Learning about the magnetar Swift J1834.9-0846 from its wind nebula

Jonathan Granot, Ramandeep Gill, George Younes, Joseph (Yosi) Gelfand, Alice Harding, Chryssa Kouveliotou, Matthew G. Baring

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    The first wind nebula around a magnetar was recently discovered in X-rays around Swift J1834.9-0846. We study this magnetar's global energetics and the properties of its particle wind or outflows. At a distance of ~4 kpc, Swift J1834.9-0846 is located at the centre of the supernova remnant (SNR) W41 whose radius is ~19 pc, an order of magnitude larger than that of the X-ray nebula (~2 pc). The association with SNR W41 suggests a common age of ~5-100 kyr, while its spin-down age is 4.9 kyr. A small natal kick velocity may partly explain why a wind nebula was detected around this magnetar but not around other magnetars, most of which appear to have larger kick velocities and may have exited their birth SNR. We find that the GeV and TeV source detected by Fermi/Large Area Telescope (LAT) and High Energy Spectroscopic System (H.E.S.S.), respectively, of radius ~11 pc is most likely of hadronic origin. The dynamics and internal structure of the nebula are examined analytically to explain the nebula's current properties. Its size may naturally correspond to the diffusiondominated cooling length of the X-ray emitting e+e- pairs. This may also account for the spectral softening of the X-ray emission from the nebula's inner to outer parts. The analysis of the X-ray synchrotron nebula implies that (i) the nebular magnetic field is ≳11 μG (and likely ≲30 μG), and (ii) the nebula is not powered predominantly by the magnetar's quiescent spin-down-powered MHD wind, but by other outflows that contribute most of its energy. The latter are most likely associated with the magnetar's bursting activity, and possibly dominated by outflows associated with its past giant flares. The energy source for the required outflows cannot be the decay of the magnetar's dipole field alone, and is most likely the decay of its much stronger internal magnetic field.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)4895-4926
    Number of pages32
    JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
    Volume464
    Issue number4
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

    Fingerprint

    magnetars
    nebulae
    learning
    outflow
    supernova remnants
    magnetic field
    x rays
    softening
    energy
    energetics
    radii
    cooling
    decay
    energy sources
    magnetic fields
    flares
    synchrotrons
    telescopes
    dipoles

    Keywords

    • Diffusion
    • Hydrodynamics
    • ISM: supernova remnants
    • Magnetic fields
    • Outflows
    • Stars: magnetars
    • Stars: winds

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Astronomy and Astrophysics
    • Space and Planetary Science

    Cite this

    Granot, J., Gill, R., Younes, G., Gelfand, J. Y., Harding, A., Kouveliotou, C., & Baring, M. G. (2017). Learning about the magnetar Swift J1834.9-0846 from its wind nebula. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 464(4), 4895-4926. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stw2554

    Learning about the magnetar Swift J1834.9-0846 from its wind nebula. / Granot, Jonathan; Gill, Ramandeep; Younes, George; Gelfand, Joseph (Yosi); Harding, Alice; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Baring, Matthew G.

    In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 464, No. 4, 01.01.2017, p. 4895-4926.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Granot, J, Gill, R, Younes, G, Gelfand, JY, Harding, A, Kouveliotou, C & Baring, MG 2017, 'Learning about the magnetar Swift J1834.9-0846 from its wind nebula', Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 464, no. 4, pp. 4895-4926. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stw2554
    Granot J, Gill R, Younes G, Gelfand JY, Harding A, Kouveliotou C et al. Learning about the magnetar Swift J1834.9-0846 from its wind nebula. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2017 Jan 1;464(4):4895-4926. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stw2554
    Granot, Jonathan ; Gill, Ramandeep ; Younes, George ; Gelfand, Joseph (Yosi) ; Harding, Alice ; Kouveliotou, Chryssa ; Baring, Matthew G. / Learning about the magnetar Swift J1834.9-0846 from its wind nebula. In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2017 ; Vol. 464, No. 4. pp. 4895-4926.
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