Environmental dependence of properties of galaxies in the sloan digital sky survey

Changbom Park, Yun Young Choi, Michael S. Vogeley, J. Richard Gott, Michael R. Blanton

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    We investigate the dependence of physical properties of galaxies brighter than Mr = -18.0 + 5 log h in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) on environment, as measured by local density using an adaptive smoothing kernel. We find that variations of galaxy properties with environment are almost entirely due to the dependence of morphology and luminosity on environment, Because galaxy properties depend not only on luminosity but also on morphology, it is clear that galaxy properties cannot be determined solely by dark halo mass. When morphology and luminosity are fixed, other physical properties, such as color, color gradient, concentration, size, velocity dispersion, and star formation rate, are nearly independent of local density, without any break or feature. The only feature is the sharp decrease of the late-type fraction above the critical luminosity of about Mr = -21.3 in the morphology versus luminosity relation. Weak residual dependences on environment include that of the color of late types (bluer at lower density) and of the L-σ relation of early types (larger dispersion at higher density for bright galaxies). The fraction of galaxies with early morphological type is a monotonically increasing function of local density and luminosity, The morphology-density-luminosity relation, as measured in this work, should be a key constraint on galaxy formation models. We demonstrate that the dependence on environment of the morphology of galaxies originates from variations in density on effective Gaussian smoothing scales much smaller than 12 h-1 Mpc. We find that galaxy morphology varies both with density measured on an effective Gaussian smoothing scale of 4.7 h-1 Mpc and with distance to the nearest bright galaxy, particularly when the distance is about 0.2 h-1 Mpc. We propose as a mechanism that the morphology of galaxies in galaxy systems is transformed by the tidal force.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)898-916
    Number of pages19
    JournalAstrophysical Journal
    Volume658
    Issue number2 I
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Apr 1 2007

    Fingerprint

    galaxies
    luminosity
    smoothing
    physical property
    color
    physical properties
    galactic evolution
    star formation rate
    halos
    gradients

    Keywords

    • Galaxies: clusters: general
    • Galaxies: evolution
    • Galaxies: formation
    • Galaxies: fundamental parameters
    • Galaxies: general
    • Galaxies: statistics

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Space and Planetary Science

    Cite this

    Park, C., Choi, Y. Y., Vogeley, M. S., Gott, J. R., & Blanton, M. R. (2007). Environmental dependence of properties of galaxies in the sloan digital sky survey. Astrophysical Journal, 658(2 I), 898-916. https://doi.org/10.1086/511059

    Environmental dependence of properties of galaxies in the sloan digital sky survey. / Park, Changbom; Choi, Yun Young; Vogeley, Michael S.; Gott, J. Richard; Blanton, Michael R.

    In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 658, No. 2 I, 01.04.2007, p. 898-916.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Park, C, Choi, YY, Vogeley, MS, Gott, JR & Blanton, MR 2007, 'Environmental dependence of properties of galaxies in the sloan digital sky survey', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 658, no. 2 I, pp. 898-916. https://doi.org/10.1086/511059
    Park, Changbom ; Choi, Yun Young ; Vogeley, Michael S. ; Gott, J. Richard ; Blanton, Michael R. / Environmental dependence of properties of galaxies in the sloan digital sky survey. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2007 ; Vol. 658, No. 2 I. pp. 898-916.
    @article{403ebe412f4f427db7d8baad6cb9bdc7,
    title = "Environmental dependence of properties of galaxies in the sloan digital sky survey",
    abstract = "We investigate the dependence of physical properties of galaxies brighter than Mr = -18.0 + 5 log h in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) on environment, as measured by local density using an adaptive smoothing kernel. We find that variations of galaxy properties with environment are almost entirely due to the dependence of morphology and luminosity on environment, Because galaxy properties depend not only on luminosity but also on morphology, it is clear that galaxy properties cannot be determined solely by dark halo mass. When morphology and luminosity are fixed, other physical properties, such as color, color gradient, concentration, size, velocity dispersion, and star formation rate, are nearly independent of local density, without any break or feature. The only feature is the sharp decrease of the late-type fraction above the critical luminosity of about Mr = -21.3 in the morphology versus luminosity relation. Weak residual dependences on environment include that of the color of late types (bluer at lower density) and of the L-σ relation of early types (larger dispersion at higher density for bright galaxies). The fraction of galaxies with early morphological type is a monotonically increasing function of local density and luminosity, The morphology-density-luminosity relation, as measured in this work, should be a key constraint on galaxy formation models. We demonstrate that the dependence on environment of the morphology of galaxies originates from variations in density on effective Gaussian smoothing scales much smaller than 12 h-1 Mpc. We find that galaxy morphology varies both with density measured on an effective Gaussian smoothing scale of 4.7 h-1 Mpc and with distance to the nearest bright galaxy, particularly when the distance is about 0.2 h-1 Mpc. We propose as a mechanism that the morphology of galaxies in galaxy systems is transformed by the tidal force.",
    keywords = "Galaxies: clusters: general, Galaxies: evolution, Galaxies: formation, Galaxies: fundamental parameters, Galaxies: general, Galaxies: statistics",
    author = "Changbom Park and Choi, {Yun Young} and Vogeley, {Michael S.} and Gott, {J. Richard} and Blanton, {Michael R.}",
    year = "2007",
    month = "4",
    day = "1",
    doi = "10.1086/511059",
    language = "English (US)",
    volume = "658",
    pages = "898--916",
    journal = "Astrophysical Journal",
    issn = "0004-637X",
    publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",
    number = "2 I",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Environmental dependence of properties of galaxies in the sloan digital sky survey

    AU - Park, Changbom

    AU - Choi, Yun Young

    AU - Vogeley, Michael S.

    AU - Gott, J. Richard

    AU - Blanton, Michael R.

    PY - 2007/4/1

    Y1 - 2007/4/1

    N2 - We investigate the dependence of physical properties of galaxies brighter than Mr = -18.0 + 5 log h in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) on environment, as measured by local density using an adaptive smoothing kernel. We find that variations of galaxy properties with environment are almost entirely due to the dependence of morphology and luminosity on environment, Because galaxy properties depend not only on luminosity but also on morphology, it is clear that galaxy properties cannot be determined solely by dark halo mass. When morphology and luminosity are fixed, other physical properties, such as color, color gradient, concentration, size, velocity dispersion, and star formation rate, are nearly independent of local density, without any break or feature. The only feature is the sharp decrease of the late-type fraction above the critical luminosity of about Mr = -21.3 in the morphology versus luminosity relation. Weak residual dependences on environment include that of the color of late types (bluer at lower density) and of the L-σ relation of early types (larger dispersion at higher density for bright galaxies). The fraction of galaxies with early morphological type is a monotonically increasing function of local density and luminosity, The morphology-density-luminosity relation, as measured in this work, should be a key constraint on galaxy formation models. We demonstrate that the dependence on environment of the morphology of galaxies originates from variations in density on effective Gaussian smoothing scales much smaller than 12 h-1 Mpc. We find that galaxy morphology varies both with density measured on an effective Gaussian smoothing scale of 4.7 h-1 Mpc and with distance to the nearest bright galaxy, particularly when the distance is about 0.2 h-1 Mpc. We propose as a mechanism that the morphology of galaxies in galaxy systems is transformed by the tidal force.

    AB - We investigate the dependence of physical properties of galaxies brighter than Mr = -18.0 + 5 log h in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) on environment, as measured by local density using an adaptive smoothing kernel. We find that variations of galaxy properties with environment are almost entirely due to the dependence of morphology and luminosity on environment, Because galaxy properties depend not only on luminosity but also on morphology, it is clear that galaxy properties cannot be determined solely by dark halo mass. When morphology and luminosity are fixed, other physical properties, such as color, color gradient, concentration, size, velocity dispersion, and star formation rate, are nearly independent of local density, without any break or feature. The only feature is the sharp decrease of the late-type fraction above the critical luminosity of about Mr = -21.3 in the morphology versus luminosity relation. Weak residual dependences on environment include that of the color of late types (bluer at lower density) and of the L-σ relation of early types (larger dispersion at higher density for bright galaxies). The fraction of galaxies with early morphological type is a monotonically increasing function of local density and luminosity, The morphology-density-luminosity relation, as measured in this work, should be a key constraint on galaxy formation models. We demonstrate that the dependence on environment of the morphology of galaxies originates from variations in density on effective Gaussian smoothing scales much smaller than 12 h-1 Mpc. We find that galaxy morphology varies both with density measured on an effective Gaussian smoothing scale of 4.7 h-1 Mpc and with distance to the nearest bright galaxy, particularly when the distance is about 0.2 h-1 Mpc. We propose as a mechanism that the morphology of galaxies in galaxy systems is transformed by the tidal force.

    KW - Galaxies: clusters: general

    KW - Galaxies: evolution

    KW - Galaxies: formation

    KW - Galaxies: fundamental parameters

    KW - Galaxies: general

    KW - Galaxies: statistics

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=34247251903&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=34247251903&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1086/511059

    DO - 10.1086/511059

    M3 - Article

    VL - 658

    SP - 898

    EP - 916

    JO - Astrophysical Journal

    JF - Astrophysical Journal

    SN - 0004-637X

    IS - 2 I

    ER -