Evaluating the effects of behavioral realism in embodied agents

Victoria Groom, Clifford Nass, Tina Chen, Alexia Nielsen, James K. Scarborough, Erica Robles

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Designers of embodied agents constantly strive to create agents that appear more human-like, with the belief that increasing the human-likeness of agents will improve users' interactions with agents. While designers have focused on visual realism, less attention has been paid to the effects of agents' behavioral realism on users' responses. This paper presents an empirical study that compared three theories of agent realism: Realism Maximization Theory, Uncanny Valley Theory, and Consistency Theory. Results of this study showed that people responded best to an embodied agent when it demonstrated moderately realistic, inconsistent behavior. These results support Uncanny Valley Theory and demonstrate the powerful influence of agent behavior on users' responses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)842-849
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Human Computer Studies
Volume67
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2009

Fingerprint

realism
consistency theory
interaction

Keywords

  • Consistency
  • Embodied agents
  • Realism maximization
  • Uncanny valley

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Software
  • Education
  • Engineering(all)
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Hardware and Architecture

Cite this

Evaluating the effects of behavioral realism in embodied agents. / Groom, Victoria; Nass, Clifford; Chen, Tina; Nielsen, Alexia; Scarborough, James K.; Robles, Erica.

In: International Journal of Human Computer Studies, Vol. 67, No. 10, 10.2009, p. 842-849.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Groom, Victoria ; Nass, Clifford ; Chen, Tina ; Nielsen, Alexia ; Scarborough, James K. ; Robles, Erica. / Evaluating the effects of behavioral realism in embodied agents. In: International Journal of Human Computer Studies. 2009 ; Vol. 67, No. 10. pp. 842-849.
@article{66bbfc65961b494889988e2384edfef4,
title = "Evaluating the effects of behavioral realism in embodied agents",
abstract = "Designers of embodied agents constantly strive to create agents that appear more human-like, with the belief that increasing the human-likeness of agents will improve users' interactions with agents. While designers have focused on visual realism, less attention has been paid to the effects of agents' behavioral realism on users' responses. This paper presents an empirical study that compared three theories of agent realism: Realism Maximization Theory, Uncanny Valley Theory, and Consistency Theory. Results of this study showed that people responded best to an embodied agent when it demonstrated moderately realistic, inconsistent behavior. These results support Uncanny Valley Theory and demonstrate the powerful influence of agent behavior on users' responses.",
keywords = "Consistency, Embodied agents, Realism maximization, Uncanny valley",
author = "Victoria Groom and Clifford Nass and Tina Chen and Alexia Nielsen and Scarborough, {James K.} and Erica Robles",
year = "2009",
month = "10",
doi = "10.1016/j.ijhcs.2009.07.001",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "67",
pages = "842--849",
journal = "International Journal of Human Computer Studies",
issn = "1071-5819",
publisher = "Academic Press Inc.",
number = "10",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Evaluating the effects of behavioral realism in embodied agents

AU - Groom, Victoria

AU - Nass, Clifford

AU - Chen, Tina

AU - Nielsen, Alexia

AU - Scarborough, James K.

AU - Robles, Erica

PY - 2009/10

Y1 - 2009/10

N2 - Designers of embodied agents constantly strive to create agents that appear more human-like, with the belief that increasing the human-likeness of agents will improve users' interactions with agents. While designers have focused on visual realism, less attention has been paid to the effects of agents' behavioral realism on users' responses. This paper presents an empirical study that compared three theories of agent realism: Realism Maximization Theory, Uncanny Valley Theory, and Consistency Theory. Results of this study showed that people responded best to an embodied agent when it demonstrated moderately realistic, inconsistent behavior. These results support Uncanny Valley Theory and demonstrate the powerful influence of agent behavior on users' responses.

AB - Designers of embodied agents constantly strive to create agents that appear more human-like, with the belief that increasing the human-likeness of agents will improve users' interactions with agents. While designers have focused on visual realism, less attention has been paid to the effects of agents' behavioral realism on users' responses. This paper presents an empirical study that compared three theories of agent realism: Realism Maximization Theory, Uncanny Valley Theory, and Consistency Theory. Results of this study showed that people responded best to an embodied agent when it demonstrated moderately realistic, inconsistent behavior. These results support Uncanny Valley Theory and demonstrate the powerful influence of agent behavior on users' responses.

KW - Consistency

KW - Embodied agents

KW - Realism maximization

KW - Uncanny valley

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=69949084156&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=69949084156&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2009.07.001

DO - 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2009.07.001

M3 - Article

VL - 67

SP - 842

EP - 849

JO - International Journal of Human Computer Studies

JF - International Journal of Human Computer Studies

SN - 1071-5819

IS - 10

ER -