Human submandibular saliva inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection by displacing envelope glycoprotein gp120 from the virus

Thandavarayan Nagashunmugam, Daniel Malamud, Cheryl Davis, William R. Abrams, Harvey M. Friedman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Human submandibular saliva reduces human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in vitro. To define the mechanism of inhibition, virus was incubated with saliva or medium, velocity sucrose gradient centrifugation was performed, and fractions were analyzed for p24 and gp120. The results show that after incubation with saliva, the envelope glycoprotein was displaced from both a laboratory-adapted and a low-passage clinical HIV-1 isolate. To identify the salivary protein(s) responsible, submandibular saliva was fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography. Protein fractions containing anti-HIV activity were assayed for their ability to strip gp120 from virus. The partially purified active fractions contained two high-molecular-weight sialyated glycoproteins identified as salivary agglutinin and mucin, as well as several lower-molecular-weight proteins. It thus appears that specific salivary proteins interact with HIV-1 to strip gp120 from the virus with a resultant decrease in infectivity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1635-1641
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 18 1998


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this