Previous studies have shown that the spatial organization of all eye orientations during visually guided saccadic eye movements (Listing's plane) varies systematically as a function of static and dynamic head orientation in space. Here we tested if a similar organization also applies to the spatial orientation of eye positions during smooth pursuit eye movements. Specifically, we characterized the three-dimensional distribution of eye positions during horizontal and vertical pursuit (0.1 Hz, ±15° and 0.5 Hz, ±8°) at different eccentricities and elevations while rhesus monkeys were sitting upright or being statically tilted in different roll and pitch positions. We found that the spatial organization of eye positions during smooth pursuit depends on static orientation in space, similarly as during visually guided saccades and fixations. In support of recent modeling studies, these results are consistent with a role of gravity on defining the parameters of Listing's law.
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