Lowering the radioactivity of the photomultiplier tubes for the XENON1T dark matter experiment

Collaboration XENON Collaboration, E. Aprile, F. Agostini, M. Alfonsi, L. Arazi, K. Arisaka, Francesco Arneodo, M. Auger, C. Balan, P. Barrow, L. Baudis, B. Bauermeister, A. Behrens, P. Beltrame, A. Brown, E. Brown, S. Bruenner, G. Bruno, R. Budnik, L. Bütikofer & 79 others J. M.R. Cardoso, D. Coderre, A. P. Colijn, H. Contreras, J. P. Cussonneau, M. P. Decowski, A. Di Giovanni, E. Duchovni, S. Fattori, A. D. Ferella, A. Fieguth, W. Fulgione, M. Galloway, M. Garbini, C. Geis, L. W. Goetzke, C. Grignon, E. Gross, W. Hampel, R. Itay, F. Kaether, G. Kessler, A. Kish, H. Landsman, R. F. Lang, M. Le Calloch, D. Lellouch, L. Levinson, C. Levy, S. Lindemann, M. Lindner, J. A.M. Lopes, A. Lyashenko, S. Macmullin, T. Marrodán Undagoitia, J. Masbou, F. V. Massoli, D. Mayani, A. J.Melgarejo Fernandez, Y. Meng, M. Messina, B. Miguez, A. Molinario, M. Murra, J. Naganoma, U. Oberlack, S. E.A. Orrigo, P. Pakarha, E. Pantic, R. Persiani, F. Piastra, J. Pienaar, G. Plante, N. Priel, L. Rauch, S. Reichard, C. Reuter, A. Rizzo, S. Rosendahl, J. M.F. dos Santos, G. Sartorelli, S. Schindler, J. Schreiner, M. Schumann, L. Scotto Lavina, M. Selvi, P. Shagin, H. Simgen, A. Teymourian, D. Thers, A. Tiseni, G. Trinchero, C. Tunnell, O. Vitells, R. Wall, H. Wang, M. Weber, C. Weinheimer, M. Laubenstein

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    The low-background, VUV-sensitive 3-inch diameter photomultiplier tube R11410 has been developed by Hamamatsu for dark matter direct detection experiments using liquid xenon as the target material. We present the results from the joint effort between the XENON collaboration and the Hamamatsu company to produce a highly radio-pure photosensor (version R11410-21) for the XENON1T dark matter experiment. After introducing the photosensor and its components, we show the methods and results of the radioactive contamination measurements of the individual materials employed in the photomultiplier production. We then discuss the adopted strategies to reduce the radioactivity of the various PMT versions. Finally, we detail the results from screening 286 tubes with ultra-low background germanium detectors, as well as their implications for the expected electronic and nuclear recoil background of the XENON1T experiment.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Article number546
    Pages (from-to)1-10
    Number of pages10
    JournalEuropean Physical Journal C
    Volume75
    Issue number11
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Nov 1 2015

    Fingerprint

    photosensors
    Photomultipliers
    Radioactivity
    photomultiplier tubes
    radioactivity
    dark matter
    xenon
    germanium
    contamination
    screening
    Experiments
    Xenon
    tubes
    Germanium
    detectors
    Screening
    Contamination
    liquids
    electronics
    Detectors

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Engineering (miscellaneous)
    • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

    Cite this

    XENON Collaboration, C., Aprile, E., Agostini, F., Alfonsi, M., Arazi, L., Arisaka, K., ... Laubenstein, M. (2015). Lowering the radioactivity of the photomultiplier tubes for the XENON1T dark matter experiment. European Physical Journal C, 75(11), 1-10. [546]. https://doi.org/10.1140/epjc/s10052-015-3657-5

    Lowering the radioactivity of the photomultiplier tubes for the XENON1T dark matter experiment. / XENON Collaboration, Collaboration; Aprile, E.; Agostini, F.; Alfonsi, M.; Arazi, L.; Arisaka, K.; Arneodo, Francesco; Auger, M.; Balan, C.; Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Bauermeister, B.; Behrens, A.; Beltrame, P.; Brown, A.; Brown, E.; Bruenner, S.; Bruno, G.; Budnik, R.; Bütikofer, L.; Cardoso, J. M.R.; Coderre, D.; Colijn, A. P.; Contreras, H.; Cussonneau, J. P.; Decowski, M. P.; Giovanni, A. Di; Duchovni, E.; Fattori, S.; Ferella, A. D.; Fieguth, A.; Fulgione, W.; Galloway, M.; Garbini, M.; Geis, C.; Goetzke, L. W.; Grignon, C.; Gross, E.; Hampel, W.; Itay, R.; Kaether, F.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Landsman, H.; Lang, R. F.; Calloch, M. Le; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Levy, C.; Lindemann, S.; Lindner, M.; Lopes, J. A.M.; Lyashenko, A.; Macmullin, S.; Undagoitia, T. Marrodán; Masbou, J.; Massoli, F. V.; Mayani, D.; Fernandez, A. J.Melgarejo; Meng, Y.; Messina, M.; Miguez, B.; Molinario, A.; Murra, M.; Naganoma, J.; Oberlack, U.; Orrigo, S. E.A.; Pakarha, P.; Pantic, E.; Persiani, R.; Piastra, F.; Pienaar, J.; Plante, G.; Priel, N.; Rauch, L.; Reichard, S.; Reuter, C.; Rizzo, A.; Rosendahl, S.; dos Santos, J. M.F.; Sartorelli, G.; Schindler, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schumann, M.; Lavina, L. Scotto; Selvi, M.; Shagin, P.; Simgen, H.; Teymourian, A.; Thers, D.; Tiseni, A.; Trinchero, G.; Tunnell, C.; Vitells, O.; Wall, R.; Wang, H.; Weber, M.; Weinheimer, C.; Laubenstein, M.

    In: European Physical Journal C, Vol. 75, No. 11, 546, 01.11.2015, p. 1-10.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    XENON Collaboration, C, Aprile, E, Agostini, F, Alfonsi, M, Arazi, L, Arisaka, K, Arneodo, F, Auger, M, Balan, C, Barrow, P, Baudis, L, Bauermeister, B, Behrens, A, Beltrame, P, Brown, A, Brown, E, Bruenner, S, Bruno, G, Budnik, R, Bütikofer, L, Cardoso, JMR, Coderre, D, Colijn, AP, Contreras, H, Cussonneau, JP, Decowski, MP, Giovanni, AD, Duchovni, E, Fattori, S, Ferella, AD, Fieguth, A, Fulgione, W, Galloway, M, Garbini, M, Geis, C, Goetzke, LW, Grignon, C, Gross, E, Hampel, W, Itay, R, Kaether, F, Kessler, G, Kish, A, Landsman, H, Lang, RF, Calloch, ML, Lellouch, D, Levinson, L, Levy, C, Lindemann, S, Lindner, M, Lopes, JAM, Lyashenko, A, Macmullin, S, Undagoitia, TM, Masbou, J, Massoli, FV, Mayani, D, Fernandez, AJM, Meng, Y, Messina, M, Miguez, B, Molinario, A, Murra, M, Naganoma, J, Oberlack, U, Orrigo, SEA, Pakarha, P, Pantic, E, Persiani, R, Piastra, F, Pienaar, J, Plante, G, Priel, N, Rauch, L, Reichard, S, Reuter, C, Rizzo, A, Rosendahl, S, dos Santos, JMF, Sartorelli, G, Schindler, S, Schreiner, J, Schumann, M, Lavina, LS, Selvi, M, Shagin, P, Simgen, H, Teymourian, A, Thers, D, Tiseni, A, Trinchero, G, Tunnell, C, Vitells, O, Wall, R, Wang, H, Weber, M, Weinheimer, C & Laubenstein, M 2015, 'Lowering the radioactivity of the photomultiplier tubes for the XENON1T dark matter experiment', European Physical Journal C, vol. 75, no. 11, 546, pp. 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1140/epjc/s10052-015-3657-5
    XENON Collaboration C, Aprile E, Agostini F, Alfonsi M, Arazi L, Arisaka K et al. Lowering the radioactivity of the photomultiplier tubes for the XENON1T dark matter experiment. European Physical Journal C. 2015 Nov 1;75(11):1-10. 546. https://doi.org/10.1140/epjc/s10052-015-3657-5
    XENON Collaboration, Collaboration ; Aprile, E. ; Agostini, F. ; Alfonsi, M. ; Arazi, L. ; Arisaka, K. ; Arneodo, Francesco ; Auger, M. ; Balan, C. ; Barrow, P. ; Baudis, L. ; Bauermeister, B. ; Behrens, A. ; Beltrame, P. ; Brown, A. ; Brown, E. ; Bruenner, S. ; Bruno, G. ; Budnik, R. ; Bütikofer, L. ; Cardoso, J. M.R. ; Coderre, D. ; Colijn, A. P. ; Contreras, H. ; Cussonneau, J. P. ; Decowski, M. P. ; Giovanni, A. Di ; Duchovni, E. ; Fattori, S. ; Ferella, A. D. ; Fieguth, A. ; Fulgione, W. ; Galloway, M. ; Garbini, M. ; Geis, C. ; Goetzke, L. W. ; Grignon, C. ; Gross, E. ; Hampel, W. ; Itay, R. ; Kaether, F. ; Kessler, G. ; Kish, A. ; Landsman, H. ; Lang, R. F. ; Calloch, M. Le ; Lellouch, D. ; Levinson, L. ; Levy, C. ; Lindemann, S. ; Lindner, M. ; Lopes, J. A.M. ; Lyashenko, A. ; Macmullin, S. ; Undagoitia, T. Marrodán ; Masbou, J. ; Massoli, F. V. ; Mayani, D. ; Fernandez, A. J.Melgarejo ; Meng, Y. ; Messina, M. ; Miguez, B. ; Molinario, A. ; Murra, M. ; Naganoma, J. ; Oberlack, U. ; Orrigo, S. E.A. ; Pakarha, P. ; Pantic, E. ; Persiani, R. ; Piastra, F. ; Pienaar, J. ; Plante, G. ; Priel, N. ; Rauch, L. ; Reichard, S. ; Reuter, C. ; Rizzo, A. ; Rosendahl, S. ; dos Santos, J. M.F. ; Sartorelli, G. ; Schindler, S. ; Schreiner, J. ; Schumann, M. ; Lavina, L. Scotto ; Selvi, M. ; Shagin, P. ; Simgen, H. ; Teymourian, A. ; Thers, D. ; Tiseni, A. ; Trinchero, G. ; Tunnell, C. ; Vitells, O. ; Wall, R. ; Wang, H. ; Weber, M. ; Weinheimer, C. ; Laubenstein, M. / Lowering the radioactivity of the photomultiplier tubes for the XENON1T dark matter experiment. In: European Physical Journal C. 2015 ; Vol. 75, No. 11. pp. 1-10.
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    abstract = "The low-background, VUV-sensitive 3-inch diameter photomultiplier tube R11410 has been developed by Hamamatsu for dark matter direct detection experiments using liquid xenon as the target material. We present the results from the joint effort between the XENON collaboration and the Hamamatsu company to produce a highly radio-pure photosensor (version R11410-21) for the XENON1T dark matter experiment. After introducing the photosensor and its components, we show the methods and results of the radioactive contamination measurements of the individual materials employed in the photomultiplier production. We then discuss the adopted strategies to reduce the radioactivity of the various PMT versions. Finally, we detail the results from screening 286 tubes with ultra-low background germanium detectors, as well as their implications for the expected electronic and nuclear recoil background of the XENON1T experiment.",
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    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Lowering the radioactivity of the photomultiplier tubes for the XENON1T dark matter experiment

    AU - XENON Collaboration, Collaboration

    AU - Aprile, E.

    AU - Agostini, F.

    AU - Alfonsi, M.

    AU - Arazi, L.

    AU - Arisaka, K.

    AU - Arneodo, Francesco

    AU - Auger, M.

    AU - Balan, C.

    AU - Barrow, P.

    AU - Baudis, L.

    AU - Bauermeister, B.

    AU - Behrens, A.

    AU - Beltrame, P.

    AU - Brown, A.

    AU - Brown, E.

    AU - Bruenner, S.

    AU - Bruno, G.

    AU - Budnik, R.

    AU - Bütikofer, L.

    AU - Cardoso, J. M.R.

    AU - Coderre, D.

    AU - Colijn, A. P.

    AU - Contreras, H.

    AU - Cussonneau, J. P.

    AU - Decowski, M. P.

    AU - Giovanni, A. Di

    AU - Duchovni, E.

    AU - Fattori, S.

    AU - Ferella, A. D.

    AU - Fieguth, A.

    AU - Fulgione, W.

    AU - Galloway, M.

    AU - Garbini, M.

    AU - Geis, C.

    AU - Goetzke, L. W.

    AU - Grignon, C.

    AU - Gross, E.

    AU - Hampel, W.

    AU - Itay, R.

    AU - Kaether, F.

    AU - Kessler, G.

    AU - Kish, A.

    AU - Landsman, H.

    AU - Lang, R. F.

    AU - Calloch, M. Le

    AU - Lellouch, D.

    AU - Levinson, L.

    AU - Levy, C.

    AU - Lindemann, S.

    AU - Lindner, M.

    AU - Lopes, J. A.M.

    AU - Lyashenko, A.

    AU - Macmullin, S.

    AU - Undagoitia, T. Marrodán

    AU - Masbou, J.

    AU - Massoli, F. V.

    AU - Mayani, D.

    AU - Fernandez, A. J.Melgarejo

    AU - Meng, Y.

    AU - Messina, M.

    AU - Miguez, B.

    AU - Molinario, A.

    AU - Murra, M.

    AU - Naganoma, J.

    AU - Oberlack, U.

    AU - Orrigo, S. E.A.

    AU - Pakarha, P.

    AU - Pantic, E.

    AU - Persiani, R.

    AU - Piastra, F.

    AU - Pienaar, J.

    AU - Plante, G.

    AU - Priel, N.

    AU - Rauch, L.

    AU - Reichard, S.

    AU - Reuter, C.

    AU - Rizzo, A.

    AU - Rosendahl, S.

    AU - dos Santos, J. M.F.

    AU - Sartorelli, G.

    AU - Schindler, S.

    AU - Schreiner, J.

    AU - Schumann, M.

    AU - Lavina, L. Scotto

    AU - Selvi, M.

    AU - Shagin, P.

    AU - Simgen, H.

    AU - Teymourian, A.

    AU - Thers, D.

    AU - Tiseni, A.

    AU - Trinchero, G.

    AU - Tunnell, C.

    AU - Vitells, O.

    AU - Wall, R.

    AU - Wang, H.

    AU - Weber, M.

    AU - Weinheimer, C.

    AU - Laubenstein, M.

    PY - 2015/11/1

    Y1 - 2015/11/1

    N2 - The low-background, VUV-sensitive 3-inch diameter photomultiplier tube R11410 has been developed by Hamamatsu for dark matter direct detection experiments using liquid xenon as the target material. We present the results from the joint effort between the XENON collaboration and the Hamamatsu company to produce a highly radio-pure photosensor (version R11410-21) for the XENON1T dark matter experiment. After introducing the photosensor and its components, we show the methods and results of the radioactive contamination measurements of the individual materials employed in the photomultiplier production. We then discuss the adopted strategies to reduce the radioactivity of the various PMT versions. Finally, we detail the results from screening 286 tubes with ultra-low background germanium detectors, as well as their implications for the expected electronic and nuclear recoil background of the XENON1T experiment.

    AB - The low-background, VUV-sensitive 3-inch diameter photomultiplier tube R11410 has been developed by Hamamatsu for dark matter direct detection experiments using liquid xenon as the target material. We present the results from the joint effort between the XENON collaboration and the Hamamatsu company to produce a highly radio-pure photosensor (version R11410-21) for the XENON1T dark matter experiment. After introducing the photosensor and its components, we show the methods and results of the radioactive contamination measurements of the individual materials employed in the photomultiplier production. We then discuss the adopted strategies to reduce the radioactivity of the various PMT versions. Finally, we detail the results from screening 286 tubes with ultra-low background germanium detectors, as well as their implications for the expected electronic and nuclear recoil background of the XENON1T experiment.

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