Measurement error and its impact on the estimated relationship between dust lead and children's blood lead

Mary J. Emond, Bruce P. Lanphear, Arthur Watts, Shirley Eberly, Michael Weitzman, Tanner M. Martin, Thomas Clarkson, Nancy L. Winter, Leslie Aptez, Mary Emond, Benjamin Yakir, Warren Galke, David Jacobs, Tom Matte, Scott Clark, Mark Farfel, John Graef, Joel Schwartz, Ellen Silbergeld

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    Objective. Lead-contaminated house dust is a major contributor to lead intake among urban children, but the reliabilities of various dust lead measurement methods and their impact on the estimated correlations between dust lead and children's blood lead levels are unknown. Methods. Repeated field measurements of lead-contaminated dust from children's homes were taken from 16 housing units using five dust lead measurement methods. Estimates of measurement error were used to obtain reliability ratios for the dust lead measurements, which were then used to correct estimated correlations between lead-contaminated dust and children's blood lead. Results. Reliability varied over methods and surface types (from 0.0 to 0.8), but wipe loading and the BRM vacuum loading methods generally had greater reliability. Technician effects, inadvertent field exposure to lead, contamination of collection equipment, and laboratory instrument error were found to contribute little to total measurement error. Corrected correlations between blood lead and wipe loading measurements were 7 to 104% higher than uncorrected correlations. The multiple R2 and partial R2 for a wipe composite measurement in a multivariate regression model increased from 0.43 to 0.64 and from 0.053 to 0.26, respectively, after correction for measurement error bias. Conclusions. Variation in lead deposition within small areas and variations in collection inherent to the devices are major contributors to measurement error. Measurement error causes dramatic underestimation of correlation between lead-contaminated house dust and children's blood lead.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)82-92
    Number of pages11
    JournalEnvironmental Research
    Volume72
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Jan 1 1997

    Fingerprint

    Measurement errors
    Dust
    Blood
    blood
    dust
    measurement method
    Equipment Contamination
    Instrument errors
    Small-Area Analysis
    Lead
    Vacuum
    Contamination
    Equipment and Supplies
    Composite materials

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Biochemistry
    • Environmental Science(all)

    Cite this

    Emond, M. J., Lanphear, B. P., Watts, A., Eberly, S., Weitzman, M., Martin, T. M., ... Silbergeld, E. (1997). Measurement error and its impact on the estimated relationship between dust lead and children's blood lead. Environmental Research, 72(1), 82-92. https://doi.org/10.1006/enrs.1996.3693

    Measurement error and its impact on the estimated relationship between dust lead and children's blood lead. / Emond, Mary J.; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Watts, Arthur; Eberly, Shirley; Weitzman, Michael; Martin, Tanner M.; Clarkson, Thomas; Winter, Nancy L.; Aptez, Leslie; Emond, Mary; Yakir, Benjamin; Galke, Warren; Jacobs, David; Matte, Tom; Clark, Scott; Farfel, Mark; Graef, John; Schwartz, Joel; Silbergeld, Ellen.

    In: Environmental Research, Vol. 72, No. 1, 01.01.1997, p. 82-92.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Emond, MJ, Lanphear, BP, Watts, A, Eberly, S, Weitzman, M, Martin, TM, Clarkson, T, Winter, NL, Aptez, L, Emond, M, Yakir, B, Galke, W, Jacobs, D, Matte, T, Clark, S, Farfel, M, Graef, J, Schwartz, J & Silbergeld, E 1997, 'Measurement error and its impact on the estimated relationship between dust lead and children's blood lead', Environmental Research, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 82-92. https://doi.org/10.1006/enrs.1996.3693
    Emond, Mary J. ; Lanphear, Bruce P. ; Watts, Arthur ; Eberly, Shirley ; Weitzman, Michael ; Martin, Tanner M. ; Clarkson, Thomas ; Winter, Nancy L. ; Aptez, Leslie ; Emond, Mary ; Yakir, Benjamin ; Galke, Warren ; Jacobs, David ; Matte, Tom ; Clark, Scott ; Farfel, Mark ; Graef, John ; Schwartz, Joel ; Silbergeld, Ellen. / Measurement error and its impact on the estimated relationship between dust lead and children's blood lead. In: Environmental Research. 1997 ; Vol. 72, No. 1. pp. 82-92.
    @article{a5af85e1bbea43d8badc8fe86974080f,
    title = "Measurement error and its impact on the estimated relationship between dust lead and children's blood lead",
    abstract = "Objective. Lead-contaminated house dust is a major contributor to lead intake among urban children, but the reliabilities of various dust lead measurement methods and their impact on the estimated correlations between dust lead and children's blood lead levels are unknown. Methods. Repeated field measurements of lead-contaminated dust from children's homes were taken from 16 housing units using five dust lead measurement methods. Estimates of measurement error were used to obtain reliability ratios for the dust lead measurements, which were then used to correct estimated correlations between lead-contaminated dust and children's blood lead. Results. Reliability varied over methods and surface types (from 0.0 to 0.8), but wipe loading and the BRM vacuum loading methods generally had greater reliability. Technician effects, inadvertent field exposure to lead, contamination of collection equipment, and laboratory instrument error were found to contribute little to total measurement error. Corrected correlations between blood lead and wipe loading measurements were 7 to 104{\%} higher than uncorrected correlations. The multiple R2 and partial R2 for a wipe composite measurement in a multivariate regression model increased from 0.43 to 0.64 and from 0.053 to 0.26, respectively, after correction for measurement error bias. Conclusions. Variation in lead deposition within small areas and variations in collection inherent to the devices are major contributors to measurement error. Measurement error causes dramatic underestimation of correlation between lead-contaminated house dust and children's blood lead.",
    author = "Emond, {Mary J.} and Lanphear, {Bruce P.} and Arthur Watts and Shirley Eberly and Michael Weitzman and Martin, {Tanner M.} and Thomas Clarkson and Winter, {Nancy L.} and Leslie Aptez and Mary Emond and Benjamin Yakir and Warren Galke and David Jacobs and Tom Matte and Scott Clark and Mark Farfel and John Graef and Joel Schwartz and Ellen Silbergeld",
    year = "1997",
    month = "1",
    day = "1",
    doi = "10.1006/enrs.1996.3693",
    language = "English (US)",
    volume = "72",
    pages = "82--92",
    journal = "Environmental Research",
    issn = "0013-9351",
    publisher = "Academic Press Inc.",
    number = "1",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Measurement error and its impact on the estimated relationship between dust lead and children's blood lead

    AU - Emond, Mary J.

    AU - Lanphear, Bruce P.

    AU - Watts, Arthur

    AU - Eberly, Shirley

    AU - Weitzman, Michael

    AU - Martin, Tanner M.

    AU - Clarkson, Thomas

    AU - Winter, Nancy L.

    AU - Aptez, Leslie

    AU - Emond, Mary

    AU - Yakir, Benjamin

    AU - Galke, Warren

    AU - Jacobs, David

    AU - Matte, Tom

    AU - Clark, Scott

    AU - Farfel, Mark

    AU - Graef, John

    AU - Schwartz, Joel

    AU - Silbergeld, Ellen

    PY - 1997/1/1

    Y1 - 1997/1/1

    N2 - Objective. Lead-contaminated house dust is a major contributor to lead intake among urban children, but the reliabilities of various dust lead measurement methods and their impact on the estimated correlations between dust lead and children's blood lead levels are unknown. Methods. Repeated field measurements of lead-contaminated dust from children's homes were taken from 16 housing units using five dust lead measurement methods. Estimates of measurement error were used to obtain reliability ratios for the dust lead measurements, which were then used to correct estimated correlations between lead-contaminated dust and children's blood lead. Results. Reliability varied over methods and surface types (from 0.0 to 0.8), but wipe loading and the BRM vacuum loading methods generally had greater reliability. Technician effects, inadvertent field exposure to lead, contamination of collection equipment, and laboratory instrument error were found to contribute little to total measurement error. Corrected correlations between blood lead and wipe loading measurements were 7 to 104% higher than uncorrected correlations. The multiple R2 and partial R2 for a wipe composite measurement in a multivariate regression model increased from 0.43 to 0.64 and from 0.053 to 0.26, respectively, after correction for measurement error bias. Conclusions. Variation in lead deposition within small areas and variations in collection inherent to the devices are major contributors to measurement error. Measurement error causes dramatic underestimation of correlation between lead-contaminated house dust and children's blood lead.

    AB - Objective. Lead-contaminated house dust is a major contributor to lead intake among urban children, but the reliabilities of various dust lead measurement methods and their impact on the estimated correlations between dust lead and children's blood lead levels are unknown. Methods. Repeated field measurements of lead-contaminated dust from children's homes were taken from 16 housing units using five dust lead measurement methods. Estimates of measurement error were used to obtain reliability ratios for the dust lead measurements, which were then used to correct estimated correlations between lead-contaminated dust and children's blood lead. Results. Reliability varied over methods and surface types (from 0.0 to 0.8), but wipe loading and the BRM vacuum loading methods generally had greater reliability. Technician effects, inadvertent field exposure to lead, contamination of collection equipment, and laboratory instrument error were found to contribute little to total measurement error. Corrected correlations between blood lead and wipe loading measurements were 7 to 104% higher than uncorrected correlations. The multiple R2 and partial R2 for a wipe composite measurement in a multivariate regression model increased from 0.43 to 0.64 and from 0.053 to 0.26, respectively, after correction for measurement error bias. Conclusions. Variation in lead deposition within small areas and variations in collection inherent to the devices are major contributors to measurement error. Measurement error causes dramatic underestimation of correlation between lead-contaminated house dust and children's blood lead.

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0031035009&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0031035009&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1006/enrs.1996.3693

    DO - 10.1006/enrs.1996.3693

    M3 - Article

    VL - 72

    SP - 82

    EP - 92

    JO - Environmental Research

    JF - Environmental Research

    SN - 0013-9351

    IS - 1

    ER -