Induction with cross-classified categories

Gregory Murphy, Brian H. Ross

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

One of the main functions of categories is to allow inferences about new objects. However, most objects are cross-classified, and it is not known whether and how people combine information from these different categories in making inferences. In six experiments, food categories, which are strongly crossclassified (e.g., a bagel is both a bread and a breakfast food), were studied. For each food, the subjects were told fictitious facts (e.g., 75% of breads are subject to spoilage from Aspergillus molds) about two of the categories to which it belonged and then were asked to make an inference about the food (e.g., how likely is a bagel to be subject to spoilage from Aspergillus molds?). We found no more use of multiple categories in these cases of cross-classification than in ambiguous classification, in which it is uncertain to which category an item belongs. However, some procedural manipulations did markedly increase the use of both categories in inferences, primarily those that focused the subjects' attention on the critical feature in both categories.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1024-1041
Number of pages18
JournalMemory & Cognition
Volume27
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1999

Fingerprint

Food
Bread
Aspergillus
Fungi
Breakfast
Induction
Inference

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

Cite this

Murphy, G., & Ross, B. H. (1999). Induction with cross-classified categories. Memory & Cognition, 27(6), 1024-1041.

Induction with cross-classified categories. / Murphy, Gregory; Ross, Brian H.

In: Memory & Cognition, Vol. 27, No. 6, 11.1999, p. 1024-1041.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Murphy, G & Ross, BH 1999, 'Induction with cross-classified categories', Memory & Cognition, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 1024-1041.
Murphy G, Ross BH. Induction with cross-classified categories. Memory & Cognition. 1999 Nov;27(6):1024-1041.
Murphy, Gregory ; Ross, Brian H. / Induction with cross-classified categories. In: Memory & Cognition. 1999 ; Vol. 27, No. 6. pp. 1024-1041.
@article{a4eb4050f17242ed923c2fd2b9443f30,
title = "Induction with cross-classified categories",
abstract = "One of the main functions of categories is to allow inferences about new objects. However, most objects are cross-classified, and it is not known whether and how people combine information from these different categories in making inferences. In six experiments, food categories, which are strongly crossclassified (e.g., a bagel is both a bread and a breakfast food), were studied. For each food, the subjects were told fictitious facts (e.g., 75{\%} of breads are subject to spoilage from Aspergillus molds) about two of the categories to which it belonged and then were asked to make an inference about the food (e.g., how likely is a bagel to be subject to spoilage from Aspergillus molds?). We found no more use of multiple categories in these cases of cross-classification than in ambiguous classification, in which it is uncertain to which category an item belongs. However, some procedural manipulations did markedly increase the use of both categories in inferences, primarily those that focused the subjects' attention on the critical feature in both categories.",
author = "Gregory Murphy and Ross, {Brian H.}",
year = "1999",
month = "11",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "27",
pages = "1024--1041",
journal = "Memory and Cognition",
issn = "0090-502X",
publisher = "Springer New York",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Induction with cross-classified categories

AU - Murphy, Gregory

AU - Ross, Brian H.

PY - 1999/11

Y1 - 1999/11

N2 - One of the main functions of categories is to allow inferences about new objects. However, most objects are cross-classified, and it is not known whether and how people combine information from these different categories in making inferences. In six experiments, food categories, which are strongly crossclassified (e.g., a bagel is both a bread and a breakfast food), were studied. For each food, the subjects were told fictitious facts (e.g., 75% of breads are subject to spoilage from Aspergillus molds) about two of the categories to which it belonged and then were asked to make an inference about the food (e.g., how likely is a bagel to be subject to spoilage from Aspergillus molds?). We found no more use of multiple categories in these cases of cross-classification than in ambiguous classification, in which it is uncertain to which category an item belongs. However, some procedural manipulations did markedly increase the use of both categories in inferences, primarily those that focused the subjects' attention on the critical feature in both categories.

AB - One of the main functions of categories is to allow inferences about new objects. However, most objects are cross-classified, and it is not known whether and how people combine information from these different categories in making inferences. In six experiments, food categories, which are strongly crossclassified (e.g., a bagel is both a bread and a breakfast food), were studied. For each food, the subjects were told fictitious facts (e.g., 75% of breads are subject to spoilage from Aspergillus molds) about two of the categories to which it belonged and then were asked to make an inference about the food (e.g., how likely is a bagel to be subject to spoilage from Aspergillus molds?). We found no more use of multiple categories in these cases of cross-classification than in ambiguous classification, in which it is uncertain to which category an item belongs. However, some procedural manipulations did markedly increase the use of both categories in inferences, primarily those that focused the subjects' attention on the critical feature in both categories.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0032719602&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0032719602&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 27

SP - 1024

EP - 1041

JO - Memory and Cognition

JF - Memory and Cognition

SN - 0090-502X

IS - 6

ER -