Impact of drugs and alcohol on the brain through the life cycle: Knowledge for social workers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

This article discusses the impact of alcohol and other drugs on the brain during five stages of the life cycle: perinatal (pregnancy-2 years), childhood (2-12 years), adolescence (13-21), adulthood (22-50), and senior (50+). Alcohol and psychotropic drugs act through specific chemicals in the brain called neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters have two main functions in the brain: mediate electrical transmission (synaptic activity) and promote growth (trophic activity). The trophic activity results in a neuron increasing its size and the complexity of its branches (dendrites). The ability of drugs and alcohol to influence neuronal growth (neuroplasticity) has unique consequences in children, adults, and seniors. Knowledge of such biological principles as developmental critical period, age-related cortical shrinkage and steroid-induced neuronal growth is presented in the context of alcohol and other drug abuse. A few suggestions are made for developing new treatment strategies based on the inherent dynamics of the brain during the life cycle.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)41-63
Number of pages23
JournalJournal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions
Volume1
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2001

Fingerprint

Life Cycle Stages
life cycle
social worker
brain
alcohol
Alcohols
drug
Brain
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Neurotransmitter Agents
Growth
psychotropic drugs
Neuronal Plasticity
Aptitude
Psychotropic Drugs
drug abuse
Dendrites
Synaptic Transmission
adulthood
adolescence

Keywords

  • Adolescence
  • Alcohol
  • Children
  • Cocaine
  • Fetus
  • Neuroplasticity
  • Risk
  • Self-medication

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Rehabilitation

Cite this

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abstract = "This article discusses the impact of alcohol and other drugs on the brain during five stages of the life cycle: perinatal (pregnancy-2 years), childhood (2-12 years), adolescence (13-21), adulthood (22-50), and senior (50+). Alcohol and psychotropic drugs act through specific chemicals in the brain called neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters have two main functions in the brain: mediate electrical transmission (synaptic activity) and promote growth (trophic activity). The trophic activity results in a neuron increasing its size and the complexity of its branches (dendrites). The ability of drugs and alcohol to influence neuronal growth (neuroplasticity) has unique consequences in children, adults, and seniors. Knowledge of such biological principles as developmental critical period, age-related cortical shrinkage and steroid-induced neuronal growth is presented in the context of alcohol and other drug abuse. A few suggestions are made for developing new treatment strategies based on the inherent dynamics of the brain during the life cycle.",
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