Is gender inequality greater at lower or higher educational levels? Common patterns in the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States

Marie Evertsson, Paula England, Irma Mooi-Reci, Joan Hermsen, Jeanne De Bruijn, David Cotter

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    We compare how gender inequality varies by educational level in the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States, representing three different welfare regimes: the conservative, the social democratic, and the liberal. With few exceptions, gender inequality in labor force participation, work hours, occupational segregation, and housework are less severe as education goes up in all three countries, with the root cause being the high employment levels of well-educated women. Despite a common pattern across nations, we note that the educational gradient on gender equality in employment is weaker in Sweden. De-familialization policies in Sweden no doubt increase gender equality at the bottom by pulling less-educated women into the work force. One form of gender equality, wages, however, does not increase with education. In the United States, educational differences in the gender gap in wages are trivial; in Sweden and the Netherlands, the gender wage gap is greatest for the highly educated because of higher returns to education for men than women in these nations.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)210-241
    Number of pages32
    JournalSocial Politics
    Volume16
    Issue number2
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Apr 2009

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    Sweden
    Netherlands
    gender
    equality
    wage
    education
    housework
    work force
    labor force participation
    segregation
    welfare
    cause

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Gender Studies
    • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

    Cite this

    Is gender inequality greater at lower or higher educational levels? Common patterns in the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States. / Evertsson, Marie; England, Paula; Mooi-Reci, Irma; Hermsen, Joan; De Bruijn, Jeanne; Cotter, David.

    In: Social Politics, Vol. 16, No. 2, 04.2009, p. 210-241.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Evertsson, Marie ; England, Paula ; Mooi-Reci, Irma ; Hermsen, Joan ; De Bruijn, Jeanne ; Cotter, David. / Is gender inequality greater at lower or higher educational levels? Common patterns in the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States. In: Social Politics. 2009 ; Vol. 16, No. 2. pp. 210-241.
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