HIV infection among people who inject drugs in the United States: Geographically explained variance across racial and ethnic groups

the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance Study Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objectives. We explored how variance in HIV infection is distributed across multiple geographical scales among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the United States, overall and within racial/ethnic groups. Methods. People who inject drugs (n = 9077) were recruited via respondent driven sampling from 19 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2009 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system. We used multilevel modeling to determine the percentage of variance in HIV infection explained by zip codes, counties, and MSAs where PWID lived, overall and for specific racial/ethnic groups. Results. Collectively, zip codes, counties, and MSAs explained 29% of variance in HIV infection.Within specific racial/ethnic groups, all 3 scales explained variance in HIV infection among non-Hispanic/Latino White PWID (4.3%, 0.2%, and 7.5%, respectively), MSAs explained variance among Hispanic/Latino PWID (10.1%), and counties explained variance among non-Hispanic/Latino Black PWID (6.9%). Conclusions. Exposure to potential determinants of HIV infection at zip codes, counties, and MSAs may vary for different racial/ethnic groups of PWID, and may reveal opportunities to identify and ameliorate intraracial inequities in exposure to determinants of HIV infection at these geographical scales.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2457-2465
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Public Health
Volume105
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2015

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Ethnic Groups
HIV Infections
Hispanic Americans
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.)
HIV

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

HIV infection among people who inject drugs in the United States : Geographically explained variance across racial and ethnic groups. / the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance Study Group.

In: American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 105, No. 12, 01.12.2015, p. 2457-2465.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Objectives. We explored how variance in HIV infection is distributed across multiple geographical scales among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the United States, overall and within racial/ethnic groups. Methods. People who inject drugs (n = 9077) were recruited via respondent driven sampling from 19 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2009 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system. We used multilevel modeling to determine the percentage of variance in HIV infection explained by zip codes, counties, and MSAs where PWID lived, overall and for specific racial/ethnic groups. Results. Collectively, zip codes, counties, and MSAs explained 29{\%} of variance in HIV infection.Within specific racial/ethnic groups, all 3 scales explained variance in HIV infection among non-Hispanic/Latino White PWID (4.3{\%}, 0.2{\%}, and 7.5{\%}, respectively), MSAs explained variance among Hispanic/Latino PWID (10.1{\%}), and counties explained variance among non-Hispanic/Latino Black PWID (6.9{\%}). Conclusions. Exposure to potential determinants of HIV infection at zip codes, counties, and MSAs may vary for different racial/ethnic groups of PWID, and may reveal opportunities to identify and ameliorate intraracial inequities in exposure to determinants of HIV infection at these geographical scales.",
author = "{the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance Study Group} and Linton, {Sabriya L.} and Cooper, {Hannah L F} and Kelley, {Mary E.} and Karnes, {Conny C.} and Zev Ross and Wolfe, {Mary E.} and {Des Jarlais}, Don and Salaam Semaan and Barbara Tempalski and Elizabeth DiNenno and Teresa Finlayson and Catlainn Sionean and Cyprian Wejnert and Gabriela Paz-Bailey and Jennifer Taussig and Shacara Johnson and Jeff Todd and Colin Flynn and Danielle German and Debbie Isenberg and Maura Driscoll and Elizabeth Hurwitz and Nikhil Prachand and Nanette Benbow and Sharon Melville and Richard Yeager and Jim Dyer and Alicia Novoa and Mark Thrun and Alia Al-Tayyib and Emily Higgins and Eve Mokotoff and Vivian Griffin and Aaron Sayegh and Jan Risser and Hafeez Rehman and Trista Bingham and Sey, {Ekow Kwa} and Lisa Metsch and David Forrest and Dano Beck and Gabriel Cardenas and Chris Nemeth and Lou Smith and Watson, {Carol Ann} and Robinson, {William T.} and Deann Gruber and Narquis Barak and Alan Neaigus and Holly Hagan",
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AU - Karnes, Conny C.

AU - Ross, Zev

AU - Wolfe, Mary E.

AU - Des Jarlais, Don

AU - Semaan, Salaam

AU - Tempalski, Barbara

AU - DiNenno, Elizabeth

AU - Finlayson, Teresa

AU - Sionean, Catlainn

AU - Wejnert, Cyprian

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AU - German, Danielle

AU - Isenberg, Debbie

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AU - Hurwitz, Elizabeth

AU - Prachand, Nikhil

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AU - Novoa, Alicia

AU - Thrun, Mark

AU - Al-Tayyib, Alia

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AU - Mokotoff, Eve

AU - Griffin, Vivian

AU - Sayegh, Aaron

AU - Risser, Jan

AU - Rehman, Hafeez

AU - Bingham, Trista

AU - Sey, Ekow Kwa

AU - Metsch, Lisa

AU - Forrest, David

AU - Beck, Dano

AU - Cardenas, Gabriel

AU - Nemeth, Chris

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AU - Neaigus, Alan

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N2 - Objectives. We explored how variance in HIV infection is distributed across multiple geographical scales among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the United States, overall and within racial/ethnic groups. Methods. People who inject drugs (n = 9077) were recruited via respondent driven sampling from 19 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2009 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system. We used multilevel modeling to determine the percentage of variance in HIV infection explained by zip codes, counties, and MSAs where PWID lived, overall and for specific racial/ethnic groups. Results. Collectively, zip codes, counties, and MSAs explained 29% of variance in HIV infection.Within specific racial/ethnic groups, all 3 scales explained variance in HIV infection among non-Hispanic/Latino White PWID (4.3%, 0.2%, and 7.5%, respectively), MSAs explained variance among Hispanic/Latino PWID (10.1%), and counties explained variance among non-Hispanic/Latino Black PWID (6.9%). Conclusions. Exposure to potential determinants of HIV infection at zip codes, counties, and MSAs may vary for different racial/ethnic groups of PWID, and may reveal opportunities to identify and ameliorate intraracial inequities in exposure to determinants of HIV infection at these geographical scales.

AB - Objectives. We explored how variance in HIV infection is distributed across multiple geographical scales among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the United States, overall and within racial/ethnic groups. Methods. People who inject drugs (n = 9077) were recruited via respondent driven sampling from 19 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2009 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system. We used multilevel modeling to determine the percentage of variance in HIV infection explained by zip codes, counties, and MSAs where PWID lived, overall and for specific racial/ethnic groups. Results. Collectively, zip codes, counties, and MSAs explained 29% of variance in HIV infection.Within specific racial/ethnic groups, all 3 scales explained variance in HIV infection among non-Hispanic/Latino White PWID (4.3%, 0.2%, and 7.5%, respectively), MSAs explained variance among Hispanic/Latino PWID (10.1%), and counties explained variance among non-Hispanic/Latino Black PWID (6.9%). Conclusions. Exposure to potential determinants of HIV infection at zip codes, counties, and MSAs may vary for different racial/ethnic groups of PWID, and may reveal opportunities to identify and ameliorate intraracial inequities in exposure to determinants of HIV infection at these geographical scales.

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