Gingival crevicular fluid levels of interleukin-1β and glycemic control in patients with chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes

Steven Engebretson, Judith Hey-Hadavi, Fernando J. Ehrhardt, Dan Hsu, Romi S. Celenti, John T. Grbic, Ira B. Lamster

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Patients with diabetes have increased incidence and severity of periodontal disease not accounted for by differences in the subgingival microbial infection. Poor glycemic control has been consistently associated with periodontal disease severity. Also, recent evidence suggests that hyperglycemia may induce inflammatory cytokine production. Few studies, however, have examined local biochemical measures of periodontal inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether glycemic control was related to gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Methods: GCF samples were collected from 45 patients with type 2 diabetes and untreated chronic periodontitis. Plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), and attachment level (AL) were recorded at six sites per tooth. IL-1β levels were determined from individual GCF samples by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). Individual site and mean patient values were calculated. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1c) levels were measured from anticoagulated whole blood using an automated affinity chromatography system. Serum glucose was also determined. Results: Clinical periodontal measures (PD, AL, BOP) and measures of glycemic control (HbA1c, random glucose) were significantly correlated with GCF IL-1β. Patients with greater than 8% HbA1c had significantly higher mean GCF IL-1β levels than patients with less than 8% HbA1c. In a multivariate model adjusting for age, gender, PD, AL, BOP, and PI, HbA1c and random glucose were independent predictors of high GCF IL-1β. Conclusions: Poor glycemic control is associated with elevated GCF IL-1β. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that hyperglycemia contributes to an heightened inflammatory response, and suggests a mechanism to account for the association between poor glycemic control and periodontal destruction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1203-1208
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Periodontology
Volume75
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2004

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Gingival Crevicular Fluid
Chronic Periodontitis
Interleukin-1
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Periodontal Diseases
Hemorrhage
Glucose
Hyperglycemia
Glycosylated Hemoglobin A
Affinity Chromatography
Tooth
Cytokines
Inflammation
Incidence
Enzymes
Infection
Serum

Keywords

  • Diabetes mellitus, non-insulin dependent
  • Gingival crevicular fluid/chemistry
  • Hemoglobin A, glycosylated
  • Interleukin-1
  • Periodontitis/etiology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)

Cite this

Gingival crevicular fluid levels of interleukin-1β and glycemic control in patients with chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes. / Engebretson, Steven; Hey-Hadavi, Judith; Ehrhardt, Fernando J.; Hsu, Dan; Celenti, Romi S.; Grbic, John T.; Lamster, Ira B.

In: Journal of Periodontology, Vol. 75, No. 9, 09.2004, p. 1203-1208.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Engebretson, Steven ; Hey-Hadavi, Judith ; Ehrhardt, Fernando J. ; Hsu, Dan ; Celenti, Romi S. ; Grbic, John T. ; Lamster, Ira B. / Gingival crevicular fluid levels of interleukin-1β and glycemic control in patients with chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes. In: Journal of Periodontology. 2004 ; Vol. 75, No. 9. pp. 1203-1208.
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abstract = "Background: Patients with diabetes have increased incidence and severity of periodontal disease not accounted for by differences in the subgingival microbial infection. Poor glycemic control has been consistently associated with periodontal disease severity. Also, recent evidence suggests that hyperglycemia may induce inflammatory cytokine production. Few studies, however, have examined local biochemical measures of periodontal inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether glycemic control was related to gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Methods: GCF samples were collected from 45 patients with type 2 diabetes and untreated chronic periodontitis. Plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), and attachment level (AL) were recorded at six sites per tooth. IL-1β levels were determined from individual GCF samples by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). Individual site and mean patient values were calculated. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1c) levels were measured from anticoagulated whole blood using an automated affinity chromatography system. Serum glucose was also determined. Results: Clinical periodontal measures (PD, AL, BOP) and measures of glycemic control (HbA1c, random glucose) were significantly correlated with GCF IL-1β. Patients with greater than 8{\%} HbA1c had significantly higher mean GCF IL-1β levels than patients with less than 8{\%} HbA1c. In a multivariate model adjusting for age, gender, PD, AL, BOP, and PI, HbA1c and random glucose were independent predictors of high GCF IL-1β. Conclusions: Poor glycemic control is associated with elevated GCF IL-1β. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that hyperglycemia contributes to an heightened inflammatory response, and suggests a mechanism to account for the association between poor glycemic control and periodontal destruction.",
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T1 - Gingival crevicular fluid levels of interleukin-1β and glycemic control in patients with chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes

AU - Engebretson, Steven

AU - Hey-Hadavi, Judith

AU - Ehrhardt, Fernando J.

AU - Hsu, Dan

AU - Celenti, Romi S.

AU - Grbic, John T.

AU - Lamster, Ira B.

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AB - Background: Patients with diabetes have increased incidence and severity of periodontal disease not accounted for by differences in the subgingival microbial infection. Poor glycemic control has been consistently associated with periodontal disease severity. Also, recent evidence suggests that hyperglycemia may induce inflammatory cytokine production. Few studies, however, have examined local biochemical measures of periodontal inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether glycemic control was related to gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Methods: GCF samples were collected from 45 patients with type 2 diabetes and untreated chronic periodontitis. Plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), and attachment level (AL) were recorded at six sites per tooth. IL-1β levels were determined from individual GCF samples by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). Individual site and mean patient values were calculated. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1c) levels were measured from anticoagulated whole blood using an automated affinity chromatography system. Serum glucose was also determined. Results: Clinical periodontal measures (PD, AL, BOP) and measures of glycemic control (HbA1c, random glucose) were significantly correlated with GCF IL-1β. Patients with greater than 8% HbA1c had significantly higher mean GCF IL-1β levels than patients with less than 8% HbA1c. In a multivariate model adjusting for age, gender, PD, AL, BOP, and PI, HbA1c and random glucose were independent predictors of high GCF IL-1β. Conclusions: Poor glycemic control is associated with elevated GCF IL-1β. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that hyperglycemia contributes to an heightened inflammatory response, and suggests a mechanism to account for the association between poor glycemic control and periodontal destruction.

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KW - Gingival crevicular fluid/chemistry

KW - Hemoglobin A, glycosylated

KW - Interleukin-1

KW - Periodontitis/etiology

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