Purpose: To test if improving optical coherence tomography (OCT) resolution and scanning speed improves the visualization of glaucomatous structural changes as compared with conventional OCT. Design: Prospective observational case series. Participants: Healthy and glaucomatous subjects in various stages of disease. Methods: Subjects were scanned at a single visit with commercially available OCT (StratusOCT) and high-speed ultrahigh-resolution (hsUHR) OCT. The prototype hsUHR OCT had an axial resolution of 3.4 μm (3 times higher than StratusOCT), with an A-scan rate of 24 000 hertz (60 times faster than StratusOCT). The fast scanning rate allowed the acquisition of novel scanning patterns such as raster scanning, which provided dense coverage of the retina and optic nerve head. Main Outcome Measures: Discrimination of retinal tissue layers and detailed visualization of retinal structures. Results: High-speed UHR OCT provided a marked improvement in tissue visualization as compared with StratusOCT. This allowed the identification of numerous retinal layers, including the ganglion cell layer, which is specifically prone to glaucomatous damage. Fast scanning and the enhanced A-scan registration properties of hsUHR OCT provided maps of the macula and optic nerve head with unprecedented detail, including en face OCT fundus images and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness maps. Conclusion: High-speed UHR OCT improves visualization of the tissues relevant to the detection and management of glaucoma.
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