Image-based measurement of post-swallow residue: The normalized residue ratio scale

William G. Pearson, Sonja M. Molfenter, Zachary M. Smith, Catriona M. Steele

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Post-swallow residue is considered a sign of swallowing impairment. Existing methods for capturing post-swallow residue (perceptual and quantitative) have inherent limitations. We employed several different perceptual and quantitative (ratio) methods for measuring post-swallow residue on the same 40 swallows and addressed the following questions: (1) Do perceptual and quantitative methods demonstrate good agreement? (2) What differences in precision are apparent by measurement method (one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and circumscribed area ratios)? (3) Do residue ratios agree strongly with residue area measures that are anatomically normalized? Based on the findings of this series of questions, a new method for capturing residue is proposed: the Normalized Residue Ratio Scale (NRRS). The NRRS is a continuous measurement that incorporates both the ratio of residue relative to the available pharyngeal space and the residue proportionate to the size of the individual. A demonstration of this method is presented to illustrate the added precision of the NRRS measurement in comparison to other approaches for measuring residue severity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)167-177
Number of pages11
JournalDysphagia
Volume28
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2013

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Keywords

  • Deglutition
  • Deglutition disorders
  • Dysphagia
  • Residue
  • Swallowing
  • Videofluoroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Gastroenterology
  • Speech and Hearing

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