Global demographic trends and social security reform

Orazio Attanasio, Sagiri Kitao, Giovanni L. Violante

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    How sustainable are the current social security systems in the developed economies, given the projected demographic trends? The most recent literature has answered this question through dynamic general-equilibrium models in a closed-economy framework. This paper provides a new quantitative benchmark of analysis for this question represented by a two-region model (South and North) of the world economy where capital flows across regions. The timing and the extent of the demographic transition-and the associated economic forces shaping capital accumulation and equilibrium factor prices-are very different in the two regions. Thus, the projected paths of interest rate and wage rate in the North diverge substantially between closed and open economy. We perform a wide range of policy experiments under both scenarios. Our main conclusion is that if one is interested in quantifying the path of the fiscal variables (e.g., the value of the payroll tax) needed to keep the social security system viable or to finance a transition towards a fully funded system, then these two benchmarks yield similar results. However, if the focus is on quantifying the path of factor prices, aggregate variables and, ultimately, welfare, then the two approaches can diverge significantly.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)144-198
    Number of pages55
    JournalJournal of Monetary Economics
    Volume54
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Jan 2007

    Fingerprint

    Demographic trends
    Social security reform
    Benchmark
    Factor prices
    Social security system
    Finance
    Fiscal
    Scenarios
    Demographic transition
    Economics
    Payroll tax
    Open economy
    Interest rates
    Capital flows
    World economy
    Wage rate
    Dynamic general equilibrium model
    Experiment
    Capital accumulation

    Keywords

    • Capital flows
    • Demographic trends
    • Social security
    • Two-region model

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Economics and Econometrics
    • Finance

    Cite this

    Global demographic trends and social security reform. / Attanasio, Orazio; Kitao, Sagiri; Violante, Giovanni L.

    In: Journal of Monetary Economics, Vol. 54, No. 1, 01.2007, p. 144-198.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Attanasio, Orazio ; Kitao, Sagiri ; Violante, Giovanni L. / Global demographic trends and social security reform. In: Journal of Monetary Economics. 2007 ; Vol. 54, No. 1. pp. 144-198.
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