Incentivizing Wellness in the Workplace: Sticks (Not Carrots) Send Stigmatizing Signals

David Tannenbaum, Chad J. Valasek, Eric D. Knowles, Peter H. Ditto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Companies often provide incentives for employees to maintain healthy lifestyles. These incentives can take the form of either discounted premiums for healthy-weight employees ("carrot" policies) or increased premiums for overweight employees ("stick" policies). In the three studies reported here, we demonstrated that even when stick and carrot policies are formally equivalent, they do not necessarily convey the same information to employees. Stick but not carrot policies were viewed as reflecting negative company attitudes toward overweight employees (Study 1a) and were evaluated especially negatively by overweight participants (Study 1b). This was true even when overweight employees paid less money under the stick than under the carrot policy. When acting as policymakers (Study 2), participants with high levels of implicit overweight bias were especially likely to choose stick policies-often on the grounds that such policies were cost-effective-even when doing so was more costly to the company. Policymakers should realize that the framing of incentive programs can convey tacit, and sometimes stigmatizing, messages.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1512-1522
Number of pages11
JournalPsychological Science
Volume24
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2013

Fingerprint

Daucus carota
Workplace
Motivation
Work Place
Wellness
Employees
Weights and Measures
Costs and Cost Analysis
Incentives

Keywords

  • attitudes
  • inference
  • meaning
  • policymaking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)

Cite this

Incentivizing Wellness in the Workplace : Sticks (Not Carrots) Send Stigmatizing Signals. / Tannenbaum, David; Valasek, Chad J.; Knowles, Eric D.; Ditto, Peter H.

In: Psychological Science, Vol. 24, No. 8, 08.2013, p. 1512-1522.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tannenbaum, David ; Valasek, Chad J. ; Knowles, Eric D. ; Ditto, Peter H. / Incentivizing Wellness in the Workplace : Sticks (Not Carrots) Send Stigmatizing Signals. In: Psychological Science. 2013 ; Vol. 24, No. 8. pp. 1512-1522.
@article{87339435383f49cf8554e4abeab4b1b1,
title = "Incentivizing Wellness in the Workplace: Sticks (Not Carrots) Send Stigmatizing Signals",
abstract = "Companies often provide incentives for employees to maintain healthy lifestyles. These incentives can take the form of either discounted premiums for healthy-weight employees ({"}carrot{"} policies) or increased premiums for overweight employees ({"}stick{"} policies). In the three studies reported here, we demonstrated that even when stick and carrot policies are formally equivalent, they do not necessarily convey the same information to employees. Stick but not carrot policies were viewed as reflecting negative company attitudes toward overweight employees (Study 1a) and were evaluated especially negatively by overweight participants (Study 1b). This was true even when overweight employees paid less money under the stick than under the carrot policy. When acting as policymakers (Study 2), participants with high levels of implicit overweight bias were especially likely to choose stick policies-often on the grounds that such policies were cost-effective-even when doing so was more costly to the company. Policymakers should realize that the framing of incentive programs can convey tacit, and sometimes stigmatizing, messages.",
keywords = "attitudes, inference, meaning, policymaking",
author = "David Tannenbaum and Valasek, {Chad J.} and Knowles, {Eric D.} and Ditto, {Peter H.}",
year = "2013",
month = "8",
doi = "10.1177/0956797612474471",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "24",
pages = "1512--1522",
journal = "Psychological Science",
issn = "0956-7976",
publisher = "SAGE Publications Inc.",
number = "8",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Incentivizing Wellness in the Workplace

T2 - Sticks (Not Carrots) Send Stigmatizing Signals

AU - Tannenbaum, David

AU - Valasek, Chad J.

AU - Knowles, Eric D.

AU - Ditto, Peter H.

PY - 2013/8

Y1 - 2013/8

N2 - Companies often provide incentives for employees to maintain healthy lifestyles. These incentives can take the form of either discounted premiums for healthy-weight employees ("carrot" policies) or increased premiums for overweight employees ("stick" policies). In the three studies reported here, we demonstrated that even when stick and carrot policies are formally equivalent, they do not necessarily convey the same information to employees. Stick but not carrot policies were viewed as reflecting negative company attitudes toward overweight employees (Study 1a) and were evaluated especially negatively by overweight participants (Study 1b). This was true even when overweight employees paid less money under the stick than under the carrot policy. When acting as policymakers (Study 2), participants with high levels of implicit overweight bias were especially likely to choose stick policies-often on the grounds that such policies were cost-effective-even when doing so was more costly to the company. Policymakers should realize that the framing of incentive programs can convey tacit, and sometimes stigmatizing, messages.

AB - Companies often provide incentives for employees to maintain healthy lifestyles. These incentives can take the form of either discounted premiums for healthy-weight employees ("carrot" policies) or increased premiums for overweight employees ("stick" policies). In the three studies reported here, we demonstrated that even when stick and carrot policies are formally equivalent, they do not necessarily convey the same information to employees. Stick but not carrot policies were viewed as reflecting negative company attitudes toward overweight employees (Study 1a) and were evaluated especially negatively by overweight participants (Study 1b). This was true even when overweight employees paid less money under the stick than under the carrot policy. When acting as policymakers (Study 2), participants with high levels of implicit overweight bias were especially likely to choose stick policies-often on the grounds that such policies were cost-effective-even when doing so was more costly to the company. Policymakers should realize that the framing of incentive programs can convey tacit, and sometimes stigmatizing, messages.

KW - attitudes

KW - inference

KW - meaning

KW - policymaking

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84881229902&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84881229902&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1177/0956797612474471

DO - 10.1177/0956797612474471

M3 - Article

VL - 24

SP - 1512

EP - 1522

JO - Psychological Science

JF - Psychological Science

SN - 0956-7976

IS - 8

ER -