Explosive cratering on earth embankments and dams using a geotechnical centrifuge

Matthew J. Sausville, Thomas F. Zimmie, Pickett T. Simpson, Tarek Abdoun

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

    Abstract

    Geotechnical centrifuge simulations are proving to be a useful tool in modeling induced explosions. The centrifuge applies a centripetal acceleration or "g" force which produces higher gravity on a selected experiment. The term "g" force constitutes the gravitational acceleration of the earth. Therefore, increasing "g" using a centrifuge can allow a small amount of explosive to produce the same effects that a higher amount of explosive would incur at 1 g. This allows the study of large detonations on a prototype scale by using small amounts of explosives on a scaled model structure. This research entailed experiments run at 80 g using a geotechnical centrifuge. Surface charges were detonated on saturated and partially saturated earth embankments and dams during flood conditions, and their resulting craters were measured and analyzed. The saturated tests utilized two different water levels; 0.5 m below the breach level (top surface of the dam) and flush to breach level. The partially saturated tests had a geomembrane/kaolin clay core and were run with a water level flush to the breach surface. Each model embankment consisted of a mixture of 85% Nevada sand and 15% kaolin clay. The explosives used in the testing were exploding bridgewires (EBW). Three different size charges were used for each type of test. The apparent scaled crater dimensions produced from the EBWs were plotted versus a scaled TNT equivalency. This information allows the prediction of the amount of explosive required to cause catastrophic failure in this type of dam during flood conditions. The results of this research is a valuable step in understanding the phenomenon of explosive cratering on saturated and partially saturated soils. The data acquired should help to provide the means to ensure the safety of earth dams and embankments.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Title of host publicationAssociation of State Dam Safety Officials Annual Conference 2005, Dam Safety 2005
    Pages790-798
    Number of pages9
    StatePublished - Dec 1 2005
    EventAssociation of State Dam Safety Officials Annual Conference 2005, Dam Safety 2005 - New Orleans, LA, United States
    Duration: Sep 25 2005Sep 29 2005

    Other

    OtherAssociation of State Dam Safety Officials Annual Conference 2005, Dam Safety 2005
    CountryUnited States
    CityNew Orleans, LA
    Period9/25/059/29/05

    Fingerprint

    Centrifuges
    Embankments
    Dams
    Earth (planet)
    Kaolin
    Water levels
    Clay
    Geomembranes
    Embankment dams
    Detonation
    Surface charge
    Model structures
    Explosions
    Gravitation
    Sand
    Experiments
    Soils
    Testing

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
    • Civil and Structural Engineering

    Cite this

    Sausville, M. J., Zimmie, T. F., Simpson, P. T., & Abdoun, T. (2005). Explosive cratering on earth embankments and dams using a geotechnical centrifuge. In Association of State Dam Safety Officials Annual Conference 2005, Dam Safety 2005 (pp. 790-798)

    Explosive cratering on earth embankments and dams using a geotechnical centrifuge. / Sausville, Matthew J.; Zimmie, Thomas F.; Simpson, Pickett T.; Abdoun, Tarek.

    Association of State Dam Safety Officials Annual Conference 2005, Dam Safety 2005. 2005. p. 790-798.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

    Sausville, MJ, Zimmie, TF, Simpson, PT & Abdoun, T 2005, Explosive cratering on earth embankments and dams using a geotechnical centrifuge. in Association of State Dam Safety Officials Annual Conference 2005, Dam Safety 2005. pp. 790-798, Association of State Dam Safety Officials Annual Conference 2005, Dam Safety 2005, New Orleans, LA, United States, 9/25/05.
    Sausville MJ, Zimmie TF, Simpson PT, Abdoun T. Explosive cratering on earth embankments and dams using a geotechnical centrifuge. In Association of State Dam Safety Officials Annual Conference 2005, Dam Safety 2005. 2005. p. 790-798
    Sausville, Matthew J. ; Zimmie, Thomas F. ; Simpson, Pickett T. ; Abdoun, Tarek. / Explosive cratering on earth embankments and dams using a geotechnical centrifuge. Association of State Dam Safety Officials Annual Conference 2005, Dam Safety 2005. 2005. pp. 790-798
    @inproceedings{82dccadaad6349a9a99bf74499341057,
    title = "Explosive cratering on earth embankments and dams using a geotechnical centrifuge",
    abstract = "Geotechnical centrifuge simulations are proving to be a useful tool in modeling induced explosions. The centrifuge applies a centripetal acceleration or {"}g{"} force which produces higher gravity on a selected experiment. The term {"}g{"} force constitutes the gravitational acceleration of the earth. Therefore, increasing {"}g{"} using a centrifuge can allow a small amount of explosive to produce the same effects that a higher amount of explosive would incur at 1 g. This allows the study of large detonations on a prototype scale by using small amounts of explosives on a scaled model structure. This research entailed experiments run at 80 g using a geotechnical centrifuge. Surface charges were detonated on saturated and partially saturated earth embankments and dams during flood conditions, and their resulting craters were measured and analyzed. The saturated tests utilized two different water levels; 0.5 m below the breach level (top surface of the dam) and flush to breach level. The partially saturated tests had a geomembrane/kaolin clay core and were run with a water level flush to the breach surface. Each model embankment consisted of a mixture of 85{\%} Nevada sand and 15{\%} kaolin clay. The explosives used in the testing were exploding bridgewires (EBW). Three different size charges were used for each type of test. The apparent scaled crater dimensions produced from the EBWs were plotted versus a scaled TNT equivalency. This information allows the prediction of the amount of explosive required to cause catastrophic failure in this type of dam during flood conditions. The results of this research is a valuable step in understanding the phenomenon of explosive cratering on saturated and partially saturated soils. The data acquired should help to provide the means to ensure the safety of earth dams and embankments.",
    author = "Sausville, {Matthew J.} and Zimmie, {Thomas F.} and Simpson, {Pickett T.} and Tarek Abdoun",
    year = "2005",
    month = "12",
    day = "1",
    language = "English (US)",
    isbn = "9781627481892",
    pages = "790--798",
    booktitle = "Association of State Dam Safety Officials Annual Conference 2005, Dam Safety 2005",

    }

    TY - GEN

    T1 - Explosive cratering on earth embankments and dams using a geotechnical centrifuge

    AU - Sausville, Matthew J.

    AU - Zimmie, Thomas F.

    AU - Simpson, Pickett T.

    AU - Abdoun, Tarek

    PY - 2005/12/1

    Y1 - 2005/12/1

    N2 - Geotechnical centrifuge simulations are proving to be a useful tool in modeling induced explosions. The centrifuge applies a centripetal acceleration or "g" force which produces higher gravity on a selected experiment. The term "g" force constitutes the gravitational acceleration of the earth. Therefore, increasing "g" using a centrifuge can allow a small amount of explosive to produce the same effects that a higher amount of explosive would incur at 1 g. This allows the study of large detonations on a prototype scale by using small amounts of explosives on a scaled model structure. This research entailed experiments run at 80 g using a geotechnical centrifuge. Surface charges were detonated on saturated and partially saturated earth embankments and dams during flood conditions, and their resulting craters were measured and analyzed. The saturated tests utilized two different water levels; 0.5 m below the breach level (top surface of the dam) and flush to breach level. The partially saturated tests had a geomembrane/kaolin clay core and were run with a water level flush to the breach surface. Each model embankment consisted of a mixture of 85% Nevada sand and 15% kaolin clay. The explosives used in the testing were exploding bridgewires (EBW). Three different size charges were used for each type of test. The apparent scaled crater dimensions produced from the EBWs were plotted versus a scaled TNT equivalency. This information allows the prediction of the amount of explosive required to cause catastrophic failure in this type of dam during flood conditions. The results of this research is a valuable step in understanding the phenomenon of explosive cratering on saturated and partially saturated soils. The data acquired should help to provide the means to ensure the safety of earth dams and embankments.

    AB - Geotechnical centrifuge simulations are proving to be a useful tool in modeling induced explosions. The centrifuge applies a centripetal acceleration or "g" force which produces higher gravity on a selected experiment. The term "g" force constitutes the gravitational acceleration of the earth. Therefore, increasing "g" using a centrifuge can allow a small amount of explosive to produce the same effects that a higher amount of explosive would incur at 1 g. This allows the study of large detonations on a prototype scale by using small amounts of explosives on a scaled model structure. This research entailed experiments run at 80 g using a geotechnical centrifuge. Surface charges were detonated on saturated and partially saturated earth embankments and dams during flood conditions, and their resulting craters were measured and analyzed. The saturated tests utilized two different water levels; 0.5 m below the breach level (top surface of the dam) and flush to breach level. The partially saturated tests had a geomembrane/kaolin clay core and were run with a water level flush to the breach surface. Each model embankment consisted of a mixture of 85% Nevada sand and 15% kaolin clay. The explosives used in the testing were exploding bridgewires (EBW). Three different size charges were used for each type of test. The apparent scaled crater dimensions produced from the EBWs were plotted versus a scaled TNT equivalency. This information allows the prediction of the amount of explosive required to cause catastrophic failure in this type of dam during flood conditions. The results of this research is a valuable step in understanding the phenomenon of explosive cratering on saturated and partially saturated soils. The data acquired should help to provide the means to ensure the safety of earth dams and embankments.

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84886260340&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84886260340&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    M3 - Conference contribution

    SN - 9781627481892

    SP - 790

    EP - 798

    BT - Association of State Dam Safety Officials Annual Conference 2005, Dam Safety 2005

    ER -