Learned fear of "unseen" faces after pavlovian, observational, and instructed fear

Andreas Olsson, Elizabeth Phelps

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

This study compared fear learning acquired through direct experience (Pavlovian conditioning) and fear learning acquired without direct experience via either observation or verbal instruction. We examined whether these three types of learning yielded differential responses to conditioned stimuli (CS+) that were presented unmasked (available to explicit awareness) or masked (not available to explicit awareness). In the Pavlovian group, the CS+ was paired with a mild shock, whereas the observational-learning group learned through observing the emotional expression of a confederate receiving shocks paired with the CS+ . The instructed-learning group was told that the CS+ predicted a shock. The three groups demonstrated similar levels of learning as measured by the skin conductance response to unmasked stimuli. As in previous studies, participants also displayed a significant learning response to masked stimuli following Pavlovian conditioning. However, whereas the observational-learning group also showed this effect, the instructed-learning group did not.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)822-828
Number of pages7
JournalPsychological Science
Volume15
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2004

Fingerprint

Fear
Learning
Shock
Observation
Skin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)

Cite this

Learned fear of "unseen" faces after pavlovian, observational, and instructed fear. / Olsson, Andreas; Phelps, Elizabeth.

In: Psychological Science, Vol. 15, No. 12, 12.2004, p. 822-828.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{aee0657e52d64a889661fd831b374b08,
title = "Learned fear of {"}unseen{"} faces after pavlovian, observational, and instructed fear",
abstract = "This study compared fear learning acquired through direct experience (Pavlovian conditioning) and fear learning acquired without direct experience via either observation or verbal instruction. We examined whether these three types of learning yielded differential responses to conditioned stimuli (CS+) that were presented unmasked (available to explicit awareness) or masked (not available to explicit awareness). In the Pavlovian group, the CS+ was paired with a mild shock, whereas the observational-learning group learned through observing the emotional expression of a confederate receiving shocks paired with the CS+ . The instructed-learning group was told that the CS+ predicted a shock. The three groups demonstrated similar levels of learning as measured by the skin conductance response to unmasked stimuli. As in previous studies, participants also displayed a significant learning response to masked stimuli following Pavlovian conditioning. However, whereas the observational-learning group also showed this effect, the instructed-learning group did not.",
author = "Andreas Olsson and Elizabeth Phelps",
year = "2004",
month = "12",
doi = "10.1111/j.0956-7976.2004.00762.x",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "15",
pages = "822--828",
journal = "Psychological Science",
issn = "0956-7976",
publisher = "SAGE Publications Inc.",
number = "12",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Learned fear of "unseen" faces after pavlovian, observational, and instructed fear

AU - Olsson, Andreas

AU - Phelps, Elizabeth

PY - 2004/12

Y1 - 2004/12

N2 - This study compared fear learning acquired through direct experience (Pavlovian conditioning) and fear learning acquired without direct experience via either observation or verbal instruction. We examined whether these three types of learning yielded differential responses to conditioned stimuli (CS+) that were presented unmasked (available to explicit awareness) or masked (not available to explicit awareness). In the Pavlovian group, the CS+ was paired with a mild shock, whereas the observational-learning group learned through observing the emotional expression of a confederate receiving shocks paired with the CS+ . The instructed-learning group was told that the CS+ predicted a shock. The three groups demonstrated similar levels of learning as measured by the skin conductance response to unmasked stimuli. As in previous studies, participants also displayed a significant learning response to masked stimuli following Pavlovian conditioning. However, whereas the observational-learning group also showed this effect, the instructed-learning group did not.

AB - This study compared fear learning acquired through direct experience (Pavlovian conditioning) and fear learning acquired without direct experience via either observation or verbal instruction. We examined whether these three types of learning yielded differential responses to conditioned stimuli (CS+) that were presented unmasked (available to explicit awareness) or masked (not available to explicit awareness). In the Pavlovian group, the CS+ was paired with a mild shock, whereas the observational-learning group learned through observing the emotional expression of a confederate receiving shocks paired with the CS+ . The instructed-learning group was told that the CS+ predicted a shock. The three groups demonstrated similar levels of learning as measured by the skin conductance response to unmasked stimuli. As in previous studies, participants also displayed a significant learning response to masked stimuli following Pavlovian conditioning. However, whereas the observational-learning group also showed this effect, the instructed-learning group did not.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=10844227488&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=10844227488&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/j.0956-7976.2004.00762.x

DO - 10.1111/j.0956-7976.2004.00762.x

M3 - Article

C2 - 15563327

AN - SCOPUS:10844227488

VL - 15

SP - 822

EP - 828

JO - Psychological Science

JF - Psychological Science

SN - 0956-7976

IS - 12

ER -