help separate neutrino signals from background.

    KW - Acoustics

    KW - Neutrino astronomy

    KW - Pressure waves

    KW - Shear waves

    KW - Sound speed

    KW - South Pole

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=77955176407&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=77955176407&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2010.01.012

    DO - 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2010.01.012

    M3 - Article

    VL - 33

    SP - 277

    EP - 286

    JO - Astroparticle Physics

    JF - Astroparticle Physics

    SN - 0927-6505

    IS - 5-6

    ER -