Examining the benefits of combining two learning strategies on recall of functional information in persons with multiple sclerosis

Yael Goverover, Michael Basso, Hali Wood, Nancy Chiaravalloti, John Deluca

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Background: Forgetfulness occurs commonly in people with multiple sclerosis (MS), but few treatments alleviate this problem.Objective: This study examined the combined effect of two cognitive rehabilitation strategies to improve learning and memory in MS: self-generation and spaced learning. The hypothesis was that the combination of spaced learning and self-generation would yield better learning and memory recall performance than spaced learning alone.Method: Using a within groups design, 20 participants with MS and 18 healthy controls (HC) were presented with three tasks (learning names, appointment, and object location), each in three learning conditions (Massed, Spaced Learning, and combination of spaced and generated information). Participants were required to recall the information they learned in each of these conditions immediately and 30 min following the initial presentation.Results: The combination of spaced learning and self-generation yielded better recall than did spaced learning alone. In turn, spaced learning resulted in better recall than the massed rehearsal condition.Conclusions: These findings reveal that the combination of these two learning strategies may possess utility as a cognitive rehabilitation strategy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1488-1497
Number of pages10
JournalMultiple Sclerosis Journal
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2011



  • cognition
  • memory
  • multiple sclerosis
  • rehabilitation
  • treatment
  • self-generation
  • spaced learning
  • cognitive rehabilitation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology

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