Income disparities in body mass index and obesity in the United States, 1971-2002

Virginia W. Chang, Diane S. Lauderdale

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Although obesity is frequently associated with poverty, recent increases in obesity may not occur disproportionately among the poor. Furthermore, the relationship between income and weight status may be changing with time. Methods: We use nationally representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1971-2002) to examine (1) income differentials in body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) and (2) change over time in the prevalence of obesity (body mass index, ≥30) at different levels of income. Results: Over the course of 3 decades, obesity has increased at all levels of income. Moreover, it is typically not the poor who have experienced the largest gains. For example, among black women, the absolute increase in obesity is 27.0% (1.05% per year) for those at middle incomes, but only 14.5% (0.54% per year) for the poor. Among black men, the increase in obesity is 21.1% (0.77% per year) for those at the highest level of income, but only 4.5% (0.06% per year) for the near poor and 5.4% (0.50% per year) for the poor. Furthermore, all race-sex groups show income differentials on body mass index, but patterns show substantial variation between groups and consistency and change within groups over time. For example, white women consistently show a strong inverse gradient, while a positive gradient emerges in later waves for black and Mexican American men. Conclusion: The persistence and emergence of income gradients suggests that disparities in weight status are only partially attributable to poverty and that efforts aimed at reducing disparities need to consider a much broader array of contributing factors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2122-2128
Number of pages7
JournalArchives of Internal Medicine
Volume165
Issue number18
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 10 2005

Fingerprint

Body Mass Index
Obesity
Poverty
Weights and Measures
Nutrition Surveys

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine

Cite this

Income disparities in body mass index and obesity in the United States, 1971-2002. / Chang, Virginia W.; Lauderdale, Diane S.

In: Archives of Internal Medicine, Vol. 165, No. 18, 10.10.2005, p. 2122-2128.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chang, Virginia W. ; Lauderdale, Diane S. / Income disparities in body mass index and obesity in the United States, 1971-2002. In: Archives of Internal Medicine. 2005 ; Vol. 165, No. 18. pp. 2122-2128.
@article{8fc4bf41caea4963a599aeffad4eac56,
title = "Income disparities in body mass index and obesity in the United States, 1971-2002",
abstract = "Background: Although obesity is frequently associated with poverty, recent increases in obesity may not occur disproportionately among the poor. Furthermore, the relationship between income and weight status may be changing with time. Methods: We use nationally representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1971-2002) to examine (1) income differentials in body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) and (2) change over time in the prevalence of obesity (body mass index, ≥30) at different levels of income. Results: Over the course of 3 decades, obesity has increased at all levels of income. Moreover, it is typically not the poor who have experienced the largest gains. For example, among black women, the absolute increase in obesity is 27.0{\%} (1.05{\%} per year) for those at middle incomes, but only 14.5{\%} (0.54{\%} per year) for the poor. Among black men, the increase in obesity is 21.1{\%} (0.77{\%} per year) for those at the highest level of income, but only 4.5{\%} (0.06{\%} per year) for the near poor and 5.4{\%} (0.50{\%} per year) for the poor. Furthermore, all race-sex groups show income differentials on body mass index, but patterns show substantial variation between groups and consistency and change within groups over time. For example, white women consistently show a strong inverse gradient, while a positive gradient emerges in later waves for black and Mexican American men. Conclusion: The persistence and emergence of income gradients suggests that disparities in weight status are only partially attributable to poverty and that efforts aimed at reducing disparities need to consider a much broader array of contributing factors.",
author = "Chang, {Virginia W.} and Lauderdale, {Diane S.}",
year = "2005",
month = "10",
day = "10",
doi = "10.1001/archinte.165.18.2122",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "165",
pages = "2122--2128",
journal = "JAMA Internal Medicine",
issn = "2168-6106",
publisher = "American Medical Association",
number = "18",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Income disparities in body mass index and obesity in the United States, 1971-2002

AU - Chang, Virginia W.

AU - Lauderdale, Diane S.

PY - 2005/10/10

Y1 - 2005/10/10

N2 - Background: Although obesity is frequently associated with poverty, recent increases in obesity may not occur disproportionately among the poor. Furthermore, the relationship between income and weight status may be changing with time. Methods: We use nationally representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1971-2002) to examine (1) income differentials in body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) and (2) change over time in the prevalence of obesity (body mass index, ≥30) at different levels of income. Results: Over the course of 3 decades, obesity has increased at all levels of income. Moreover, it is typically not the poor who have experienced the largest gains. For example, among black women, the absolute increase in obesity is 27.0% (1.05% per year) for those at middle incomes, but only 14.5% (0.54% per year) for the poor. Among black men, the increase in obesity is 21.1% (0.77% per year) for those at the highest level of income, but only 4.5% (0.06% per year) for the near poor and 5.4% (0.50% per year) for the poor. Furthermore, all race-sex groups show income differentials on body mass index, but patterns show substantial variation between groups and consistency and change within groups over time. For example, white women consistently show a strong inverse gradient, while a positive gradient emerges in later waves for black and Mexican American men. Conclusion: The persistence and emergence of income gradients suggests that disparities in weight status are only partially attributable to poverty and that efforts aimed at reducing disparities need to consider a much broader array of contributing factors.

AB - Background: Although obesity is frequently associated with poverty, recent increases in obesity may not occur disproportionately among the poor. Furthermore, the relationship between income and weight status may be changing with time. Methods: We use nationally representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1971-2002) to examine (1) income differentials in body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) and (2) change over time in the prevalence of obesity (body mass index, ≥30) at different levels of income. Results: Over the course of 3 decades, obesity has increased at all levels of income. Moreover, it is typically not the poor who have experienced the largest gains. For example, among black women, the absolute increase in obesity is 27.0% (1.05% per year) for those at middle incomes, but only 14.5% (0.54% per year) for the poor. Among black men, the increase in obesity is 21.1% (0.77% per year) for those at the highest level of income, but only 4.5% (0.06% per year) for the near poor and 5.4% (0.50% per year) for the poor. Furthermore, all race-sex groups show income differentials on body mass index, but patterns show substantial variation between groups and consistency and change within groups over time. For example, white women consistently show a strong inverse gradient, while a positive gradient emerges in later waves for black and Mexican American men. Conclusion: The persistence and emergence of income gradients suggests that disparities in weight status are only partially attributable to poverty and that efforts aimed at reducing disparities need to consider a much broader array of contributing factors.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=26444433310&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=26444433310&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1001/archinte.165.18.2122

DO - 10.1001/archinte.165.18.2122

M3 - Article

C2 - 16217002

AN - SCOPUS:26444433310

VL - 165

SP - 2122

EP - 2128

JO - JAMA Internal Medicine

JF - JAMA Internal Medicine

SN - 2168-6106

IS - 18

ER -