Evoked ink release in Aplysia produces inhibition of the siphon withdrawal reflex in neighboring conspecifics

Mark Stopfer, Xinghai Chen, Thomas Carew

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Aplysia californica exhibit a dramatic defensive reaction, the release of a cloud of dark purple ink, in response to noxious stimuli. Although the neural control of this behavior has been studied rather extensively, the functional significance of the inking response is not well understood. We have found that ink released by animals that are subjected to noxious stimuli rapidly induces inhibition of the tail-elicited siphon withdrawal reflex in neighboring Aplysia. Further experiments indicated that the inhibitor is the ink itself, and not some other substance released by the donor animals. Finally, we examined whether ink-induced inhibition of siphon withdrawal might be a secondary consequence of an elevated competing response such as increased locomotion. We found that locomotion is not affected by the concentrations of ink we employed, indicating that the ink probably modulates the withdrawal reflex directly. Because the neural circuits responsible for both tail-elicited siphon withdrawal and the inking response have already been partly delineated, one can now bring the neurobiological advantages of Aplysia to bear on the ethologically important issue of signaling between conspecifics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)196-204
Number of pages9
JournalBehavioral and Neural Biology
Volume60
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 1993

Fingerprint

Aplysia
Ink
Reflex
Locomotion
Tail
Behavior Control
Inhibition (Psychology)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology

Cite this

Evoked ink release in Aplysia produces inhibition of the siphon withdrawal reflex in neighboring conspecifics. / Stopfer, Mark; Chen, Xinghai; Carew, Thomas.

In: Behavioral and Neural Biology, Vol. 60, No. 3, 1993, p. 196-204.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{bd3708e4651f458493ccf84d4153163b,
title = "Evoked ink release in Aplysia produces inhibition of the siphon withdrawal reflex in neighboring conspecifics",
abstract = "Aplysia californica exhibit a dramatic defensive reaction, the release of a cloud of dark purple ink, in response to noxious stimuli. Although the neural control of this behavior has been studied rather extensively, the functional significance of the inking response is not well understood. We have found that ink released by animals that are subjected to noxious stimuli rapidly induces inhibition of the tail-elicited siphon withdrawal reflex in neighboring Aplysia. Further experiments indicated that the inhibitor is the ink itself, and not some other substance released by the donor animals. Finally, we examined whether ink-induced inhibition of siphon withdrawal might be a secondary consequence of an elevated competing response such as increased locomotion. We found that locomotion is not affected by the concentrations of ink we employed, indicating that the ink probably modulates the withdrawal reflex directly. Because the neural circuits responsible for both tail-elicited siphon withdrawal and the inking response have already been partly delineated, one can now bring the neurobiological advantages of Aplysia to bear on the ethologically important issue of signaling between conspecifics.",
author = "Mark Stopfer and Xinghai Chen and Thomas Carew",
year = "1993",
doi = "10.1016/0163-1047(93)90352-I",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "60",
pages = "196--204",
journal = "Neurobiology of Learning and Memory",
issn = "1074-7427",
publisher = "Academic Press Inc.",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Evoked ink release in Aplysia produces inhibition of the siphon withdrawal reflex in neighboring conspecifics

AU - Stopfer, Mark

AU - Chen, Xinghai

AU - Carew, Thomas

PY - 1993

Y1 - 1993

N2 - Aplysia californica exhibit a dramatic defensive reaction, the release of a cloud of dark purple ink, in response to noxious stimuli. Although the neural control of this behavior has been studied rather extensively, the functional significance of the inking response is not well understood. We have found that ink released by animals that are subjected to noxious stimuli rapidly induces inhibition of the tail-elicited siphon withdrawal reflex in neighboring Aplysia. Further experiments indicated that the inhibitor is the ink itself, and not some other substance released by the donor animals. Finally, we examined whether ink-induced inhibition of siphon withdrawal might be a secondary consequence of an elevated competing response such as increased locomotion. We found that locomotion is not affected by the concentrations of ink we employed, indicating that the ink probably modulates the withdrawal reflex directly. Because the neural circuits responsible for both tail-elicited siphon withdrawal and the inking response have already been partly delineated, one can now bring the neurobiological advantages of Aplysia to bear on the ethologically important issue of signaling between conspecifics.

AB - Aplysia californica exhibit a dramatic defensive reaction, the release of a cloud of dark purple ink, in response to noxious stimuli. Although the neural control of this behavior has been studied rather extensively, the functional significance of the inking response is not well understood. We have found that ink released by animals that are subjected to noxious stimuli rapidly induces inhibition of the tail-elicited siphon withdrawal reflex in neighboring Aplysia. Further experiments indicated that the inhibitor is the ink itself, and not some other substance released by the donor animals. Finally, we examined whether ink-induced inhibition of siphon withdrawal might be a secondary consequence of an elevated competing response such as increased locomotion. We found that locomotion is not affected by the concentrations of ink we employed, indicating that the ink probably modulates the withdrawal reflex directly. Because the neural circuits responsible for both tail-elicited siphon withdrawal and the inking response have already been partly delineated, one can now bring the neurobiological advantages of Aplysia to bear on the ethologically important issue of signaling between conspecifics.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0027143967&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0027143967&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/0163-1047(93)90352-I

DO - 10.1016/0163-1047(93)90352-I

M3 - Article

C2 - 8297315

AN - SCOPUS:0027143967

VL - 60

SP - 196

EP - 204

JO - Neurobiology of Learning and Memory

JF - Neurobiology of Learning and Memory

SN - 1074-7427

IS - 3

ER -