Measurement of acoustic attenuation in South Pole ice

R. Abbasi, Y. Abdou, T. Abu-Zayyad, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, K. Andeen, J. Auffenberg, X. Bai, M. Baker, S. W. Barwick, R. Bay, J. L. Bazo Alba, K. Beattie, J. J. Beatty, S. Bechet, J. K. Becker, K. H. Becker, Mohamed Lotfi Benabderrhmane, J. Berdermann & 234 others P. Berghaus, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Bertrand, D. Z. Besson, M. Bissok, E. Blaufuss, D. J. Boersma, C. Bohm, S. Böser, O. Botner, L. Bradley, J. Braun, S. Buitink, M. Carson, D. Chirkin, B. Christy, J. Clem, F. Clevermann, S. Cohen, C. Colnard, D. F. Cowen, M. V. D'Agostino, M. Danninger, C. De Clercq, L. Demirörs, O. Depaepe, F. Descamps, P. Desiati, G. De Vries-Uiterweerd, T. Deyoung, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, J. Dreyer, J. P. Dumm, M. R. Duvoort, R. Ehrlich, J. Eisch, R. W. Ellsworth, O. Engdegrd, S. Euler, P. A. Evenson, O. Fadiran, A. R. Fazely, T. Feusels, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, M. M. Foerster, B. D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, R. Franke, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, R. Ganugapati, M. Geisler, L. Gerhardt, L. Gladstone, T. Glüsenkamp, A. Goldschmidt, J. A. Goodman, D. Grant, T. Griesel, A. Groß, S. Grullon, R. M. Gunasingha, M. Gurtner, L. Gustafsson, C. Ha, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, K. Han, K. Hanson, K. Helbing, P. Herquet, S. Hickford, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, A. Homeier, K. Hoshina, D. Hubert, W. Huelsnitz, J. P. Hülß, P. O. Hulth, K. Hultqvist, S. Hussain, R. L. Imlay, A. Ishihara, J. Jacobsen, G. S. Japaridze, H. Johansson, J. M. Joseph, K. H. Kampert, A. Kappes, T. Karg, A. Karle, J. L. Kelley, N. Kemming, P. Kenny, J. Kiryluk, F. Kislat, S. R. Klein, S. Knops, J. H. Köhne, G. Kohnen, H. Kolanoski, L. Köpke, D. J. Koskinen, M. Kowalski, T. Kowarik, M. Krasberg, T. Krings, G. Kroll, K. Kuehn, T. Kuwabara, M. Labare, S. Lafebre, K. Laihem, H. Landsman, R. Lauer, R. Lehmann, D. Lennarz, J. Lünemann, J. Madsen, P. Majumdar, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, H. S. Matis, M. Matusik, K. Meagher, M. Merck, P. Mészáros, T. Meures, E. Middell, N. Milke, T. Montaruli, R. Morse, S. M. Movit, R. Nahnhauer, J. W. Nam, U. Naumann, P. Nießen, D. R. Nygren, S. Odrowski, A. Olivas, M. Olivo, M. Ono, S. Panknin, L. Paul, C. Pérez De Los Heros, J. Petrovic, A. Piegsa, D. Pieloth, R. Porrata, J. Posselt, P. B. Price, M. Prikockis, G. T. Przybylski, K. Rawlins, P. Redl, E. Resconi, W. Rhode, M. Ribordy, A. Rizzo, J. P. Rodrigues, P. Roth, F. Rothmaier, C. Rott, C. Roucelle, T. Ruhe, D. Rutledge, B. Ruzybayev, D. Ryckbosch, H. G. Sander, S. Sarkar, K. Schatto, S. Schlenstedt, T. Schmidt, D. Schneider, A. Schukraft, A. Schultes, O. Schulz, M. Schunck, D. Seckel, B. Semburg, S. H. Seo, Y. Sestayo, S. Seunarine, A. Silvestri, A. Slipak, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, G. Stephens, T. Stezelberger, R. G. Stokstad, S. Stoyanov, E. A. Strahler, T. Straszheim, G. W. Sullivan, Q. Swillens, I. Taboada, A. Tamburro, O. Tarasova, A. Tepe, S. Ter-Antonyan, S. Tilav, P. A. Toale, D. Tosi, D. Turčan, N. Van Eijndhoven, J. Vandenbroucke, A. Van Overloop, J. Van Santen, B. Voigt, C. Walck, T. Waldenmaier, M. Wallraff, M. Walter, C. Wendt, S. Westerhoff, N. Whitehorn, K. Wiebe, C. H. Wiebusch, G. Wikström, D. R. Williams, R. Wischnewski, H. Wissing, K. Woschnagg, C. Xu, X. W. Xu, J. P. Yanez, G. Yodh, S. Yoshida, P. Zarzhitsky

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    Using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) and a retrievable transmitter deployed in holes drilled for the IceCube experiment, we have measured the attenuation of acoustic signals by South Pole ice at depths between 190 m and 500 m. Three data sets, using different acoustic sources, have been analyzed and give consistent results. The method with the smallest systematic uncertainties yields an amplitude attenuation coefficient α = 3.20 ± 0.57 km-1 between 10 and 30 kHz, considerably larger than previous theoretical estimates. Expressed as an attenuation length, the analyses give a consistent result for λ ≡ 1/α of ∼300 m with 20% uncertainty. No significant depth or frequency dependence has been found.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)382-393
    Number of pages12
    JournalAstroparticle Physics
    Volume34
    Issue number6
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Jan 1 2011

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    acoustic attenuation
    ice
    poles
    acoustics
    attenuation
    attenuation coefficients
    transmitters
    estimates

    Keywords

    • Acoustic attenuation
    • Acoustics
    • Ice
    • Neutrino astronomy
    • South Pole

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Cite this

    Abbasi, R., Abdou, Y., Abu-Zayyad, T., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., ... Zarzhitsky, P. (2011). Measurement of acoustic attenuation in South Pole ice. Astroparticle Physics, 34(6), 382-393. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2010.10.003

    Measurement of acoustic attenuation in South Pole ice. / Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K. H.; Lotfi Benabderrhmane, Mohamed; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Bradley, L.; Braun, J.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Colnard, C.; Cowen, D. F.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Danninger, M.; De Clercq, C.; Demirörs, L.; Depaepe, O.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; De Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; Deyoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Duvoort, M. R.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegrd, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Foerster, M. M.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Ganugapati, R.; Geisler, M.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gunasingha, R. M.; Gurtner, M.; Gustafsson, L.; Ha, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Helbing, K.; Herquet, P.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hülß, J. P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Imlay, R. L.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Joseph, J. M.; Kampert, K. H.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemming, N.; Kenny, P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klein, S. R.; Knops, S.; Köhne, J. H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Krings, T.; Kroll, G.; Kuehn, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lafebre, S.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Lauer, R.; Lehmann, R.; Lennarz, D.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Majumdar, P.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Matusik, M.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Naumann, U.; Nießen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; Ono, M.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pérez De Los Heros, C.; Petrovic, J.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Porrata, R.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Prikockis, M.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Roth, P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Roucelle, C.; Ruhe, T.; Rutledge, D.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H. G.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schukraft, A.; Schultes, A.; Schulz, O.; Schunck, M.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Slipak, A.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stephens, G.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stoyanov, S.; Strahler, E. A.; Straszheim, T.; Sullivan, G. W.; Swillens, Q.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tarasova, O.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tosi, D.; Turčan, D.; Van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Overloop, A.; Van Santen, J.; Voigt, B.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Walter, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wikström, G.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.

    In: Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 34, No. 6, 01.01.2011, p. 382-393.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abbasi, R, Abdou, Y, Abu-Zayyad, T, Adams, J, Aguilar, JA, Ahlers, M, Andeen, K, Auffenberg, J, Bai, X, Baker, M, Barwick, SW, Bay, R, Bazo Alba, JL, Beattie, K, Beatty, JJ, Bechet, S, Becker, JK, Becker, KH, Lotfi Benabderrhmane, M, Berdermann, J, Berghaus, P, Berley, D, Bernardini, E, Bertrand, D, Besson, DZ, Bissok, M, Blaufuss, E, Boersma, DJ, Bohm, C, Böser, S, Botner, O, Bradley, L, Braun, J, Buitink, S, Carson, M, Chirkin, D, Christy, B, Clem, J, Clevermann, F, Cohen, S, Colnard, C, Cowen, DF, D'Agostino, MV, Danninger, M, De Clercq, C, Demirörs, L, Depaepe, O, Descamps, F, Desiati, P, De Vries-Uiterweerd, G, Deyoung, T, Díaz-Vélez, JC, Dreyer, J, Dumm, JP, Duvoort, MR, Ehrlich, R, Eisch, J, Ellsworth, RW, Engdegrd, O, Euler, S, Evenson, PA, Fadiran, O, Fazely, AR, Feusels, T, Filimonov, K, Finley, C, Foerster, MM, Fox, BD, Franckowiak, A, Franke, R, Gaisser, TK, Gallagher, J, Ganugapati, R, Geisler, M, Gerhardt, L, Gladstone, L, Glüsenkamp, T, Goldschmidt, A, Goodman, JA, Grant, D, Griesel, T, Groß, A, Grullon, S, Gunasingha, RM, Gurtner, M, Gustafsson, L, Ha, C, Hallgren, A, Halzen, F, Han, K, Hanson, K, Helbing, K, Herquet, P, Hickford, S, Hill, GC, Hoffman, KD, Homeier, A, Hoshina, K, Hubert, D, Huelsnitz, W, Hülß, JP, Hulth, PO, Hultqvist, K, Hussain, S, Imlay, RL, Ishihara, A, Jacobsen, J, Japaridze, GS, Johansson, H, Joseph, JM, Kampert, KH, Kappes, A, Karg, T, Karle, A, Kelley, JL, Kemming, N, Kenny, P, Kiryluk, J, Kislat, F, Klein, SR, Knops, S, Köhne, JH, Kohnen, G, Kolanoski, H, Köpke, L, Koskinen, DJ, Kowalski, M, Kowarik, T, Krasberg, M, Krings, T, Kroll, G, Kuehn, K, Kuwabara, T, Labare, M, Lafebre, S, Laihem, K, Landsman, H, Lauer, R, Lehmann, R, Lennarz, D, Lünemann, J, Madsen, J, Majumdar, P, Maruyama, R, Mase, K, Matis, HS, Matusik, M, Meagher, K, Merck, M, Mészáros, P, Meures, T, Middell, E, Milke, N, Montaruli, T, Morse, R, Movit, SM, Nahnhauer, R, Nam, JW, Naumann, U, Nießen, P, Nygren, DR, Odrowski, S, Olivas, A, Olivo, M, Ono, M, Panknin, S, Paul, L, Pérez De Los Heros, C, Petrovic, J, Piegsa, A, Pieloth, D, Porrata, R, Posselt, J, Price, PB, Prikockis, M, Przybylski, GT, Rawlins, K, Redl, P, Resconi, E, Rhode, W, Ribordy, M, Rizzo, A, Rodrigues, JP, Roth, P, Rothmaier, F, Rott, C, Roucelle, C, Ruhe, T, Rutledge, D, Ruzybayev, B, Ryckbosch, D, Sander, HG, Sarkar, S, Schatto, K, Schlenstedt, S, Schmidt, T, Schneider, D, Schukraft, A, Schultes, A, Schulz, O, Schunck, M, Seckel, D, Semburg, B, Seo, SH, Sestayo, Y, Seunarine, S, Silvestri, A, Slipak, A, Spiczak, GM, Spiering, C, Stamatikos, M, Stanev, T, Stephens, G, Stezelberger, T, Stokstad, RG, Stoyanov, S, Strahler, EA, Straszheim, T, Sullivan, GW, Swillens, Q, Taboada, I, Tamburro, A, Tarasova, O, Tepe, A, Ter-Antonyan, S, Tilav, S, Toale, PA, Tosi, D, Turčan, D, Van Eijndhoven, N, Vandenbroucke, J, Van Overloop, A, Van Santen, J, Voigt, B, Walck, C, Waldenmaier, T, Wallraff, M, Walter, M, Wendt, C, Westerhoff, S, Whitehorn, N, Wiebe, K, Wiebusch, CH, Wikström, G, Williams, DR, Wischnewski, R, Wissing, H, Woschnagg, K, Xu, C, Xu, XW, Yanez, JP, Yodh, G, Yoshida, S & Zarzhitsky, P 2011, 'Measurement of acoustic attenuation in South Pole ice', Astroparticle Physics, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 382-393. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2010.10.003
    Abbasi R, Abdou Y, Abu-Zayyad T, Adams J, Aguilar JA, Ahlers M et al. Measurement of acoustic attenuation in South Pole ice. Astroparticle Physics. 2011 Jan 1;34(6):382-393. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2010.10.003
    Abbasi, R. ; Abdou, Y. ; Abu-Zayyad, T. ; Adams, J. ; Aguilar, J. A. ; Ahlers, M. ; Andeen, K. ; Auffenberg, J. ; Bai, X. ; Baker, M. ; Barwick, S. W. ; Bay, R. ; Bazo Alba, J. L. ; Beattie, K. ; Beatty, J. J. ; Bechet, S. ; Becker, J. K. ; Becker, K. H. ; Lotfi Benabderrhmane, Mohamed ; Berdermann, J. ; Berghaus, P. ; Berley, D. ; Bernardini, E. ; Bertrand, D. ; Besson, D. Z. ; Bissok, M. ; Blaufuss, E. ; Boersma, D. J. ; Bohm, C. ; Böser, S. ; Botner, O. ; Bradley, L. ; Braun, J. ; Buitink, S. ; Carson, M. ; Chirkin, D. ; Christy, B. ; Clem, J. ; Clevermann, F. ; Cohen, S. ; Colnard, C. ; Cowen, D. F. ; D'Agostino, M. V. ; Danninger, M. ; De Clercq, C. ; Demirörs, L. ; Depaepe, O. ; Descamps, F. ; Desiati, P. ; De Vries-Uiterweerd, G. ; Deyoung, T. ; Díaz-Vélez, J. C. ; Dreyer, J. ; Dumm, J. P. ; Duvoort, M. R. ; Ehrlich, R. ; Eisch, J. ; Ellsworth, R. W. ; Engdegrd, O. ; Euler, S. ; Evenson, P. A. ; Fadiran, O. ; Fazely, A. R. ; Feusels, T. ; Filimonov, K. ; Finley, C. ; Foerster, M. M. ; Fox, B. D. ; Franckowiak, A. ; Franke, R. ; Gaisser, T. K. ; Gallagher, J. ; Ganugapati, R. ; Geisler, M. ; Gerhardt, L. ; Gladstone, L. ; Glüsenkamp, T. ; Goldschmidt, A. ; Goodman, J. A. ; Grant, D. ; Griesel, T. ; Groß, A. ; Grullon, S. ; Gunasingha, R. M. ; Gurtner, M. ; Gustafsson, L. ; Ha, C. ; Hallgren, A. ; Halzen, F. ; Han, K. ; Hanson, K. ; Helbing, K. ; Herquet, P. ; Hickford, S. ; Hill, G. C. ; Hoffman, K. D. ; Homeier, A. ; Hoshina, K. ; Hubert, D. ; Huelsnitz, W. ; Hülß, J. P. ; Hulth, P. O. ; Hultqvist, K. ; Hussain, S. ; Imlay, R. L. ; Ishihara, A. ; Jacobsen, J. ; Japaridze, G. S. ; Johansson, H. ; Joseph, J. M. ; Kampert, K. H. ; Kappes, A. ; Karg, T. ; Karle, A. ; Kelley, J. L. ; Kemming, N. ; Kenny, P. ; Kiryluk, J. ; Kislat, F. ; Klein, S. R. ; Knops, S. ; Köhne, J. H. ; Kohnen, G. ; Kolanoski, H. ; Köpke, L. ; Koskinen, D. J. ; Kowalski, M. ; Kowarik, T. ; Krasberg, M. ; Krings, T. ; Kroll, G. ; Kuehn, K. ; Kuwabara, T. ; Labare, M. ; Lafebre, S. ; Laihem, K. ; Landsman, H. ; Lauer, R. ; Lehmann, R. ; Lennarz, D. ; Lünemann, J. ; Madsen, J. ; Majumdar, P. ; Maruyama, R. ; Mase, K. ; Matis, H. S. ; Matusik, M. ; Meagher, K. ; Merck, M. ; Mészáros, P. ; Meures, T. ; Middell, E. ; Milke, N. ; Montaruli, T. ; Morse, R. ; Movit, S. M. ; Nahnhauer, R. ; Nam, J. W. ; Naumann, U. ; Nießen, P. ; Nygren, D. R. ; Odrowski, S. ; Olivas, A. ; Olivo, M. ; Ono, M. ; Panknin, S. ; Paul, L. ; Pérez De Los Heros, C. ; Petrovic, J. ; Piegsa, A. ; Pieloth, D. ; Porrata, R. ; Posselt, J. ; Price, P. B. ; Prikockis, M. ; Przybylski, G. T. ; Rawlins, K. ; Redl, P. ; Resconi, E. ; Rhode, W. ; Ribordy, M. ; Rizzo, A. ; Rodrigues, J. P. ; Roth, P. ; Rothmaier, F. ; Rott, C. ; Roucelle, C. ; Ruhe, T. ; Rutledge, D. ; Ruzybayev, B. ; Ryckbosch, D. ; Sander, H. G. ; Sarkar, S. ; Schatto, K. ; Schlenstedt, S. ; Schmidt, T. ; Schneider, D. ; Schukraft, A. ; Schultes, A. ; Schulz, O. ; Schunck, M. ; Seckel, D. ; Semburg, B. ; Seo, S. H. ; Sestayo, Y. ; Seunarine, S. ; Silvestri, A. ; Slipak, A. ; Spiczak, G. M. ; Spiering, C. ; Stamatikos, M. ; Stanev, T. ; Stephens, G. ; Stezelberger, T. ; Stokstad, R. G. ; Stoyanov, S. ; Strahler, E. A. ; Straszheim, T. ; Sullivan, G. W. ; Swillens, Q. ; Taboada, I. ; Tamburro, A. ; Tarasova, O. ; Tepe, A. ; Ter-Antonyan, S. ; Tilav, S. ; Toale, P. A. ; Tosi, D. ; Turčan, D. ; Van Eijndhoven, N. ; Vandenbroucke, J. ; Van Overloop, A. ; Van Santen, J. ; Voigt, B. ; Walck, C. ; Waldenmaier, T. ; Wallraff, M. ; Walter, M. ; Wendt, C. ; Westerhoff, S. ; Whitehorn, N. ; Wiebe, K. ; Wiebusch, C. H. ; Wikström, G. ; Williams, D. R. ; Wischnewski, R. ; Wissing, H. ; Woschnagg, K. ; Xu, C. ; Xu, X. W. ; Yanez, J. P. ; Yodh, G. ; Yoshida, S. ; Zarzhitsky, P. / Measurement of acoustic attenuation in South Pole ice. In: Astroparticle Physics. 2011 ; Vol. 34, No. 6. pp. 382-393.
    @article{b58a3299e0ed458eb584f70e5432998a,
    title = "Measurement of acoustic attenuation in South Pole ice",
    abstract = "Using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) and a retrievable transmitter deployed in holes drilled for the IceCube experiment, we have measured the attenuation of acoustic signals by South Pole ice at depths between 190 m and 500 m. Three data sets, using different acoustic sources, have been analyzed and give consistent results. The method with the smallest systematic uncertainties yields an amplitude attenuation coefficient α = 3.20 ± 0.57 km-1 between 10 and 30 kHz, considerably larger than previous theoretical estimates. Expressed as an attenuation length, the analyses give a consistent result for λ ≡ 1/α of ∼300 m with 20{\%} uncertainty. No significant depth or frequency dependence has been found.",
    keywords = "Acoustic attenuation, Acoustics, Ice, Neutrino astronomy, South Pole",
    author = "R. Abbasi and Y. Abdou and T. Abu-Zayyad and J. Adams and Aguilar, {J. A.} and M. Ahlers and K. Andeen and J. Auffenberg and X. Bai and M. Baker and Barwick, {S. W.} and R. Bay and {Bazo Alba}, {J. L.} and K. Beattie and Beatty, {J. J.} and S. Bechet and Becker, {J. K.} and Becker, {K. H.} and {Lotfi Benabderrhmane}, Mohamed and J. Berdermann and P. Berghaus and D. Berley and E. Bernardini and D. Bertrand and Besson, {D. Z.} and M. Bissok and E. Blaufuss and Boersma, {D. J.} and C. Bohm and S. B{\"o}ser and O. Botner and L. Bradley and J. Braun and S. Buitink and M. Carson and D. Chirkin and B. Christy and J. Clem and F. Clevermann and S. Cohen and C. Colnard and Cowen, {D. F.} and D'Agostino, {M. V.} and M. Danninger and {De Clercq}, C. and L. Demir{\"o}rs and O. Depaepe and F. Descamps and P. Desiati and {De Vries-Uiterweerd}, G. and T. Deyoung and D{\'i}az-V{\'e}lez, {J. C.} and J. Dreyer and Dumm, {J. P.} and Duvoort, {M. R.} and R. Ehrlich and J. Eisch and Ellsworth, {R. W.} and O. Engdegrd and S. Euler and Evenson, {P. A.} and O. Fadiran and Fazely, {A. R.} and T. Feusels and K. Filimonov and C. Finley and Foerster, {M. M.} and Fox, {B. D.} and A. Franckowiak and R. Franke and Gaisser, {T. K.} and J. Gallagher and R. Ganugapati and M. Geisler and L. Gerhardt and L. Gladstone and T. Gl{\"u}senkamp and A. Goldschmidt and Goodman, {J. A.} and D. Grant and T. Griesel and A. Gro{\ss} and S. Grullon and Gunasingha, {R. M.} and M. Gurtner and L. Gustafsson and C. Ha and A. Hallgren and F. Halzen and K. Han and K. Hanson and K. Helbing and P. Herquet and S. Hickford and Hill, {G. C.} and Hoffman, {K. D.} and A. Homeier and K. Hoshina and D. Hubert and W. Huelsnitz and H{\"u}l{\ss}, {J. P.} and Hulth, {P. O.} and K. Hultqvist and S. Hussain and Imlay, {R. L.} and A. Ishihara and J. Jacobsen and Japaridze, {G. S.} and H. Johansson and Joseph, {J. M.} and Kampert, {K. H.} and A. Kappes and T. Karg and A. Karle and Kelley, {J. L.} and N. Kemming and P. Kenny and J. Kiryluk and F. Kislat and Klein, {S. R.} and S. Knops and K{\"o}hne, {J. H.} and G. Kohnen and H. Kolanoski and L. K{\"o}pke and Koskinen, {D. J.} and M. Kowalski and T. Kowarik and M. Krasberg and T. Krings and G. Kroll and K. Kuehn and T. Kuwabara and M. Labare and S. Lafebre and K. Laihem and H. Landsman and R. Lauer and R. Lehmann and D. Lennarz and J. L{\"u}nemann and J. Madsen and P. Majumdar and R. Maruyama and K. Mase and Matis, {H. S.} and M. Matusik and K. Meagher and M. Merck and P. M{\'e}sz{\'a}ros and T. Meures and E. Middell and N. Milke and T. Montaruli and R. Morse and Movit, {S. M.} and R. Nahnhauer and Nam, {J. W.} and U. Naumann and P. Nie{\ss}en and Nygren, {D. R.} and S. Odrowski and A. Olivas and M. Olivo and M. Ono and S. Panknin and L. Paul and {P{\'e}rez De Los Heros}, C. and J. Petrovic and A. Piegsa and D. Pieloth and R. Porrata and J. Posselt and Price, {P. B.} and M. Prikockis and Przybylski, {G. T.} and K. Rawlins and P. Redl and E. Resconi and W. Rhode and M. Ribordy and A. Rizzo and Rodrigues, {J. P.} and P. Roth and F. Rothmaier and C. Rott and C. Roucelle and T. Ruhe and D. Rutledge and B. Ruzybayev and D. Ryckbosch and Sander, {H. G.} and S. Sarkar and K. Schatto and S. Schlenstedt and T. Schmidt and D. Schneider and A. Schukraft and A. Schultes and O. Schulz and M. Schunck and D. Seckel and B. Semburg and Seo, {S. H.} and Y. Sestayo and S. Seunarine and A. Silvestri and A. Slipak and Spiczak, {G. M.} and C. Spiering and M. Stamatikos and T. Stanev and G. Stephens and T. Stezelberger and Stokstad, {R. G.} and S. Stoyanov and Strahler, {E. A.} and T. Straszheim and Sullivan, {G. W.} and Q. Swillens and I. Taboada and A. Tamburro and O. Tarasova and A. Tepe and S. Ter-Antonyan and S. Tilav and Toale, {P. A.} and D. Tosi and D. Turčan and {Van Eijndhoven}, N. and J. Vandenbroucke and {Van Overloop}, A. and {Van Santen}, J. and B. Voigt and C. Walck and T. Waldenmaier and M. Wallraff and M. Walter and C. Wendt and S. Westerhoff and N. Whitehorn and K. Wiebe and Wiebusch, {C. H.} and G. Wikstr{\"o}m and Williams, {D. R.} and R. Wischnewski and H. Wissing and K. Woschnagg and C. Xu and Xu, {X. W.} and Yanez, {J. P.} and G. Yodh and S. Yoshida and P. Zarzhitsky",
    year = "2011",
    month = "1",
    day = "1",
    doi = "10.1016/j.astropartphys.2010.10.003",
    language = "English (US)",
    volume = "34",
    pages = "382--393",
    journal = "Astroparticle Physics",
    issn = "0927-6505",
    publisher = "Elsevier",
    number = "6",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Measurement of acoustic attenuation in South Pole ice

    AU - Abbasi, R.

    AU - Abdou, Y.

    AU - Abu-Zayyad, T.

    AU - Adams, J.

    AU - Aguilar, J. A.

    AU - Ahlers, M.

    AU - Andeen, K.

    AU - Auffenberg, J.

    AU - Bai, X.

    AU - Baker, M.

    AU - Barwick, S. W.

    AU - Bay, R.

    AU - Bazo Alba, J. L.

    AU - Beattie, K.

    AU - Beatty, J. J.

    AU - Bechet, S.

    AU - Becker, J. K.

    AU - Becker, K. H.

    AU - Lotfi Benabderrhmane, Mohamed

    AU - Berdermann, J.

    AU - Berghaus, P.

    AU - Berley, D.

    AU - Bernardini, E.

    AU - Bertrand, D.

    AU - Besson, D. Z.

    AU - Bissok, M.

    AU - Blaufuss, E.

    AU - Boersma, D. J.

    AU - Bohm, C.

    AU - Böser, S.

    AU - Botner, O.

    AU - Bradley, L.

    AU - Braun, J.

    AU - Buitink, S.

    AU - Carson, M.

    AU - Chirkin, D.

    AU - Christy, B.

    AU - Clem, J.

    AU - Clevermann, F.

    AU - Cohen, S.

    AU - Colnard, C.

    AU - Cowen, D. F.

    AU - D'Agostino, M. V.

    AU - Danninger, M.

    AU - De Clercq, C.

    AU - Demirörs, L.

    AU - Depaepe, O.

    AU - Descamps, F.

    AU - Desiati, P.

    AU - De Vries-Uiterweerd, G.

    AU - Deyoung, T.

    AU - Díaz-Vélez, J. C.

    AU - Dreyer, J.

    AU - Dumm, J. P.

    AU - Duvoort, M. R.

    AU - Ehrlich, R.

    AU - Eisch, J.

    AU - Ellsworth, R. W.

    AU - Engdegrd, O.

    AU - Euler, S.

    AU - Evenson, P. A.

    AU - Fadiran, O.

    AU - Fazely, A. R.

    AU - Feusels, T.

    AU - Filimonov, K.

    AU - Finley, C.

    AU - Foerster, M. M.

    AU - Fox, B. D.

    AU - Franckowiak, A.

    AU - Franke, R.

    AU - Gaisser, T. K.

    AU - Gallagher, J.

    AU - Ganugapati, R.

    AU - Geisler, M.

    AU - Gerhardt, L.

    AU - Gladstone, L.

    AU - Glüsenkamp, T.

    AU - Goldschmidt, A.

    AU - Goodman, J. A.

    AU - Grant, D.

    AU - Griesel, T.

    AU - Groß, A.

    AU - Grullon, S.

    AU - Gunasingha, R. M.

    AU - Gurtner, M.

    AU - Gustafsson, L.

    AU - Ha, C.

    AU - Hallgren, A.

    AU - Halzen, F.

    AU - Han, K.

    AU - Hanson, K.

    AU - Helbing, K.

    AU - Herquet, P.

    AU - Hickford, S.

    AU - Hill, G. C.

    AU - Hoffman, K. D.

    AU - Homeier, A.

    AU - Hoshina, K.

    AU - Hubert, D.

    AU - Huelsnitz, W.

    AU - Hülß, J. P.

    AU - Hulth, P. O.

    AU - Hultqvist, K.

    AU - Hussain, S.

    AU - Imlay, R. L.

    AU - Ishihara, A.

    AU - Jacobsen, J.

    AU - Japaridze, G. S.

    AU - Johansson, H.

    AU - Joseph, J. M.

    AU - Kampert, K. H.

    AU - Kappes, A.

    AU - Karg, T.

    AU - Karle, A.

    AU - Kelley, J. L.

    AU - Kemming, N.

    AU - Kenny, P.

    AU - Kiryluk, J.

    AU - Kislat, F.

    AU - Klein, S. R.

    AU - Knops, S.

    AU - Köhne, J. H.

    AU - Kohnen, G.

    AU - Kolanoski, H.

    AU - Köpke, L.

    AU - Koskinen, D. J.

    AU - Kowalski, M.

    AU - Kowarik, T.

    AU - Krasberg, M.

    AU - Krings, T.

    AU - Kroll, G.

    AU - Kuehn, K.

    AU - Kuwabara, T.

    AU - Labare, M.

    AU - Lafebre, S.

    AU - Laihem, K.

    AU - Landsman, H.

    AU - Lauer, R.

    AU - Lehmann, R.

    AU - Lennarz, D.

    AU - Lünemann, J.

    AU - Madsen, J.

    AU - Majumdar, P.

    AU - Maruyama, R.

    AU - Mase, K.

    AU - Matis, H. S.

    AU - Matusik, M.

    AU - Meagher, K.

    AU - Merck, M.

    AU - Mészáros, P.

    AU - Meures, T.

    AU - Middell, E.

    AU - Milke, N.

    AU - Montaruli, T.

    AU - Morse, R.

    AU - Movit, S. M.

    AU - Nahnhauer, R.

    AU - Nam, J. W.

    AU - Naumann, U.

    AU - Nießen, P.

    AU - Nygren, D. R.

    AU - Odrowski, S.

    AU - Olivas, A.

    AU - Olivo, M.

    AU - Ono, M.

    AU - Panknin, S.

    AU - Paul, L.

    AU - Pérez De Los Heros, C.

    AU - Petrovic, J.

    AU - Piegsa, A.

    AU - Pieloth, D.

    AU - Porrata, R.

    AU - Posselt, J.

    AU - Price, P. B.

    AU - Prikockis, M.

    AU - Przybylski, G. T.

    AU - Rawlins, K.

    AU - Redl, P.

    AU - Resconi, E.

    AU - Rhode, W.

    AU - Ribordy, M.

    AU - Rizzo, A.

    AU - Rodrigues, J. P.

    AU - Roth, P.

    AU - Rothmaier, F.

    AU - Rott, C.

    AU - Roucelle, C.

    AU - Ruhe, T.

    AU - Rutledge, D.

    AU - Ruzybayev, B.

    AU - Ryckbosch, D.

    AU - Sander, H. G.

    AU - Sarkar, S.

    AU - Schatto, K.

    AU - Schlenstedt, S.

    AU - Schmidt, T.

    AU - Schneider, D.

    AU - Schukraft, A.

    AU - Schultes, A.

    AU - Schulz, O.

    AU - Schunck, M.

    AU - Seckel, D.

    AU - Semburg, B.

    AU - Seo, S. H.

    AU - Sestayo, Y.

    AU - Seunarine, S.

    AU - Silvestri, A.

    AU - Slipak, A.

    AU - Spiczak, G. M.

    AU - Spiering, C.

    AU - Stamatikos, M.

    AU - Stanev, T.

    AU - Stephens, G.

    AU - Stezelberger, T.

    AU - Stokstad, R. G.

    AU - Stoyanov, S.

    AU - Strahler, E. A.

    AU - Straszheim, T.

    AU - Sullivan, G. W.

    AU - Swillens, Q.

    AU - Taboada, I.

    AU - Tamburro, A.

    AU - Tarasova, O.

    AU - Tepe, A.

    AU - Ter-Antonyan, S.

    AU - Tilav, S.

    AU - Toale, P. A.

    AU - Tosi, D.

    AU - Turčan, D.

    AU - Van Eijndhoven, N.

    AU - Vandenbroucke, J.

    AU - Van Overloop, A.

    AU - Van Santen, J.

    AU - Voigt, B.

    AU - Walck, C.

    AU - Waldenmaier, T.

    AU - Wallraff, M.

    AU - Walter, M.

    AU - Wendt, C.

    AU - Westerhoff, S.

    AU - Whitehorn, N.

    AU - Wiebe, K.

    AU - Wiebusch, C. H.

    AU - Wikström, G.

    AU - Williams, D. R.

    AU - Wischnewski, R.

    AU - Wissing, H.

    AU - Woschnagg, K.

    AU - Xu, C.

    AU - Xu, X. W.

    AU - Yanez, J. P.

    AU - Yodh, G.

    AU - Yoshida, S.

    AU - Zarzhitsky, P.

    PY - 2011/1/1

    Y1 - 2011/1/1

    N2 - Using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) and a retrievable transmitter deployed in holes drilled for the IceCube experiment, we have measured the attenuation of acoustic signals by South Pole ice at depths between 190 m and 500 m. Three data sets, using different acoustic sources, have been analyzed and give consistent results. The method with the smallest systematic uncertainties yields an amplitude attenuation coefficient α = 3.20 ± 0.57 km-1 between 10 and 30 kHz, considerably larger than previous theoretical estimates. Expressed as an attenuation length, the analyses give a consistent result for λ ≡ 1/α of ∼300 m with 20% uncertainty. No significant depth or frequency dependence has been found.

    AB - Using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) and a retrievable transmitter deployed in holes drilled for the IceCube experiment, we have measured the attenuation of acoustic signals by South Pole ice at depths between 190 m and 500 m. Three data sets, using different acoustic sources, have been analyzed and give consistent results. The method with the smallest systematic uncertainties yields an amplitude attenuation coefficient α = 3.20 ± 0.57 km-1 between 10 and 30 kHz, considerably larger than previous theoretical estimates. Expressed as an attenuation length, the analyses give a consistent result for λ ≡ 1/α of ∼300 m with 20% uncertainty. No significant depth or frequency dependence has been found.

    KW - Acoustic attenuation

    KW - Acoustics

    KW - Ice

    KW - Neutrino astronomy

    KW - South Pole

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=78650521344&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=78650521344&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2010.10.003

    DO - 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2010.10.003

    M3 - Article

    VL - 34

    SP - 382

    EP - 393

    JO - Astroparticle Physics

    JF - Astroparticle Physics

    SN - 0927-6505

    IS - 6

    ER -