Isolation of sea squirt (Ciona) gametes, fertilization, dechorionation, and development

Lionel Christiaen, Eileen Wagner, Weiyang Shi, Michael Levine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


This protocol is the starting point for most manipulations that are used to study the sea squirt (Ciona) embryo, including in situ hybridization, the microinjection of morpholino oligos, and the electroporation of transgenic DNAs. Ciona eggs and embryos are exquisitely sensitive to even trate amounts of detergent; therefore, it is strongly advised to designate a soap-free workspace for embryo culture. Any solutions that come into contact with embryos should be prepared in absolutely clean glassware with the highest quality water.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalCold Spring Harbor Protocols
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 22 2009


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

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