Faculty employment at 4-year colleges and universities

Liang Zhang, Xiangmin Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

We examine the variation in employment levels of part-time faculty, full-time teaching faculty, and full-time professorial faculty across 4-year colleges and universities in the United States. Employment structures and practices in higher education institutions are determined by a variety of economic and institutional factors. For example, a 1% increase in the average salaries paid to professorial faculty increases the employment level of part-time faculty by 0.845%. A 1% increase in the average salaries paid to full-time teaching faculty reduces the employment level of full-time teaching faculty by 0.757%. Institutions located in large cities or suburban areas hire 31.3% more part-time faculty but 12.5% fewer full-time teaching faculty. Private institutions hire more part-time faculty than their public counterparts. A 10% increase in FTE student enrollment is associated with a 5.4% increase in the number of part-time faculty, a 10.1% increase in the number of full-time teaching faculty, and a 9.1% increase in professorial faculty. In addition, we find divergent patterns of temporal variability among these three types of faculty. While employment levels of full-time instructors and professorial faculty are rather consistent over time, there is a wide range of fluctuation in the employment of part-time faculty. Finally, the employment of part-time faculty is significantly affected by that of full-time teaching faculty. There is no substitution effect on the employment of professorial faculty.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)543-552
Number of pages10
JournalEconomics of Education Review
Volume29
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2010

Fingerprint

university
Teaching
time
salary
employment structure
private institution
institutional factors
large city
economic factors
substitution
fluctuation
instructor

Keywords

  • Contingent faculty
  • Faculty employment
  • Part-time faculty

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Economics and Econometrics
  • Education

Cite this

Faculty employment at 4-year colleges and universities. / Zhang, Liang; Liu, Xiangmin.

In: Economics of Education Review, Vol. 29, No. 4, 08.2010, p. 543-552.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{372eaefef1ce4714ab31381b36da17b4,
title = "Faculty employment at 4-year colleges and universities",
abstract = "We examine the variation in employment levels of part-time faculty, full-time teaching faculty, and full-time professorial faculty across 4-year colleges and universities in the United States. Employment structures and practices in higher education institutions are determined by a variety of economic and institutional factors. For example, a 1{\%} increase in the average salaries paid to professorial faculty increases the employment level of part-time faculty by 0.845{\%}. A 1{\%} increase in the average salaries paid to full-time teaching faculty reduces the employment level of full-time teaching faculty by 0.757{\%}. Institutions located in large cities or suburban areas hire 31.3{\%} more part-time faculty but 12.5{\%} fewer full-time teaching faculty. Private institutions hire more part-time faculty than their public counterparts. A 10{\%} increase in FTE student enrollment is associated with a 5.4{\%} increase in the number of part-time faculty, a 10.1{\%} increase in the number of full-time teaching faculty, and a 9.1{\%} increase in professorial faculty. In addition, we find divergent patterns of temporal variability among these three types of faculty. While employment levels of full-time instructors and professorial faculty are rather consistent over time, there is a wide range of fluctuation in the employment of part-time faculty. Finally, the employment of part-time faculty is significantly affected by that of full-time teaching faculty. There is no substitution effect on the employment of professorial faculty.",
keywords = "Contingent faculty, Faculty employment, Part-time faculty",
author = "Liang Zhang and Xiangmin Liu",
year = "2010",
month = "8",
doi = "10.1016/j.econedurev.2009.10.007",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "29",
pages = "543--552",
journal = "Economics of Education Review",
issn = "0272-7757",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Faculty employment at 4-year colleges and universities

AU - Zhang, Liang

AU - Liu, Xiangmin

PY - 2010/8

Y1 - 2010/8

N2 - We examine the variation in employment levels of part-time faculty, full-time teaching faculty, and full-time professorial faculty across 4-year colleges and universities in the United States. Employment structures and practices in higher education institutions are determined by a variety of economic and institutional factors. For example, a 1% increase in the average salaries paid to professorial faculty increases the employment level of part-time faculty by 0.845%. A 1% increase in the average salaries paid to full-time teaching faculty reduces the employment level of full-time teaching faculty by 0.757%. Institutions located in large cities or suburban areas hire 31.3% more part-time faculty but 12.5% fewer full-time teaching faculty. Private institutions hire more part-time faculty than their public counterparts. A 10% increase in FTE student enrollment is associated with a 5.4% increase in the number of part-time faculty, a 10.1% increase in the number of full-time teaching faculty, and a 9.1% increase in professorial faculty. In addition, we find divergent patterns of temporal variability among these three types of faculty. While employment levels of full-time instructors and professorial faculty are rather consistent over time, there is a wide range of fluctuation in the employment of part-time faculty. Finally, the employment of part-time faculty is significantly affected by that of full-time teaching faculty. There is no substitution effect on the employment of professorial faculty.

AB - We examine the variation in employment levels of part-time faculty, full-time teaching faculty, and full-time professorial faculty across 4-year colleges and universities in the United States. Employment structures and practices in higher education institutions are determined by a variety of economic and institutional factors. For example, a 1% increase in the average salaries paid to professorial faculty increases the employment level of part-time faculty by 0.845%. A 1% increase in the average salaries paid to full-time teaching faculty reduces the employment level of full-time teaching faculty by 0.757%. Institutions located in large cities or suburban areas hire 31.3% more part-time faculty but 12.5% fewer full-time teaching faculty. Private institutions hire more part-time faculty than their public counterparts. A 10% increase in FTE student enrollment is associated with a 5.4% increase in the number of part-time faculty, a 10.1% increase in the number of full-time teaching faculty, and a 9.1% increase in professorial faculty. In addition, we find divergent patterns of temporal variability among these three types of faculty. While employment levels of full-time instructors and professorial faculty are rather consistent over time, there is a wide range of fluctuation in the employment of part-time faculty. Finally, the employment of part-time faculty is significantly affected by that of full-time teaching faculty. There is no substitution effect on the employment of professorial faculty.

KW - Contingent faculty

KW - Faculty employment

KW - Part-time faculty

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=77953028716&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=77953028716&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.econedurev.2009.10.007

DO - 10.1016/j.econedurev.2009.10.007

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:77953028716

VL - 29

SP - 543

EP - 552

JO - Economics of Education Review

JF - Economics of Education Review

SN - 0272-7757

IS - 4

ER -