Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment

Aysu Okbay, Jonathan P. Beauchamp, Mark Alan Fontana, James J. Lee, Tune H. Pers, Cornelius A. Rietveld, Patrick Turley, Guo Bo Chen, Valur Emilsson, S. Fleur W Meddens, Sven Oskarsson, Joseph K. Pickrell, Kevin Thom, Pascal Timshel, Ronald De Vlaming, Abdel Abdellaoui, Tarunveer S. Ahluwalia, Jonas Bacelis, Clemens Baumbach, Gyda BjornsdottirJohannes H. Brandsma, Maria Pina Concas, Jaime Derringer, Nicholas A. Furlotte, Tessel E. Galesloot, Giorgia Girotto, Richa Gupta, Leanne M. Hall, Sarah E. Harris, Edith Hofer, Momoko Horikoshi, Jennifer E. Huffman, Kadri Kaasik, Ioanna P. Kalafati, Robert Karlsson, Augustine Kong, Jari Lahti, Sven J. Van Der Lee, Christiaan Deleeuw, Penelope A. Lind, Karl Oskar Lindgren, Tian Liu, Massimo Mangino, Jonathan Marten, Evelin Mihailov, Michael B. Miller, Peter J. Van Der Most, Christopher Oldmeadow, Antony Payton, Natalia Pervjakova, Wouter J. Peyrot, Yong Qian, Olli Raitakari, Rico Rueedi, Erika Salvi, Börge Schmidt, Katharina E. Schraut, Jianxin Shi, Albert V. Smith, Raymond A. Poot, Beate St Pourcain, Alexander Teumer, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Niek Verweij, Dragana Vuckovic, Juergen Wellmann, Harm Jan Westra, Jingyun Yang, Wei Zhao, Zhihong Zhu, Behrooz Z. Alizadeh, Najaf Amin, Andrew Bakshi, Sebastian E. Baumeister, Ginevra Biino, Klaus Bønnelykke, Patricia A. Boyle, Harry Campbell, Francesco P. Cappuccio, Gail Davies, Jan Emmanuel De Neve, Panos Deloukas, Ilja Demuth, Jun Ding, Peter Eibich, Lewin Eisele, Niina Eklund, David M. Evans, Jessica D. Faul, Mary F. Feitosa, Andreas J. Forstner, Ilaria Gandin, Bjarni Gunnarsson, Bjarni V. Halldórsson, Tamara B. Harris, Elizabeth G. Holliday, Andrew C. Heath, Lynne J. Hocking, Georg Homuth, Michael A. Horan, Jouke Jan Hottenga, Philip L. De Jager, Peter K. Joshi, Astanand Jugessur, Marika A. Kaakinen, Mika Kähönen, Stavroula Kanoni, Liisa Keltigangas-Järvinen, Lambertus A L M Kiemeney, Ivana Kolcic, Seppo Koskinen, Aldi T. Kraja, Martin Kroh, Zoltan Kutalik, Antti Latvala, Lenore J. Launer, Maël P. Lebreton, Douglas F. Levinson, Paul Lichtenstein, Peter Lichtner, David C M Liewald, Anu Loukola, Pamela A. Madden, Reedik Mägi, Tomi Mäki-Opas, Riccardo E. Marioni, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Gerardus A. Meddens, George Mcmahon, Christa Meisinger, Thomas Meitinger, Yusplitri Milaneschi, Lili Milani, Grant W. Montgomery, Ronny Myhre, Christopher P. Nelson, Dale R. Nyholt, William E R Ollier, Aarno Palotie, Lavinia Paternoster, Nancy L. Pedersen, Katja E. Petrovic, David J. Porteous, Katri Raïkkönen, Susan M. Ring, Antonietta Robino, Olga Rostapshova, Igor Rudan, Aldo Rustichini, Veikko Salomaa, Alan R. Sanders, Antti Pekka Sarin, Helena Schmidt, Rodney J. Scott, Blair H. Smith, Jennifer A. Smith, Jan A. Staessen, Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen, Konstantin Strauch, Antonio Terracciano, Martin D. Tobin, Sheila Ulivi, Simona Vaccargiu, Lydia Quaye, Frank J A Van Rooij, Cristina Venturini, Anna A E Vinkhuyzen, Uwe Völker, Henry Völzke, Judith M. Vonk, Diego Vozzi, Johannes Waage, Erin B. Ware, Gonneke Willemsen, John R. Attia, David A. Bennett, Klaus Berger, Lars Bertram, Hans Bisgaard, Dorret I. Boomsma, Ingrid B. Borecki, Ute Bültmann, Christopher F. Chabris, Francesco Cucca, Daniele Cusi, Ian J. Deary, George V. Dedoussis, Cornelia M. Van Duijn, Johan G. Eriksson, Barbara Franke, Lude Franke, Paolo Gasparini, Pablo V. Gejman, Christian Gieger, Hans Jörgen Grabe, Jacob Gratten, Patrick J F Groenen, Vilmundur Gudnason, Pim Van Der Harst, Caroline Hayward, David A. Hinds, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Elina Hyppönen, William G. Iacono, Bo Jacobsson, Marjo Riitta Järvelin, Karl Heinz Jöckel, Jaakko Kaprio, Sharon L R Kardia, Terho Lehtimäki, Steven F. Lehrer, Patrik K E Magnusson, Nicholas G. Martin, Matt Mcgue, Andres Metspalu, Neil Pendleton, Brenda W J H Penninx, Markus Perola, Nicola Pirastu, Mario Pirastu, Ozren Polasek, Danielle Posthuma, Christine Power, Michael A. Province, Nilesh J. Samani, David Schlessinger, Reinhold Schmidt, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Tim D. Spector, Kari Stefansson, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, A. Roy Thurik, Nicholas J. Timpson, Henning Tiemeier, Joyce Y. Tung, André G. Uitterlinden, Veronique Vitart, Peter Vollenweider, David R. Weir, James F. Wilson, Alan F. Wright, Dalton C. Conley, Robert F. Krueger, George Davey Smith, Albert Hofman, David I. Laibson, Sarah E. Medland, Michelle N. Meyer, Jian Yang, Magnus Johannesson, Peter M. Visscher, Toñu Esko, Philipp D. Koellinger, David Cesarini, Daniel J. Benjamin

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioural phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because educational attainment is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric diseases.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)539-542
    Number of pages4
    JournalNature
    Volume533
    Issue number7604
    DOIs
    StatePublished - May 11 2016

    Fingerprint

    Genome-Wide Association Study
    Phenotype
    Proxy
    Cognition
    Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
    Genome
    Gene Expression
    Brain
    Genes

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Medicine(all)
    • General

    Cite this

    Okbay, A., Beauchamp, J. P., Fontana, M. A., Lee, J. J., Pers, T. H., Rietveld, C. A., ... Benjamin, D. J. (2016). Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment. Nature, 533(7604), 539-542. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature17671

    Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment. / Okbay, Aysu; Beauchamp, Jonathan P.; Fontana, Mark Alan; Lee, James J.; Pers, Tune H.; Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Turley, Patrick; Chen, Guo Bo; Emilsson, Valur; Meddens, S. Fleur W; Oskarsson, Sven; Pickrell, Joseph K.; Thom, Kevin; Timshel, Pascal; De Vlaming, Ronald; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Bacelis, Jonas; Baumbach, Clemens; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Brandsma, Johannes H.; Pina Concas, Maria; Derringer, Jaime; Furlotte, Nicholas A.; Galesloot, Tessel E.; Girotto, Giorgia; Gupta, Richa; Hall, Leanne M.; Harris, Sarah E.; Hofer, Edith; Horikoshi, Momoko; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Kaasik, Kadri; Kalafati, Ioanna P.; Karlsson, Robert; Kong, Augustine; Lahti, Jari; Van Der Lee, Sven J.; Deleeuw, Christiaan; Lind, Penelope A.; Lindgren, Karl Oskar; Liu, Tian; Mangino, Massimo; Marten, Jonathan; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Michael B.; Van Der Most, Peter J.; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Payton, Antony; Pervjakova, Natalia; Peyrot, Wouter J.; Qian, Yong; Raitakari, Olli; Rueedi, Rico; Salvi, Erika; Schmidt, Börge; Schraut, Katharina E.; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert V.; Poot, Raymond A.; St Pourcain, Beate; Teumer, Alexander; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Verweij, Niek; Vuckovic, Dragana; Wellmann, Juergen; Westra, Harm Jan; Yang, Jingyun; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Zhihong; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Amin, Najaf; Bakshi, Andrew; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Biino, Ginevra; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Boyle, Patricia A.; Campbell, Harry; Cappuccio, Francesco P.; Davies, Gail; De Neve, Jan Emmanuel; Deloukas, Panos; Demuth, Ilja; Ding, Jun; Eibich, Peter; Eisele, Lewin; Eklund, Niina; Evans, David M.; Faul, Jessica D.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Forstner, Andreas J.; Gandin, Ilaria; Gunnarsson, Bjarni; Halldórsson, Bjarni V.; Harris, Tamara B.; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Heath, Andrew C.; Hocking, Lynne J.; Homuth, Georg; Horan, Michael A.; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; De Jager, Philip L.; Joshi, Peter K.; Jugessur, Astanand; Kaakinen, Marika A.; Kähönen, Mika; Kanoni, Stavroula; Keltigangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Kolcic, Ivana; Koskinen, Seppo; Kraja, Aldi T.; Kroh, Martin; Kutalik, Zoltan; Latvala, Antti; Launer, Lenore J.; Lebreton, Maël P.; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lichtner, Peter; Liewald, David C M; Loukola, Anu; Madden, Pamela A.; Mägi, Reedik; Mäki-Opas, Tomi; Marioni, Riccardo E.; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Meddens, Gerardus A.; Mcmahon, George; Meisinger, Christa; Meitinger, Thomas; Milaneschi, Yusplitri; Milani, Lili; Montgomery, Grant W.; Myhre, Ronny; Nelson, Christopher P.; Nyholt, Dale R.; Ollier, William E R; Palotie, Aarno; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Petrovic, Katja E.; Porteous, David J.; Raïkkönen, Katri; Ring, Susan M.; Robino, Antonietta; Rostapshova, Olga; Rudan, Igor; Rustichini, Aldo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Sarin, Antti Pekka; Schmidt, Helena; Scott, Rodney J.; Smith, Blair H.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Staessen, Jan A.; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Strauch, Konstantin; Terracciano, Antonio; Tobin, Martin D.; Ulivi, Sheila; Vaccargiu, Simona; Quaye, Lydia; Van Rooij, Frank J A; Venturini, Cristina; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Vonk, Judith M.; Vozzi, Diego; Waage, Johannes; Ware, Erin B.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Attia, John R.; Bennett, David A.; Berger, Klaus; Bertram, Lars; Bisgaard, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Bültmann, Ute; Chabris, Christopher F.; Cucca, Francesco; Cusi, Daniele; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George V.; Van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Franke, Barbara; Franke, Lude; Gasparini, Paolo; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gieger, Christian; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Gratten, Jacob; Groenen, Patrick J F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Van Der Harst, Pim; Hayward, Caroline; Hinds, David A.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hyppönen, Elina; Iacono, William G.; Jacobsson, Bo; Järvelin, Marjo Riitta; Jöckel, Karl Heinz; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kardia, Sharon L R; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lehrer, Steven F.; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Martin, Nicholas G.; Mcgue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Pendleton, Neil; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Perola, Markus; Pirastu, Nicola; Pirastu, Mario; Polasek, Ozren; Posthuma, Danielle; Power, Christine; Province, Michael A.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Reinhold; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Spector, Tim D.; Stefansson, Kari; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thurik, A. Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Tiemeier, Henning; Tung, Joyce Y.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Vitart, Veronique; Vollenweider, Peter; Weir, David R.; Wilson, James F.; Wright, Alan F.; Conley, Dalton C.; Krueger, Robert F.; Davey Smith, George; Hofman, Albert; Laibson, David I.; Medland, Sarah E.; Meyer, Michelle N.; Yang, Jian; Johannesson, Magnus; Visscher, Peter M.; Esko, Toñu; Koellinger, Philipp D.; Cesarini, David; Benjamin, Daniel J.

    In: Nature, Vol. 533, No. 7604, 11.05.2016, p. 539-542.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Okbay, A, Beauchamp, JP, Fontana, MA, Lee, JJ, Pers, TH, Rietveld, CA, Turley, P, Chen, GB, Emilsson, V, Meddens, SFW, Oskarsson, S, Pickrell, JK, Thom, K, Timshel, P, De Vlaming, R, Abdellaoui, A, Ahluwalia, TS, Bacelis, J, Baumbach, C, Bjornsdottir, G, Brandsma, JH, Pina Concas, M, Derringer, J, Furlotte, NA, Galesloot, TE, Girotto, G, Gupta, R, Hall, LM, Harris, SE, Hofer, E, Horikoshi, M, Huffman, JE, Kaasik, K, Kalafati, IP, Karlsson, R, Kong, A, Lahti, J, Van Der Lee, SJ, Deleeuw, C, Lind, PA, Lindgren, KO, Liu, T, Mangino, M, Marten, J, Mihailov, E, Miller, MB, Van Der Most, PJ, Oldmeadow, C, Payton, A, Pervjakova, N, Peyrot, WJ, Qian, Y, Raitakari, O, Rueedi, R, Salvi, E, Schmidt, B, Schraut, KE, Shi, J, Smith, AV, Poot, RA, St Pourcain, B, Teumer, A, Thorleifsson, G, Verweij, N, Vuckovic, D, Wellmann, J, Westra, HJ, Yang, J, Zhao, W, Zhu, Z, Alizadeh, BZ, Amin, N, Bakshi, A, Baumeister, SE, Biino, G, Bønnelykke, K, Boyle, PA, Campbell, H, Cappuccio, FP, Davies, G, De Neve, JE, Deloukas, P, Demuth, I, Ding, J, Eibich, P, Eisele, L, Eklund, N, Evans, DM, Faul, JD, Feitosa, MF, Forstner, AJ, Gandin, I, Gunnarsson, B, Halldórsson, BV, Harris, TB, Holliday, EG, Heath, AC, Hocking, LJ, Homuth, G, Horan, MA, Hottenga, JJ, De Jager, PL, Joshi, PK, Jugessur, A, Kaakinen, MA, Kähönen, M, Kanoni, S, Keltigangas-Järvinen, L, Kiemeney, LALM, Kolcic, I, Koskinen, S, Kraja, AT, Kroh, M, Kutalik, Z, Latvala, A, Launer, LJ, Lebreton, MP, Levinson, DF, Lichtenstein, P, Lichtner, P, Liewald, DCM, Loukola, A, Madden, PA, Mägi, R, Mäki-Opas, T, Marioni, RE, Marques-Vidal, P, Meddens, GA, Mcmahon, G, Meisinger, C, Meitinger, T, Milaneschi, Y, Milani, L, Montgomery, GW, Myhre, R, Nelson, CP, Nyholt, DR, Ollier, WER, Palotie, A, Paternoster, L, Pedersen, NL, Petrovic, KE, Porteous, DJ, Raïkkönen, K, Ring, SM, Robino, A, Rostapshova, O, Rudan, I, Rustichini, A, Salomaa, V, Sanders, AR, Sarin, AP, Schmidt, H, Scott, RJ, Smith, BH, Smith, JA, Staessen, JA, Steinhagen-Thiessen, E, Strauch, K, Terracciano, A, Tobin, MD, Ulivi, S, Vaccargiu, S, Quaye, L, Van Rooij, FJA, Venturini, C, Vinkhuyzen, AAE, Völker, U, Völzke, H, Vonk, JM, Vozzi, D, Waage, J, Ware, EB, Willemsen, G, Attia, JR, Bennett, DA, Berger, K, Bertram, L, Bisgaard, H, Boomsma, DI, Borecki, IB, Bültmann, U, Chabris, CF, Cucca, F, Cusi, D, Deary, IJ, Dedoussis, GV, Van Duijn, CM, Eriksson, JG, Franke, B, Franke, L, Gasparini, P, Gejman, PV, Gieger, C, Grabe, HJ, Gratten, J, Groenen, PJF, Gudnason, V, Van Der Harst, P, Hayward, C, Hinds, DA, Hoffmann, W, Hyppönen, E, Iacono, WG, Jacobsson, B, Järvelin, MR, Jöckel, KH, Kaprio, J, Kardia, SLR, Lehtimäki, T, Lehrer, SF, Magnusson, PKE, Martin, NG, Mcgue, M, Metspalu, A, Pendleton, N, Penninx, BWJH, Perola, M, Pirastu, N, Pirastu, M, Polasek, O, Posthuma, D, Power, C, Province, MA, Samani, NJ, Schlessinger, D, Schmidt, R, Sørensen, TIA, Spector, TD, Stefansson, K, Thorsteinsdottir, U, Thurik, AR, Timpson, NJ, Tiemeier, H, Tung, JY, Uitterlinden, AG, Vitart, V, Vollenweider, P, Weir, DR, Wilson, JF, Wright, AF, Conley, DC, Krueger, RF, Davey Smith, G, Hofman, A, Laibson, DI, Medland, SE, Meyer, MN, Yang, J, Johannesson, M, Visscher, PM, Esko, T, Koellinger, PD, Cesarini, D & Benjamin, DJ 2016, 'Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment', Nature, vol. 533, no. 7604, pp. 539-542. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature17671
    Okbay A, Beauchamp JP, Fontana MA, Lee JJ, Pers TH, Rietveld CA et al. Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment. Nature. 2016 May 11;533(7604):539-542. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature17671
    Okbay, Aysu ; Beauchamp, Jonathan P. ; Fontana, Mark Alan ; Lee, James J. ; Pers, Tune H. ; Rietveld, Cornelius A. ; Turley, Patrick ; Chen, Guo Bo ; Emilsson, Valur ; Meddens, S. Fleur W ; Oskarsson, Sven ; Pickrell, Joseph K. ; Thom, Kevin ; Timshel, Pascal ; De Vlaming, Ronald ; Abdellaoui, Abdel ; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S. ; Bacelis, Jonas ; Baumbach, Clemens ; Bjornsdottir, Gyda ; Brandsma, Johannes H. ; Pina Concas, Maria ; Derringer, Jaime ; Furlotte, Nicholas A. ; Galesloot, Tessel E. ; Girotto, Giorgia ; Gupta, Richa ; Hall, Leanne M. ; Harris, Sarah E. ; Hofer, Edith ; Horikoshi, Momoko ; Huffman, Jennifer E. ; Kaasik, Kadri ; Kalafati, Ioanna P. ; Karlsson, Robert ; Kong, Augustine ; Lahti, Jari ; Van Der Lee, Sven J. ; Deleeuw, Christiaan ; Lind, Penelope A. ; Lindgren, Karl Oskar ; Liu, Tian ; Mangino, Massimo ; Marten, Jonathan ; Mihailov, Evelin ; Miller, Michael B. ; Van Der Most, Peter J. ; Oldmeadow, Christopher ; Payton, Antony ; Pervjakova, Natalia ; Peyrot, Wouter J. ; Qian, Yong ; Raitakari, Olli ; Rueedi, Rico ; Salvi, Erika ; Schmidt, Börge ; Schraut, Katharina E. ; Shi, Jianxin ; Smith, Albert V. ; Poot, Raymond A. ; St Pourcain, Beate ; Teumer, Alexander ; Thorleifsson, Gudmar ; Verweij, Niek ; Vuckovic, Dragana ; Wellmann, Juergen ; Westra, Harm Jan ; Yang, Jingyun ; Zhao, Wei ; Zhu, Zhihong ; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z. ; Amin, Najaf ; Bakshi, Andrew ; Baumeister, Sebastian E. ; Biino, Ginevra ; Bønnelykke, Klaus ; Boyle, Patricia A. ; Campbell, Harry ; Cappuccio, Francesco P. ; Davies, Gail ; De Neve, Jan Emmanuel ; Deloukas, Panos ; Demuth, Ilja ; Ding, Jun ; Eibich, Peter ; Eisele, Lewin ; Eklund, Niina ; Evans, David M. ; Faul, Jessica D. ; Feitosa, Mary F. ; Forstner, Andreas J. ; Gandin, Ilaria ; Gunnarsson, Bjarni ; Halldórsson, Bjarni V. ; Harris, Tamara B. ; Holliday, Elizabeth G. ; Heath, Andrew C. ; Hocking, Lynne J. ; Homuth, Georg ; Horan, Michael A. ; Hottenga, Jouke Jan ; De Jager, Philip L. ; Joshi, Peter K. ; Jugessur, Astanand ; Kaakinen, Marika A. ; Kähönen, Mika ; Kanoni, Stavroula ; Keltigangas-Järvinen, Liisa ; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M ; Kolcic, Ivana ; Koskinen, Seppo ; Kraja, Aldi T. ; Kroh, Martin ; Kutalik, Zoltan ; Latvala, Antti ; Launer, Lenore J. ; Lebreton, Maël P. ; Levinson, Douglas F. ; Lichtenstein, Paul ; Lichtner, Peter ; Liewald, David C M ; Loukola, Anu ; Madden, Pamela A. ; Mägi, Reedik ; Mäki-Opas, Tomi ; Marioni, Riccardo E. ; Marques-Vidal, Pedro ; Meddens, Gerardus A. ; Mcmahon, George ; Meisinger, Christa ; Meitinger, Thomas ; Milaneschi, Yusplitri ; Milani, Lili ; Montgomery, Grant W. ; Myhre, Ronny ; Nelson, Christopher P. ; Nyholt, Dale R. ; Ollier, William E R ; Palotie, Aarno ; Paternoster, Lavinia ; Pedersen, Nancy L. ; Petrovic, Katja E. ; Porteous, David J. ; Raïkkönen, Katri ; Ring, Susan M. ; Robino, Antonietta ; Rostapshova, Olga ; Rudan, Igor ; Rustichini, Aldo ; Salomaa, Veikko ; Sanders, Alan R. ; Sarin, Antti Pekka ; Schmidt, Helena ; Scott, Rodney J. ; Smith, Blair H. ; Smith, Jennifer A. ; Staessen, Jan A. ; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth ; Strauch, Konstantin ; Terracciano, Antonio ; Tobin, Martin D. ; Ulivi, Sheila ; Vaccargiu, Simona ; Quaye, Lydia ; Van Rooij, Frank J A ; Venturini, Cristina ; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E ; Völker, Uwe ; Völzke, Henry ; Vonk, Judith M. ; Vozzi, Diego ; Waage, Johannes ; Ware, Erin B. ; Willemsen, Gonneke ; Attia, John R. ; Bennett, David A. ; Berger, Klaus ; Bertram, Lars ; Bisgaard, Hans ; Boomsma, Dorret I. ; Borecki, Ingrid B. ; Bültmann, Ute ; Chabris, Christopher F. ; Cucca, Francesco ; Cusi, Daniele ; Deary, Ian J. ; Dedoussis, George V. ; Van Duijn, Cornelia M. ; Eriksson, Johan G. ; Franke, Barbara ; Franke, Lude ; Gasparini, Paolo ; Gejman, Pablo V. ; Gieger, Christian ; Grabe, Hans Jörgen ; Gratten, Jacob ; Groenen, Patrick J F ; Gudnason, Vilmundur ; Van Der Harst, Pim ; Hayward, Caroline ; Hinds, David A. ; Hoffmann, Wolfgang ; Hyppönen, Elina ; Iacono, William G. ; Jacobsson, Bo ; Järvelin, Marjo Riitta ; Jöckel, Karl Heinz ; Kaprio, Jaakko ; Kardia, Sharon L R ; Lehtimäki, Terho ; Lehrer, Steven F. ; Magnusson, Patrik K E ; Martin, Nicholas G. ; Mcgue, Matt ; Metspalu, Andres ; Pendleton, Neil ; Penninx, Brenda W J H ; Perola, Markus ; Pirastu, Nicola ; Pirastu, Mario ; Polasek, Ozren ; Posthuma, Danielle ; Power, Christine ; Province, Michael A. ; Samani, Nilesh J. ; Schlessinger, David ; Schmidt, Reinhold ; Sørensen, Thorkild I A ; Spector, Tim D. ; Stefansson, Kari ; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur ; Thurik, A. Roy ; Timpson, Nicholas J. ; Tiemeier, Henning ; Tung, Joyce Y. ; Uitterlinden, André G. ; Vitart, Veronique ; Vollenweider, Peter ; Weir, David R. ; Wilson, James F. ; Wright, Alan F. ; Conley, Dalton C. ; Krueger, Robert F. ; Davey Smith, George ; Hofman, Albert ; Laibson, David I. ; Medland, Sarah E. ; Meyer, Michelle N. ; Yang, Jian ; Johannesson, Magnus ; Visscher, Peter M. ; Esko, Toñu ; Koellinger, Philipp D. ; Cesarini, David ; Benjamin, Daniel J. / Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment. In: Nature. 2016 ; Vol. 533, No. 7604. pp. 539-542.
    @article{920a78e456af479780f0c975a503fdde,
    title = "Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment",
    abstract = "Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20{\%} of the variation across individuals. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioural phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because educational attainment is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric diseases.",
    author = "Aysu Okbay and Beauchamp, {Jonathan P.} and Fontana, {Mark Alan} and Lee, {James J.} and Pers, {Tune H.} and Rietveld, {Cornelius A.} and Patrick Turley and Chen, {Guo Bo} and Valur Emilsson and Meddens, {S. Fleur W} and Sven Oskarsson and Pickrell, {Joseph K.} and Kevin Thom and Pascal Timshel and {De Vlaming}, Ronald and Abdel Abdellaoui and Ahluwalia, {Tarunveer S.} and Jonas Bacelis and Clemens Baumbach and Gyda Bjornsdottir and Brandsma, {Johannes H.} and {Pina Concas}, Maria and Jaime Derringer and Furlotte, {Nicholas A.} and Galesloot, {Tessel E.} and Giorgia Girotto and Richa Gupta and Hall, {Leanne M.} and Harris, {Sarah E.} and Edith Hofer and Momoko Horikoshi and Huffman, {Jennifer E.} and Kadri Kaasik and Kalafati, {Ioanna P.} and Robert Karlsson and Augustine Kong and Jari Lahti and {Van Der Lee}, {Sven J.} and Christiaan Deleeuw and Lind, {Penelope A.} and Lindgren, {Karl Oskar} and Tian Liu and Massimo Mangino and Jonathan Marten and Evelin Mihailov and Miller, {Michael B.} and {Van Der Most}, {Peter J.} and Christopher Oldmeadow and Antony Payton and Natalia Pervjakova and Peyrot, {Wouter J.} and Yong Qian and Olli Raitakari and Rico Rueedi and Erika Salvi and B{\"o}rge Schmidt and Schraut, {Katharina E.} and Jianxin Shi and Smith, {Albert V.} and Poot, {Raymond A.} and {St Pourcain}, Beate and Alexander Teumer and Gudmar Thorleifsson and Niek Verweij and Dragana Vuckovic and Juergen Wellmann and Westra, {Harm Jan} and Jingyun Yang and Wei Zhao and Zhihong Zhu and Alizadeh, {Behrooz Z.} and Najaf Amin and Andrew Bakshi and Baumeister, {Sebastian E.} and Ginevra Biino and Klaus B{\o}nnelykke and Boyle, {Patricia A.} and Harry Campbell and Cappuccio, {Francesco P.} and Gail Davies and {De Neve}, {Jan Emmanuel} and Panos Deloukas and Ilja Demuth and Jun Ding and Peter Eibich and Lewin Eisele and Niina Eklund and Evans, {David M.} and Faul, {Jessica D.} and Feitosa, {Mary F.} and Forstner, {Andreas J.} and Ilaria Gandin and Bjarni Gunnarsson and Halld{\'o}rsson, {Bjarni V.} and Harris, {Tamara B.} and Holliday, {Elizabeth G.} and Heath, {Andrew C.} and Hocking, {Lynne J.} and Georg Homuth and Horan, {Michael A.} and Hottenga, {Jouke Jan} and {De Jager}, {Philip L.} and Joshi, {Peter K.} and Astanand Jugessur and Kaakinen, {Marika A.} and Mika K{\"a}h{\"o}nen and Stavroula Kanoni and Liisa Keltigangas-J{\"a}rvinen and Kiemeney, {Lambertus A L M} and Ivana Kolcic and Seppo Koskinen and Kraja, {Aldi T.} and Martin Kroh and Zoltan Kutalik and Antti Latvala and Launer, {Lenore J.} and Lebreton, {Ma{\"e}l P.} and Levinson, {Douglas F.} and Paul Lichtenstein and Peter Lichtner and Liewald, {David C M} and Anu Loukola and Madden, {Pamela A.} and Reedik M{\"a}gi and Tomi M{\"a}ki-Opas and Marioni, {Riccardo E.} and Pedro Marques-Vidal and Meddens, {Gerardus A.} and George Mcmahon and Christa Meisinger and Thomas Meitinger and Yusplitri Milaneschi and Lili Milani and Montgomery, {Grant W.} and Ronny Myhre and Nelson, {Christopher P.} and Nyholt, {Dale R.} and Ollier, {William E R} and Aarno Palotie and Lavinia Paternoster and Pedersen, {Nancy L.} and Petrovic, {Katja E.} and Porteous, {David J.} and Katri Ra{\"i}kk{\"o}nen and Ring, {Susan M.} and Antonietta Robino and Olga Rostapshova and Igor Rudan and Aldo Rustichini and Veikko Salomaa and Sanders, {Alan R.} and Sarin, {Antti Pekka} and Helena Schmidt and Scott, {Rodney J.} and Smith, {Blair H.} and Smith, {Jennifer A.} and Staessen, {Jan A.} and Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen and Konstantin Strauch and Antonio Terracciano and Tobin, {Martin D.} and Sheila Ulivi and Simona Vaccargiu and Lydia Quaye and {Van Rooij}, {Frank J A} and Cristina Venturini and Vinkhuyzen, {Anna A E} and Uwe V{\"o}lker and Henry V{\"o}lzke and Vonk, {Judith M.} and Diego Vozzi and Johannes Waage and Ware, {Erin B.} and Gonneke Willemsen and Attia, {John R.} and Bennett, {David A.} and Klaus Berger and Lars Bertram and Hans Bisgaard and Boomsma, {Dorret I.} and Borecki, {Ingrid B.} and Ute B{\"u}ltmann and Chabris, {Christopher F.} and Francesco Cucca and Daniele Cusi and Deary, {Ian J.} and Dedoussis, {George V.} and {Van Duijn}, {Cornelia M.} and Eriksson, {Johan G.} and Barbara Franke and Lude Franke and Paolo Gasparini and Gejman, {Pablo V.} and Christian Gieger and Grabe, {Hans J{\"o}rgen} and Jacob Gratten and Groenen, {Patrick J F} and Vilmundur Gudnason and {Van Der Harst}, Pim and Caroline Hayward and Hinds, {David A.} and Wolfgang Hoffmann and Elina Hypp{\"o}nen and Iacono, {William G.} and Bo Jacobsson and J{\"a}rvelin, {Marjo Riitta} and J{\"o}ckel, {Karl Heinz} and Jaakko Kaprio and Kardia, {Sharon L R} and Terho Lehtim{\"a}ki and Lehrer, {Steven F.} and Magnusson, {Patrik K E} and Martin, {Nicholas G.} and Matt Mcgue and Andres Metspalu and Neil Pendleton and Penninx, {Brenda W J H} and Markus Perola and Nicola Pirastu and Mario Pirastu and Ozren Polasek and Danielle Posthuma and Christine Power and Province, {Michael A.} and Samani, {Nilesh J.} and David Schlessinger and Reinhold Schmidt and S{\o}rensen, {Thorkild I A} and Spector, {Tim D.} and Kari Stefansson and Unnur Thorsteinsdottir and Thurik, {A. Roy} and Timpson, {Nicholas J.} and Henning Tiemeier and Tung, {Joyce Y.} and Uitterlinden, {Andr{\'e} G.} and Veronique Vitart and Peter Vollenweider and Weir, {David R.} and Wilson, {James F.} and Wright, {Alan F.} and Conley, {Dalton C.} and Krueger, {Robert F.} and {Davey Smith}, George and Albert Hofman and Laibson, {David I.} and Medland, {Sarah E.} and Meyer, {Michelle N.} and Jian Yang and Magnus Johannesson and Visscher, {Peter M.} and To{\~n}u Esko and Koellinger, {Philipp D.} and David Cesarini and Benjamin, {Daniel J.}",
    year = "2016",
    month = "5",
    day = "11",
    doi = "10.1038/nature17671",
    language = "English (US)",
    volume = "533",
    pages = "539--542",
    journal = "Nature Cell Biology",
    issn = "1465-7392",
    publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
    number = "7604",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment

    AU - Okbay, Aysu

    AU - Beauchamp, Jonathan P.

    AU - Fontana, Mark Alan

    AU - Lee, James J.

    AU - Pers, Tune H.

    AU - Rietveld, Cornelius A.

    AU - Turley, Patrick

    AU - Chen, Guo Bo

    AU - Emilsson, Valur

    AU - Meddens, S. Fleur W

    AU - Oskarsson, Sven

    AU - Pickrell, Joseph K.

    AU - Thom, Kevin

    AU - Timshel, Pascal

    AU - De Vlaming, Ronald

    AU - Abdellaoui, Abdel

    AU - Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.

    AU - Bacelis, Jonas

    AU - Baumbach, Clemens

    AU - Bjornsdottir, Gyda

    AU - Brandsma, Johannes H.

    AU - Pina Concas, Maria

    AU - Derringer, Jaime

    AU - Furlotte, Nicholas A.

    AU - Galesloot, Tessel E.

    AU - Girotto, Giorgia

    AU - Gupta, Richa

    AU - Hall, Leanne M.

    AU - Harris, Sarah E.

    AU - Hofer, Edith

    AU - Horikoshi, Momoko

    AU - Huffman, Jennifer E.

    AU - Kaasik, Kadri

    AU - Kalafati, Ioanna P.

    AU - Karlsson, Robert

    AU - Kong, Augustine

    AU - Lahti, Jari

    AU - Van Der Lee, Sven J.

    AU - Deleeuw, Christiaan

    AU - Lind, Penelope A.

    AU - Lindgren, Karl Oskar

    AU - Liu, Tian

    AU - Mangino, Massimo

    AU - Marten, Jonathan

    AU - Mihailov, Evelin

    AU - Miller, Michael B.

    AU - Van Der Most, Peter J.

    AU - Oldmeadow, Christopher

    AU - Payton, Antony

    AU - Pervjakova, Natalia

    AU - Peyrot, Wouter J.

    AU - Qian, Yong

    AU - Raitakari, Olli

    AU - Rueedi, Rico

    AU - Salvi, Erika

    AU - Schmidt, Börge

    AU - Schraut, Katharina E.

    AU - Shi, Jianxin

    AU - Smith, Albert V.

    AU - Poot, Raymond A.

    AU - St Pourcain, Beate

    AU - Teumer, Alexander

    AU - Thorleifsson, Gudmar

    AU - Verweij, Niek

    AU - Vuckovic, Dragana

    AU - Wellmann, Juergen

    AU - Westra, Harm Jan

    AU - Yang, Jingyun

    AU - Zhao, Wei

    AU - Zhu, Zhihong

    AU - Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.

    AU - Amin, Najaf

    AU - Bakshi, Andrew

    AU - Baumeister, Sebastian E.

    AU - Biino, Ginevra

    AU - Bønnelykke, Klaus

    AU - Boyle, Patricia A.

    AU - Campbell, Harry

    AU - Cappuccio, Francesco P.

    AU - Davies, Gail

    AU - De Neve, Jan Emmanuel

    AU - Deloukas, Panos

    AU - Demuth, Ilja

    AU - Ding, Jun

    AU - Eibich, Peter

    AU - Eisele, Lewin

    AU - Eklund, Niina

    AU - Evans, David M.

    AU - Faul, Jessica D.

    AU - Feitosa, Mary F.

    AU - Forstner, Andreas J.

    AU - Gandin, Ilaria

    AU - Gunnarsson, Bjarni

    AU - Halldórsson, Bjarni V.

    AU - Harris, Tamara B.

    AU - Holliday, Elizabeth G.

    AU - Heath, Andrew C.

    AU - Hocking, Lynne J.

    AU - Homuth, Georg

    AU - Horan, Michael A.

    AU - Hottenga, Jouke Jan

    AU - De Jager, Philip L.

    AU - Joshi, Peter K.

    AU - Jugessur, Astanand

    AU - Kaakinen, Marika A.

    AU - Kähönen, Mika

    AU - Kanoni, Stavroula

    AU - Keltigangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    AU - Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M

    AU - Kolcic, Ivana

    AU - Koskinen, Seppo

    AU - Kraja, Aldi T.

    AU - Kroh, Martin

    AU - Kutalik, Zoltan

    AU - Latvala, Antti

    AU - Launer, Lenore J.

    AU - Lebreton, Maël P.

    AU - Levinson, Douglas F.

    AU - Lichtenstein, Paul

    AU - Lichtner, Peter

    AU - Liewald, David C M

    AU - Loukola, Anu

    AU - Madden, Pamela A.

    AU - Mägi, Reedik

    AU - Mäki-Opas, Tomi

    AU - Marioni, Riccardo E.

    AU - Marques-Vidal, Pedro

    AU - Meddens, Gerardus A.

    AU - Mcmahon, George

    AU - Meisinger, Christa

    AU - Meitinger, Thomas

    AU - Milaneschi, Yusplitri

    AU - Milani, Lili

    AU - Montgomery, Grant W.

    AU - Myhre, Ronny

    AU - Nelson, Christopher P.

    AU - Nyholt, Dale R.

    AU - Ollier, William E R

    AU - Palotie, Aarno

    AU - Paternoster, Lavinia

    AU - Pedersen, Nancy L.

    AU - Petrovic, Katja E.

    AU - Porteous, David J.

    AU - Raïkkönen, Katri

    AU - Ring, Susan M.

    AU - Robino, Antonietta

    AU - Rostapshova, Olga

    AU - Rudan, Igor

    AU - Rustichini, Aldo

    AU - Salomaa, Veikko

    AU - Sanders, Alan R.

    AU - Sarin, Antti Pekka

    AU - Schmidt, Helena

    AU - Scott, Rodney J.

    AU - Smith, Blair H.

    AU - Smith, Jennifer A.

    AU - Staessen, Jan A.

    AU - Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth

    AU - Strauch, Konstantin

    AU - Terracciano, Antonio

    AU - Tobin, Martin D.

    AU - Ulivi, Sheila

    AU - Vaccargiu, Simona

    AU - Quaye, Lydia

    AU - Van Rooij, Frank J A

    AU - Venturini, Cristina

    AU - Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E

    AU - Völker, Uwe

    AU - Völzke, Henry

    AU - Vonk, Judith M.

    AU - Vozzi, Diego

    AU - Waage, Johannes

    AU - Ware, Erin B.

    AU - Willemsen, Gonneke

    AU - Attia, John R.

    AU - Bennett, David A.

    AU - Berger, Klaus

    AU - Bertram, Lars

    AU - Bisgaard, Hans

    AU - Boomsma, Dorret I.

    AU - Borecki, Ingrid B.

    AU - Bültmann, Ute

    AU - Chabris, Christopher F.

    AU - Cucca, Francesco

    AU - Cusi, Daniele

    AU - Deary, Ian J.

    AU - Dedoussis, George V.

    AU - Van Duijn, Cornelia M.

    AU - Eriksson, Johan G.

    AU - Franke, Barbara

    AU - Franke, Lude

    AU - Gasparini, Paolo

    AU - Gejman, Pablo V.

    AU - Gieger, Christian

    AU - Grabe, Hans Jörgen

    AU - Gratten, Jacob

    AU - Groenen, Patrick J F

    AU - Gudnason, Vilmundur

    AU - Van Der Harst, Pim

    AU - Hayward, Caroline

    AU - Hinds, David A.

    AU - Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    AU - Hyppönen, Elina

    AU - Iacono, William G.

    AU - Jacobsson, Bo

    AU - Järvelin, Marjo Riitta

    AU - Jöckel, Karl Heinz

    AU - Kaprio, Jaakko

    AU - Kardia, Sharon L R

    AU - Lehtimäki, Terho

    AU - Lehrer, Steven F.

    AU - Magnusson, Patrik K E

    AU - Martin, Nicholas G.

    AU - Mcgue, Matt

    AU - Metspalu, Andres

    AU - Pendleton, Neil

    AU - Penninx, Brenda W J H

    AU - Perola, Markus

    AU - Pirastu, Nicola

    AU - Pirastu, Mario

    AU - Polasek, Ozren

    AU - Posthuma, Danielle

    AU - Power, Christine

    AU - Province, Michael A.

    AU - Samani, Nilesh J.

    AU - Schlessinger, David

    AU - Schmidt, Reinhold

    AU - Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    AU - Spector, Tim D.

    AU - Stefansson, Kari

    AU - Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur

    AU - Thurik, A. Roy

    AU - Timpson, Nicholas J.

    AU - Tiemeier, Henning

    AU - Tung, Joyce Y.

    AU - Uitterlinden, André G.

    AU - Vitart, Veronique

    AU - Vollenweider, Peter

    AU - Weir, David R.

    AU - Wilson, James F.

    AU - Wright, Alan F.

    AU - Conley, Dalton C.

    AU - Krueger, Robert F.

    AU - Davey Smith, George

    AU - Hofman, Albert

    AU - Laibson, David I.

    AU - Medland, Sarah E.

    AU - Meyer, Michelle N.

    AU - Yang, Jian

    AU - Johannesson, Magnus

    AU - Visscher, Peter M.

    AU - Esko, Toñu

    AU - Koellinger, Philipp D.

    AU - Cesarini, David

    AU - Benjamin, Daniel J.

    PY - 2016/5/11

    Y1 - 2016/5/11

    N2 - Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioural phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because educational attainment is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric diseases.

    AB - Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioural phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because educational attainment is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric diseases.

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84969760786&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84969760786&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1038/nature17671

    DO - 10.1038/nature17671

    M3 - Article

    C2 - 27225129

    AN - SCOPUS:84969760786

    VL - 533

    SP - 539

    EP - 542

    JO - Nature Cell Biology

    JF - Nature Cell Biology

    SN - 1465-7392

    IS - 7604

    ER -