HPRA

A pro-active hotspot-preventive high-performance routing algorithm for Networks-on-Chips

Elena Kakoulli, Vassos Soteriou Soteriou, Theocharis Theocharides

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

    Abstract

    The inherent spatio-temporal unevenness of traffic flows in Networks-on-Chips (NoCs) can cause unforeseen, and in cases, severe forms of congestion, known as hotspots. Hotspots reduce the NoC's effective throughput, where in the worst case scenario, the entire network can be brought to an unrecoverable halt as a hotspot(s) spreads across the topology. To alleviate this problematic phenomenon several adaptive routing algorithms employ online load-balancing functions, aiming to reduce the possibility of hotspots arising. Most, however, work passively, merely distributing traffic as evenly as possible among alternative network paths, and they cannot guarantee the absence of network congestion as their reactive capability in reducing hotspot formation(s) is limited. In this paper we present a new pro-active Hotspot-Preventive Routing Algorithm (HPRA) which uses the advance knowledge gained from network-embedded Artificial Neural Network-based (ANN) hotspot predictors to guide packet routing across the network in an effort to mitigate any unforeseen near-future occurrences of hotspots. These ANNs are trained offline and during multicore operation they gather online buffer utilization data to predict about-to-be-formed hotspots, promptly informing the HPRA routing algorithm to take appropriate action in preventing hotspot formation(s). Evaluation results across two synthetic traffic patterns, and traffic benchmarks gathered from a chip multiprocessor architecture, show that HPRA can reduce network latency and improve network throughput up to 81% when compared against several existing state-of-the-art congestion-aware routing functions. Hardware synthesis results demonstrate the efficacy of the HPRA mechanism.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Title of host publication2012 IEEE 30th International Conference on Computer Design, ICCD 2012
    Pages249-255
    Number of pages7
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Dec 1 2012
    Event2012 IEEE 30th International Conference on Computer Design, ICCD 2012 - Montreal, QC, Canada
    Duration: Sep 30 2012Oct 3 2012

    Other

    Other2012 IEEE 30th International Conference on Computer Design, ICCD 2012
    CountryCanada
    CityMontreal, QC
    Period9/30/1210/3/12

    Fingerprint

    Routing algorithms
    Throughput
    Adaptive algorithms
    Resource allocation
    Network-on-chip
    Topology
    Neural networks
    Hardware

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Hardware and Architecture
    • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    Cite this

    Kakoulli, E., Soteriou, V. S., & Theocharides, T. (2012). HPRA: A pro-active hotspot-preventive high-performance routing algorithm for Networks-on-Chips. In 2012 IEEE 30th International Conference on Computer Design, ICCD 2012 (pp. 249-255). [6378648] https://doi.org/10.1109/ICCD.2012.6378648

    HPRA : A pro-active hotspot-preventive high-performance routing algorithm for Networks-on-Chips. / Kakoulli, Elena; Soteriou, Vassos Soteriou; Theocharides, Theocharis.

    2012 IEEE 30th International Conference on Computer Design, ICCD 2012. 2012. p. 249-255 6378648.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

    Kakoulli, E, Soteriou, VS & Theocharides, T 2012, HPRA: A pro-active hotspot-preventive high-performance routing algorithm for Networks-on-Chips. in 2012 IEEE 30th International Conference on Computer Design, ICCD 2012., 6378648, pp. 249-255, 2012 IEEE 30th International Conference on Computer Design, ICCD 2012, Montreal, QC, Canada, 9/30/12. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICCD.2012.6378648
    Kakoulli E, Soteriou VS, Theocharides T. HPRA: A pro-active hotspot-preventive high-performance routing algorithm for Networks-on-Chips. In 2012 IEEE 30th International Conference on Computer Design, ICCD 2012. 2012. p. 249-255. 6378648 https://doi.org/10.1109/ICCD.2012.6378648
    Kakoulli, Elena ; Soteriou, Vassos Soteriou ; Theocharides, Theocharis. / HPRA : A pro-active hotspot-preventive high-performance routing algorithm for Networks-on-Chips. 2012 IEEE 30th International Conference on Computer Design, ICCD 2012. 2012. pp. 249-255
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