Many systemic changes, including those in the circulating levels of female sex hormones, affect the response of the periodontium to plaque in periodontal disease. Gingival inflammation is greater during pregnancy than postpartum and its onset is correlated with an increase in circulaiting levels of estrogen and progesterone. A relationship between female sex hormone levels and periodontal changes during puberty and menopause has been postulated. A relationship has been observed between gingival inflammation and oral contraceptives; women taking the pill show an increase in gingival exudate. An interrelationship between cortisol and female sex hormones has been established. Exogenous administration of estrogen alone or combined with progesterone have been associated with increased plasma cortisol levels. Further research is necessary to determine the manner in which female hormones influence the periodontium.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||5|
|Journal||Annals of dentistry|
|State||Published - Sep 1 1976|
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