Measurement of acoustic attenuation in South Pole ice

R. Abbasi, Y. Abdou, T. Abu-Zayyad, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, K. Andeen, J. Auffenberg, X. Bai, M. Baker, S. W. Barwick, R. Bay, J. L. Bazo Alba, K. Beattie, J. J. Beatty, S. Bechet, J. K. Becker, K. H. Becker, Mohamed Lotfi Benabderrhmane, J. BerdermannP. Berghaus, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Bertrand, D. Z. Besson, M. Bissok, E. Blaufuss, D. J. Boersma, C. Bohm, S. Böser, O. Botner, L. Bradley, J. Braun, S. Buitink, M. Carson, D. Chirkin, B. Christy, J. Clem, F. Clevermann, S. Cohen, C. Colnard, D. F. Cowen, M. V. D'Agostino, M. Danninger, C. De Clercq, L. Demirörs, O. Depaepe, F. Descamps, P. Desiati, G. De Vries-Uiterweerd, T. Deyoung, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, J. Dreyer, J. P. Dumm, M. R. Duvoort, R. Ehrlich, J. Eisch, R. W. Ellsworth, O. Engdegrd, S. Euler, P. A. Evenson, O. Fadiran, A. R. Fazely, T. Feusels, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, M. M. Foerster, B. D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, R. Franke, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, R. Ganugapati, M. Geisler, L. Gerhardt, L. Gladstone, T. Glüsenkamp, A. Goldschmidt, J. A. Goodman, D. Grant, T. Griesel, A. Groß, S. Grullon, R. M. Gunasingha, M. Gurtner, L. Gustafsson, C. Ha, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, K. Han, K. Hanson, K. Helbing, P. Herquet, S. Hickford, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, A. Homeier, K. Hoshina, D. Hubert, W. Huelsnitz, J. P. Hülß, P. O. Hulth, K. Hultqvist, S. Hussain, R. L. Imlay, A. Ishihara, J. Jacobsen, G. S. Japaridze, H. Johansson, J. M. Joseph, K. H. Kampert, A. Kappes, T. Karg, A. Karle, J. L. Kelley, N. Kemming, P. Kenny, J. Kiryluk, F. Kislat, S. R. Klein, S. Knops, J. H. Köhne, G. Kohnen, H. Kolanoski, L. Köpke, D. J. Koskinen, M. Kowalski, T. Kowarik, M. Krasberg, T. Krings, G. Kroll, K. Kuehn, T. Kuwabara, M. Labare, S. Lafebre, K. Laihem, H. Landsman, R. Lauer, R. Lehmann, D. Lennarz, J. Lünemann, J. Madsen, P. Majumdar, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, H. S. Matis, M. Matusik, K. Meagher, M. Merck, P. Mészáros, T. Meures, E. Middell, N. Milke, T. Montaruli, R. Morse, S. M. Movit, R. Nahnhauer, J. W. Nam, U. Naumann, P. Nießen, D. R. Nygren, S. Odrowski, A. Olivas, M. Olivo, M. Ono, S. Panknin, L. Paul, C. Pérez De Los Heros, J. Petrovic, A. Piegsa, D. Pieloth, R. Porrata, J. Posselt, P. B. Price, M. Prikockis, G. T. Przybylski, K. Rawlins, P. Redl, E. Resconi, W. Rhode, M. Ribordy, A. Rizzo, J. P. Rodrigues, P. Roth, F. Rothmaier, C. Rott, C. Roucelle, T. Ruhe, D. Rutledge, B. Ruzybayev, D. Ryckbosch, H. G. Sander, S. Sarkar, K. Schatto, S. Schlenstedt, T. Schmidt, D. Schneider, A. Schukraft, A. Schultes, O. Schulz, M. Schunck, D. Seckel, B. Semburg, S. H. Seo, Y. Sestayo, S. Seunarine, A. Silvestri, A. Slipak, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, G. Stephens, T. Stezelberger, R. G. Stokstad, S. Stoyanov, E. A. Strahler, T. Straszheim, G. W. Sullivan, Q. Swillens, I. Taboada, A. Tamburro, O. Tarasova, A. Tepe, S. Ter-Antonyan, S. Tilav, P. A. Toale, D. Tosi, D. Turčan, N. Van Eijndhoven, J. Vandenbroucke, A. Van Overloop, J. Van Santen, B. Voigt, C. Walck, T. Waldenmaier, M. Wallraff, M. Walter, C. Wendt, S. Westerhoff, N. Whitehorn, K. Wiebe, C. H. Wiebusch, G. Wikström, D. R. Williams, R. Wischnewski, H. Wissing, K. Woschnagg, C. Xu, X. W. Xu, J. P. Yanez, G. Yodh, S. Yoshida, P. Zarzhitsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) and a retrievable transmitter deployed in holes drilled for the IceCube experiment, we have measured the attenuation of acoustic signals by South Pole ice at depths between 190 m and 500 m. Three data sets, using different acoustic sources, have been analyzed and give consistent results. The method with the smallest systematic uncertainties yields an amplitude attenuation coefficient α = 3.20 ± 0.57 km-1 between 10 and 30 kHz, considerably larger than previous theoretical estimates. Expressed as an attenuation length, the analyses give a consistent result for λ ≡ 1/α of ∼300 m with 20% uncertainty. No significant depth or frequency dependence has been found.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)382-393
Number of pages12
JournalAstroparticle Physics
Volume34
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2011

Fingerprint

acoustic attenuation
ice
poles
acoustics
attenuation
attenuation coefficients
transmitters
estimates

Keywords

  • Acoustic attenuation
  • Acoustics
  • Ice
  • Neutrino astronomy
  • South Pole

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

Cite this

Abbasi, R., Abdou, Y., Abu-Zayyad, T., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., ... Zarzhitsky, P. (2011). Measurement of acoustic attenuation in South Pole ice. Astroparticle Physics, 34(6), 382-393. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2010.10.003

Measurement of acoustic attenuation in South Pole ice. / Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K. H.; Lotfi Benabderrhmane, Mohamed; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Bradley, L.; Braun, J.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Colnard, C.; Cowen, D. F.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Danninger, M.; De Clercq, C.; Demirörs, L.; Depaepe, O.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; De Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; Deyoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Duvoort, M. R.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegrd, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Foerster, M. M.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Ganugapati, R.; Geisler, M.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gunasingha, R. M.; Gurtner, M.; Gustafsson, L.; Ha, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Helbing, K.; Herquet, P.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hülß, J. P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Imlay, R. L.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Joseph, J. M.; Kampert, K. H.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemming, N.; Kenny, P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klein, S. R.; Knops, S.; Köhne, J. H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Krings, T.; Kroll, G.; Kuehn, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lafebre, S.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Lauer, R.; Lehmann, R.; Lennarz, D.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Majumdar, P.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Matusik, M.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Naumann, U.; Nießen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; Ono, M.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pérez De Los Heros, C.; Petrovic, J.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Porrata, R.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Prikockis, M.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Roth, P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Roucelle, C.; Ruhe, T.; Rutledge, D.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H. G.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schukraft, A.; Schultes, A.; Schulz, O.; Schunck, M.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Slipak, A.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stephens, G.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stoyanov, S.; Strahler, E. A.; Straszheim, T.; Sullivan, G. W.; Swillens, Q.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tarasova, O.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tosi, D.; Turčan, D.; Van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Overloop, A.; Van Santen, J.; Voigt, B.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Walter, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wikström, G.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.

In: Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 34, No. 6, 01.01.2011, p. 382-393.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abbasi, R, Abdou, Y, Abu-Zayyad, T, Adams, J, Aguilar, JA, Ahlers, M, Andeen, K, Auffenberg, J, Bai, X, Baker, M, Barwick, SW, Bay, R, Bazo Alba, JL, Beattie, K, Beatty, JJ, Bechet, S, Becker, JK, Becker, KH, Lotfi Benabderrhmane, M, Berdermann, J, Berghaus, P, Berley, D, Bernardini, E, Bertrand, D, Besson, DZ, Bissok, M, Blaufuss, E, Boersma, DJ, Bohm, C, Böser, S, Botner, O, Bradley, L, Braun, J, Buitink, S, Carson, M, Chirkin, D, Christy, B, Clem, J, Clevermann, F, Cohen, S, Colnard, C, Cowen, DF, D'Agostino, MV, Danninger, M, De Clercq, C, Demirörs, L, Depaepe, O, Descamps, F, Desiati, P, De Vries-Uiterweerd, G, Deyoung, T, Díaz-Vélez, JC, Dreyer, J, Dumm, JP, Duvoort, MR, Ehrlich, R, Eisch, J, Ellsworth, RW, Engdegrd, O, Euler, S, Evenson, PA, Fadiran, O, Fazely, AR, Feusels, T, Filimonov, K, Finley, C, Foerster, MM, Fox, BD, Franckowiak, A, Franke, R, Gaisser, TK, Gallagher, J, Ganugapati, R, Geisler, M, Gerhardt, L, Gladstone, L, Glüsenkamp, T, Goldschmidt, A, Goodman, JA, Grant, D, Griesel, T, Groß, A, Grullon, S, Gunasingha, RM, Gurtner, M, Gustafsson, L, Ha, C, Hallgren, A, Halzen, F, Han, K, Hanson, K, Helbing, K, Herquet, P, Hickford, S, Hill, GC, Hoffman, KD, Homeier, A, Hoshina, K, Hubert, D, Huelsnitz, W, Hülß, JP, Hulth, PO, Hultqvist, K, Hussain, S, Imlay, RL, Ishihara, A, Jacobsen, J, Japaridze, GS, Johansson, H, Joseph, JM, Kampert, KH, Kappes, A, Karg, T, Karle, A, Kelley, JL, Kemming, N, Kenny, P, Kiryluk, J, Kislat, F, Klein, SR, Knops, S, Köhne, JH, Kohnen, G, Kolanoski, H, Köpke, L, Koskinen, DJ, Kowalski, M, Kowarik, T, Krasberg, M, Krings, T, Kroll, G, Kuehn, K, Kuwabara, T, Labare, M, Lafebre, S, Laihem, K, Landsman, H, Lauer, R, Lehmann, R, Lennarz, D, Lünemann, J, Madsen, J, Majumdar, P, Maruyama, R, Mase, K, Matis, HS, Matusik, M, Meagher, K, Merck, M, Mészáros, P, Meures, T, Middell, E, Milke, N, Montaruli, T, Morse, R, Movit, SM, Nahnhauer, R, Nam, JW, Naumann, U, Nießen, P, Nygren, DR, Odrowski, S, Olivas, A, Olivo, M, Ono, M, Panknin, S, Paul, L, Pérez De Los Heros, C, Petrovic, J, Piegsa, A, Pieloth, D, Porrata, R, Posselt, J, Price, PB, Prikockis, M, Przybylski, GT, Rawlins, K, Redl, P, Resconi, E, Rhode, W, Ribordy, M, Rizzo, A, Rodrigues, JP, Roth, P, Rothmaier, F, Rott, C, Roucelle, C, Ruhe, T, Rutledge, D, Ruzybayev, B, Ryckbosch, D, Sander, HG, Sarkar, S, Schatto, K, Schlenstedt, S, Schmidt, T, Schneider, D, Schukraft, A, Schultes, A, Schulz, O, Schunck, M, Seckel, D, Semburg, B, Seo, SH, Sestayo, Y, Seunarine, S, Silvestri, A, Slipak, A, Spiczak, GM, Spiering, C, Stamatikos, M, Stanev, T, Stephens, G, Stezelberger, T, Stokstad, RG, Stoyanov, S, Strahler, EA, Straszheim, T, Sullivan, GW, Swillens, Q, Taboada, I, Tamburro, A, Tarasova, O, Tepe, A, Ter-Antonyan, S, Tilav, S, Toale, PA, Tosi, D, Turčan, D, Van Eijndhoven, N, Vandenbroucke, J, Van Overloop, A, Van Santen, J, Voigt, B, Walck, C, Waldenmaier, T, Wallraff, M, Walter, M, Wendt, C, Westerhoff, S, Whitehorn, N, Wiebe, K, Wiebusch, CH, Wikström, G, Williams, DR, Wischnewski, R, Wissing, H, Woschnagg, K, Xu, C, Xu, XW, Yanez, JP, Yodh, G, Yoshida, S & Zarzhitsky, P 2011, 'Measurement of acoustic attenuation in South Pole ice', Astroparticle Physics, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 382-393. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2010.10.003
Abbasi R, Abdou Y, Abu-Zayyad T, Adams J, Aguilar JA, Ahlers M et al. Measurement of acoustic attenuation in South Pole ice. Astroparticle Physics. 2011 Jan 1;34(6):382-393. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2010.10.003
Abbasi, R. ; Abdou, Y. ; Abu-Zayyad, T. ; Adams, J. ; Aguilar, J. A. ; Ahlers, M. ; Andeen, K. ; Auffenberg, J. ; Bai, X. ; Baker, M. ; Barwick, S. W. ; Bay, R. ; Bazo Alba, J. L. ; Beattie, K. ; Beatty, J. J. ; Bechet, S. ; Becker, J. K. ; Becker, K. H. ; Lotfi Benabderrhmane, Mohamed ; Berdermann, J. ; Berghaus, P. ; Berley, D. ; Bernardini, E. ; Bertrand, D. ; Besson, D. Z. ; Bissok, M. ; Blaufuss, E. ; Boersma, D. J. ; Bohm, C. ; Böser, S. ; Botner, O. ; Bradley, L. ; Braun, J. ; Buitink, S. ; Carson, M. ; Chirkin, D. ; Christy, B. ; Clem, J. ; Clevermann, F. ; Cohen, S. ; Colnard, C. ; Cowen, D. F. ; D'Agostino, M. V. ; Danninger, M. ; De Clercq, C. ; Demirörs, L. ; Depaepe, O. ; Descamps, F. ; Desiati, P. ; De Vries-Uiterweerd, G. ; Deyoung, T. ; Díaz-Vélez, J. C. ; Dreyer, J. ; Dumm, J. P. ; Duvoort, M. R. ; Ehrlich, R. ; Eisch, J. ; Ellsworth, R. W. ; Engdegrd, O. ; Euler, S. ; Evenson, P. A. ; Fadiran, O. ; Fazely, A. R. ; Feusels, T. ; Filimonov, K. ; Finley, C. ; Foerster, M. M. ; Fox, B. D. ; Franckowiak, A. ; Franke, R. ; Gaisser, T. K. ; Gallagher, J. ; Ganugapati, R. ; Geisler, M. ; Gerhardt, L. ; Gladstone, L. ; Glüsenkamp, T. ; Goldschmidt, A. ; Goodman, J. A. ; Grant, D. ; Griesel, T. ; Groß, A. ; Grullon, S. ; Gunasingha, R. M. ; Gurtner, M. ; Gustafsson, L. ; Ha, C. ; Hallgren, A. ; Halzen, F. ; Han, K. ; Hanson, K. ; Helbing, K. ; Herquet, P. ; Hickford, S. ; Hill, G. C. ; Hoffman, K. D. ; Homeier, A. ; Hoshina, K. ; Hubert, D. ; Huelsnitz, W. ; Hülß, J. P. ; Hulth, P. O. ; Hultqvist, K. ; Hussain, S. ; Imlay, R. L. ; Ishihara, A. ; Jacobsen, J. ; Japaridze, G. S. ; Johansson, H. ; Joseph, J. M. ; Kampert, K. H. ; Kappes, A. ; Karg, T. ; Karle, A. ; Kelley, J. L. ; Kemming, N. ; Kenny, P. ; Kiryluk, J. ; Kislat, F. ; Klein, S. R. ; Knops, S. ; Köhne, J. H. ; Kohnen, G. ; Kolanoski, H. ; Köpke, L. ; Koskinen, D. J. ; Kowalski, M. ; Kowarik, T. ; Krasberg, M. ; Krings, T. ; Kroll, G. ; Kuehn, K. ; Kuwabara, T. ; Labare, M. ; Lafebre, S. ; Laihem, K. ; Landsman, H. ; Lauer, R. ; Lehmann, R. ; Lennarz, D. ; Lünemann, J. ; Madsen, J. ; Majumdar, P. ; Maruyama, R. ; Mase, K. ; Matis, H. S. ; Matusik, M. ; Meagher, K. ; Merck, M. ; Mészáros, P. ; Meures, T. ; Middell, E. ; Milke, N. ; Montaruli, T. ; Morse, R. ; Movit, S. M. ; Nahnhauer, R. ; Nam, J. W. ; Naumann, U. ; Nießen, P. ; Nygren, D. R. ; Odrowski, S. ; Olivas, A. ; Olivo, M. ; Ono, M. ; Panknin, S. ; Paul, L. ; Pérez De Los Heros, C. ; Petrovic, J. ; Piegsa, A. ; Pieloth, D. ; Porrata, R. ; Posselt, J. ; Price, P. B. ; Prikockis, M. ; Przybylski, G. T. ; Rawlins, K. ; Redl, P. ; Resconi, E. ; Rhode, W. ; Ribordy, M. ; Rizzo, A. ; Rodrigues, J. P. ; Roth, P. ; Rothmaier, F. ; Rott, C. ; Roucelle, C. ; Ruhe, T. ; Rutledge, D. ; Ruzybayev, B. ; Ryckbosch, D. ; Sander, H. G. ; Sarkar, S. ; Schatto, K. ; Schlenstedt, S. ; Schmidt, T. ; Schneider, D. ; Schukraft, A. ; Schultes, A. ; Schulz, O. ; Schunck, M. ; Seckel, D. ; Semburg, B. ; Seo, S. H. ; Sestayo, Y. ; Seunarine, S. ; Silvestri, A. ; Slipak, A. ; Spiczak, G. M. ; Spiering, C. ; Stamatikos, M. ; Stanev, T. ; Stephens, G. ; Stezelberger, T. ; Stokstad, R. G. ; Stoyanov, S. ; Strahler, E. A. ; Straszheim, T. ; Sullivan, G. W. ; Swillens, Q. ; Taboada, I. ; Tamburro, A. ; Tarasova, O. ; Tepe, A. ; Ter-Antonyan, S. ; Tilav, S. ; Toale, P. A. ; Tosi, D. ; Turčan, D. ; Van Eijndhoven, N. ; Vandenbroucke, J. ; Van Overloop, A. ; Van Santen, J. ; Voigt, B. ; Walck, C. ; Waldenmaier, T. ; Wallraff, M. ; Walter, M. ; Wendt, C. ; Westerhoff, S. ; Whitehorn, N. ; Wiebe, K. ; Wiebusch, C. H. ; Wikström, G. ; Williams, D. R. ; Wischnewski, R. ; Wissing, H. ; Woschnagg, K. ; Xu, C. ; Xu, X. W. ; Yanez, J. P. ; Yodh, G. ; Yoshida, S. ; Zarzhitsky, P. / Measurement of acoustic attenuation in South Pole ice. In: Astroparticle Physics. 2011 ; Vol. 34, No. 6. pp. 382-393.
@article{ffee1dc93c6142c996aa572d33f8c34e,
title = "Measurement of acoustic attenuation in South Pole ice",
abstract = "Using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) and a retrievable transmitter deployed in holes drilled for the IceCube experiment, we have measured the attenuation of acoustic signals by South Pole ice at depths between 190 m and 500 m. Three data sets, using different acoustic sources, have been analyzed and give consistent results. The method with the smallest systematic uncertainties yields an amplitude attenuation coefficient α = 3.20 ± 0.57 km-1 between 10 and 30 kHz, considerably larger than previous theoretical estimates. Expressed as an attenuation length, the analyses give a consistent result for λ ≡ 1/α of ∼300 m with 20{\%} uncertainty. No significant depth or frequency dependence has been found.",
keywords = "Acoustic attenuation, Acoustics, Ice, Neutrino astronomy, South Pole",
author = "R. Abbasi and Y. Abdou and T. Abu-Zayyad and J. Adams and Aguilar, {J. A.} and M. Ahlers and K. Andeen and J. Auffenberg and X. Bai and M. Baker and Barwick, {S. W.} and R. Bay and {Bazo Alba}, {J. L.} and K. Beattie and Beatty, {J. J.} and S. Bechet and Becker, {J. K.} and Becker, {K. H.} and {Lotfi Benabderrhmane}, Mohamed and J. Berdermann and P. Berghaus and D. Berley and E. Bernardini and D. Bertrand and Besson, {D. Z.} and M. Bissok and E. Blaufuss and Boersma, {D. J.} and C. Bohm and S. B{\"o}ser and O. Botner and L. Bradley and J. Braun and S. Buitink and M. Carson and D. Chirkin and B. Christy and J. Clem and F. Clevermann and S. Cohen and C. Colnard and Cowen, {D. F.} and D'Agostino, {M. V.} and M. Danninger and {De Clercq}, C. and L. Demir{\"o}rs and O. Depaepe and F. Descamps and P. Desiati and {De Vries-Uiterweerd}, G. and T. Deyoung and D{\'i}az-V{\'e}lez, {J. C.} and J. Dreyer and Dumm, {J. P.} and Duvoort, {M. R.} and R. Ehrlich and J. Eisch and Ellsworth, {R. W.} and O. Engdegrd and S. Euler and Evenson, {P. A.} and O. Fadiran and Fazely, {A. R.} and T. Feusels and K. Filimonov and C. Finley and Foerster, {M. M.} and Fox, {B. D.} and A. Franckowiak and R. Franke and Gaisser, {T. K.} and J. Gallagher and R. Ganugapati and M. Geisler and L. Gerhardt and L. Gladstone and T. Gl{\"u}senkamp and A. Goldschmidt and Goodman, {J. A.} and D. Grant and T. Griesel and A. Gro{\ss} and S. Grullon and Gunasingha, {R. M.} and M. Gurtner and L. Gustafsson and C. Ha and A. Hallgren and F. Halzen and K. Han and K. Hanson and K. Helbing and P. Herquet and S. Hickford and Hill, {G. C.} and Hoffman, {K. D.} and A. Homeier and K. Hoshina and D. Hubert and W. Huelsnitz and H{\"u}l{\ss}, {J. P.} and Hulth, {P. O.} and K. Hultqvist and S. Hussain and Imlay, {R. L.} and A. Ishihara and J. Jacobsen and Japaridze, {G. S.} and H. Johansson and Joseph, {J. M.} and Kampert, {K. H.} and A. Kappes and T. Karg and A. Karle and Kelley, {J. L.} and N. Kemming and P. Kenny and J. Kiryluk and F. Kislat and Klein, {S. R.} and S. Knops and K{\"o}hne, {J. H.} and G. Kohnen and H. Kolanoski and L. K{\"o}pke and Koskinen, {D. J.} and M. Kowalski and T. Kowarik and M. Krasberg and T. Krings and G. Kroll and K. Kuehn and T. Kuwabara and M. Labare and S. Lafebre and K. Laihem and H. Landsman and R. Lauer and R. Lehmann and D. Lennarz and J. L{\"u}nemann and J. Madsen and P. Majumdar and R. Maruyama and K. Mase and Matis, {H. S.} and M. Matusik and K. Meagher and M. Merck and P. M{\'e}sz{\'a}ros and T. Meures and E. Middell and N. Milke and T. Montaruli and R. Morse and Movit, {S. M.} and R. Nahnhauer and Nam, {J. W.} and U. Naumann and P. Nie{\ss}en and Nygren, {D. R.} and S. Odrowski and A. Olivas and M. Olivo and M. Ono and S. Panknin and L. Paul and {P{\'e}rez De Los Heros}, C. and J. Petrovic and A. Piegsa and D. Pieloth and R. Porrata and J. Posselt and Price, {P. B.} and M. Prikockis and Przybylski, {G. T.} and K. Rawlins and P. Redl and E. Resconi and W. Rhode and M. Ribordy and A. Rizzo and Rodrigues, {J. P.} and P. Roth and F. Rothmaier and C. Rott and C. Roucelle and T. Ruhe and D. Rutledge and B. Ruzybayev and D. Ryckbosch and Sander, {H. G.} and S. Sarkar and K. Schatto and S. Schlenstedt and T. Schmidt and D. Schneider and A. Schukraft and A. Schultes and O. Schulz and M. Schunck and D. Seckel and B. Semburg and Seo, {S. H.} and Y. Sestayo and S. Seunarine and A. Silvestri and A. Slipak and Spiczak, {G. M.} and C. Spiering and M. Stamatikos and T. Stanev and G. Stephens and T. Stezelberger and Stokstad, {R. G.} and S. Stoyanov and Strahler, {E. A.} and T. Straszheim and Sullivan, {G. W.} and Q. Swillens and I. Taboada and A. Tamburro and O. Tarasova and A. Tepe and S. Ter-Antonyan and S. Tilav and Toale, {P. A.} and D. Tosi and D. Turčan and {Van Eijndhoven}, N. and J. Vandenbroucke and {Van Overloop}, A. and {Van Santen}, J. and B. Voigt and C. Walck and T. Waldenmaier and M. Wallraff and M. Walter and C. Wendt and S. Westerhoff and N. Whitehorn and K. Wiebe and Wiebusch, {C. H.} and G. Wikstr{\"o}m and Williams, {D. R.} and R. Wischnewski and H. Wissing and K. Woschnagg and C. Xu and Xu, {X. W.} and Yanez, {J. P.} and G. Yodh and S. Yoshida and P. Zarzhitsky",
year = "2011",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.astropartphys.2010.10.003",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "34",
pages = "382--393",
journal = "Astroparticle Physics",
issn = "0927-6505",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Measurement of acoustic attenuation in South Pole ice

AU - Abbasi, R.

AU - Abdou, Y.

AU - Abu-Zayyad, T.

AU - Adams, J.

AU - Aguilar, J. A.

AU - Ahlers, M.

AU - Andeen, K.

AU - Auffenberg, J.

AU - Bai, X.

AU - Baker, M.

AU - Barwick, S. W.

AU - Bay, R.

AU - Bazo Alba, J. L.

AU - Beattie, K.

AU - Beatty, J. J.

AU - Bechet, S.

AU - Becker, J. K.

AU - Becker, K. H.

AU - Lotfi Benabderrhmane, Mohamed

AU - Berdermann, J.

AU - Berghaus, P.

AU - Berley, D.

AU - Bernardini, E.

AU - Bertrand, D.

AU - Besson, D. Z.

AU - Bissok, M.

AU - Blaufuss, E.

AU - Boersma, D. J.

AU - Bohm, C.

AU - Böser, S.

AU - Botner, O.

AU - Bradley, L.

AU - Braun, J.

AU - Buitink, S.

AU - Carson, M.

AU - Chirkin, D.

AU - Christy, B.

AU - Clem, J.

AU - Clevermann, F.

AU - Cohen, S.

AU - Colnard, C.

AU - Cowen, D. F.

AU - D'Agostino, M. V.

AU - Danninger, M.

AU - De Clercq, C.

AU - Demirörs, L.

AU - Depaepe, O.

AU - Descamps, F.

AU - Desiati, P.

AU - De Vries-Uiterweerd, G.

AU - Deyoung, T.

AU - Díaz-Vélez, J. C.

AU - Dreyer, J.

AU - Dumm, J. P.

AU - Duvoort, M. R.

AU - Ehrlich, R.

AU - Eisch, J.

AU - Ellsworth, R. W.

AU - Engdegrd, O.

AU - Euler, S.

AU - Evenson, P. A.

AU - Fadiran, O.

AU - Fazely, A. R.

AU - Feusels, T.

AU - Filimonov, K.

AU - Finley, C.

AU - Foerster, M. M.

AU - Fox, B. D.

AU - Franckowiak, A.

AU - Franke, R.

AU - Gaisser, T. K.

AU - Gallagher, J.

AU - Ganugapati, R.

AU - Geisler, M.

AU - Gerhardt, L.

AU - Gladstone, L.

AU - Glüsenkamp, T.

AU - Goldschmidt, A.

AU - Goodman, J. A.

AU - Grant, D.

AU - Griesel, T.

AU - Groß, A.

AU - Grullon, S.

AU - Gunasingha, R. M.

AU - Gurtner, M.

AU - Gustafsson, L.

AU - Ha, C.

AU - Hallgren, A.

AU - Halzen, F.

AU - Han, K.

AU - Hanson, K.

AU - Helbing, K.

AU - Herquet, P.

AU - Hickford, S.

AU - Hill, G. C.

AU - Hoffman, K. D.

AU - Homeier, A.

AU - Hoshina, K.

AU - Hubert, D.

AU - Huelsnitz, W.

AU - Hülß, J. P.

AU - Hulth, P. O.

AU - Hultqvist, K.

AU - Hussain, S.

AU - Imlay, R. L.

AU - Ishihara, A.

AU - Jacobsen, J.

AU - Japaridze, G. S.

AU - Johansson, H.

AU - Joseph, J. M.

AU - Kampert, K. H.

AU - Kappes, A.

AU - Karg, T.

AU - Karle, A.

AU - Kelley, J. L.

AU - Kemming, N.

AU - Kenny, P.

AU - Kiryluk, J.

AU - Kislat, F.

AU - Klein, S. R.

AU - Knops, S.

AU - Köhne, J. H.

AU - Kohnen, G.

AU - Kolanoski, H.

AU - Köpke, L.

AU - Koskinen, D. J.

AU - Kowalski, M.

AU - Kowarik, T.

AU - Krasberg, M.

AU - Krings, T.

AU - Kroll, G.

AU - Kuehn, K.

AU - Kuwabara, T.

AU - Labare, M.

AU - Lafebre, S.

AU - Laihem, K.

AU - Landsman, H.

AU - Lauer, R.

AU - Lehmann, R.

AU - Lennarz, D.

AU - Lünemann, J.

AU - Madsen, J.

AU - Majumdar, P.

AU - Maruyama, R.

AU - Mase, K.

AU - Matis, H. S.

AU - Matusik, M.

AU - Meagher, K.

AU - Merck, M.

AU - Mészáros, P.

AU - Meures, T.

AU - Middell, E.

AU - Milke, N.

AU - Montaruli, T.

AU - Morse, R.

AU - Movit, S. M.

AU - Nahnhauer, R.

AU - Nam, J. W.

AU - Naumann, U.

AU - Nießen, P.

AU - Nygren, D. R.

AU - Odrowski, S.

AU - Olivas, A.

AU - Olivo, M.

AU - Ono, M.

AU - Panknin, S.

AU - Paul, L.

AU - Pérez De Los Heros, C.

AU - Petrovic, J.

AU - Piegsa, A.

AU - Pieloth, D.

AU - Porrata, R.

AU - Posselt, J.

AU - Price, P. B.

AU - Prikockis, M.

AU - Przybylski, G. T.

AU - Rawlins, K.

AU - Redl, P.

AU - Resconi, E.

AU - Rhode, W.

AU - Ribordy, M.

AU - Rizzo, A.

AU - Rodrigues, J. P.

AU - Roth, P.

AU - Rothmaier, F.

AU - Rott, C.

AU - Roucelle, C.

AU - Ruhe, T.

AU - Rutledge, D.

AU - Ruzybayev, B.

AU - Ryckbosch, D.

AU - Sander, H. G.

AU - Sarkar, S.

AU - Schatto, K.

AU - Schlenstedt, S.

AU - Schmidt, T.

AU - Schneider, D.

AU - Schukraft, A.

AU - Schultes, A.

AU - Schulz, O.

AU - Schunck, M.

AU - Seckel, D.

AU - Semburg, B.

AU - Seo, S. H.

AU - Sestayo, Y.

AU - Seunarine, S.

AU - Silvestri, A.

AU - Slipak, A.

AU - Spiczak, G. M.

AU - Spiering, C.

AU - Stamatikos, M.

AU - Stanev, T.

AU - Stephens, G.

AU - Stezelberger, T.

AU - Stokstad, R. G.

AU - Stoyanov, S.

AU - Strahler, E. A.

AU - Straszheim, T.

AU - Sullivan, G. W.

AU - Swillens, Q.

AU - Taboada, I.

AU - Tamburro, A.

AU - Tarasova, O.

AU - Tepe, A.

AU - Ter-Antonyan, S.

AU - Tilav, S.

AU - Toale, P. A.

AU - Tosi, D.

AU - Turčan, D.

AU - Van Eijndhoven, N.

AU - Vandenbroucke, J.

AU - Van Overloop, A.

AU - Van Santen, J.

AU - Voigt, B.

AU - Walck, C.

AU - Waldenmaier, T.

AU - Wallraff, M.

AU - Walter, M.

AU - Wendt, C.

AU - Westerhoff, S.

AU - Whitehorn, N.

AU - Wiebe, K.

AU - Wiebusch, C. H.

AU - Wikström, G.

AU - Williams, D. R.

AU - Wischnewski, R.

AU - Wissing, H.

AU - Woschnagg, K.

AU - Xu, C.

AU - Xu, X. W.

AU - Yanez, J. P.

AU - Yodh, G.

AU - Yoshida, S.

AU - Zarzhitsky, P.

PY - 2011/1/1

Y1 - 2011/1/1

N2 - Using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) and a retrievable transmitter deployed in holes drilled for the IceCube experiment, we have measured the attenuation of acoustic signals by South Pole ice at depths between 190 m and 500 m. Three data sets, using different acoustic sources, have been analyzed and give consistent results. The method with the smallest systematic uncertainties yields an amplitude attenuation coefficient α = 3.20 ± 0.57 km-1 between 10 and 30 kHz, considerably larger than previous theoretical estimates. Expressed as an attenuation length, the analyses give a consistent result for λ ≡ 1/α of ∼300 m with 20% uncertainty. No significant depth or frequency dependence has been found.

AB - Using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) and a retrievable transmitter deployed in holes drilled for the IceCube experiment, we have measured the attenuation of acoustic signals by South Pole ice at depths between 190 m and 500 m. Three data sets, using different acoustic sources, have been analyzed and give consistent results. The method with the smallest systematic uncertainties yields an amplitude attenuation coefficient α = 3.20 ± 0.57 km-1 between 10 and 30 kHz, considerably larger than previous theoretical estimates. Expressed as an attenuation length, the analyses give a consistent result for λ ≡ 1/α of ∼300 m with 20% uncertainty. No significant depth or frequency dependence has been found.

KW - Acoustic attenuation

KW - Acoustics

KW - Ice

KW - Neutrino astronomy

KW - South Pole

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=78650521344&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=78650521344&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2010.10.003

DO - 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2010.10.003

M3 - Article

VL - 34

SP - 382

EP - 393

JO - Astroparticle Physics

JF - Astroparticle Physics

SN - 0927-6505

IS - 6

ER -