Inadequate sleep as a risk factor for obesity

Analyses of the NHANES I

James E. Gangwisch, Dolores Malaspina, Bernadette Boden-Albala, Steven B. Heymsfield

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Study Objectives: Sleep deprivation has been hypothesized to contribute toward obesity by decreasing leptin, increasing ghrelin, and compromising insulin sensitivity. This study examines cross-sectional and longitudinal data from a large United States sample to determine whether sleep duration is associated with obesity and weight gain. Design: Longitudinal analyses of the 1982-1984,1987, and 1992 NHANES I Followup Studies and cross-sectional analysis of the 1982-1984 study. Setting: Probability sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States. Participants: Sample sizes of 9,588 for the cross-sectional analyses, 8,073 for the 1987, and 6,981 for the 1992 longitudinal analyses. Measurements and Results: Measured weight in 1982-1984 and self-reported weights in 1987 and 1992. Subjects between the ages of 32 and 49 years with self-reported sleep durations at baseline less than 7 hours had higher average body mass indexes and were more likely to be obese than subjects with sleep durations of 7 hours. Sleep durations over 7 hours were not consistently associated with either an increased or decreased likelihood of obesity in the cross-sectional and longitudinal results. Each additional hour of sleep at baseline was negatively associated with change in body mass index over the follow-up period, but this association was small and statistically insignificant. Conclusions: These findings support the hypothesis that sleep duration is associated with obesity in a large longitudinally monitored United States sample. These observations support earlier experimental sleep studies and provide a basis for future studies on weight control interventions that increase the quantity and quality of sleep.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1289-1296
Number of pages8
JournalSleep
Volume28
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2005

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Nutrition Surveys
Statistical Factor Analysis
Sleep
Obesity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Weights and Measures
Body Mass Index
Sampling Studies
Ghrelin
Sleep Deprivation
Leptin
Sample Size
Weight Gain
Insulin Resistance

Keywords

  • Insulin resistance
  • Obesity
  • Sleep

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology

Cite this

Gangwisch, J. E., Malaspina, D., Boden-Albala, B., & Heymsfield, S. B. (2005). Inadequate sleep as a risk factor for obesity: Analyses of the NHANES I. Sleep, 28(10), 1289-1296.

Inadequate sleep as a risk factor for obesity : Analyses of the NHANES I. / Gangwisch, James E.; Malaspina, Dolores; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Heymsfield, Steven B.

In: Sleep, Vol. 28, No. 10, 01.10.2005, p. 1289-1296.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gangwisch, JE, Malaspina, D, Boden-Albala, B & Heymsfield, SB 2005, 'Inadequate sleep as a risk factor for obesity: Analyses of the NHANES I', Sleep, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 1289-1296.
Gangwisch JE, Malaspina D, Boden-Albala B, Heymsfield SB. Inadequate sleep as a risk factor for obesity: Analyses of the NHANES I. Sleep. 2005 Oct 1;28(10):1289-1296.
Gangwisch, James E. ; Malaspina, Dolores ; Boden-Albala, Bernadette ; Heymsfield, Steven B. / Inadequate sleep as a risk factor for obesity : Analyses of the NHANES I. In: Sleep. 2005 ; Vol. 28, No. 10. pp. 1289-1296.
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