Engineering: Advanced technology paths to global climate stability: Energy for a greenhouse planet

Martin I. Hoffert, Ken Caldeira, Gregory Benford, David R. Criswell, Christopher Green, Howard Herzog, Atul K. Jain, Haroon S. Kheshgi, Klaus S. Lackner, John S. Lewis, H. Douglas Lightfoot, Wallace Manheimer, John C. Mankins, Michael E. Mauel, L. John Perkins, Michael E. Schlesinger, Tyler Volk, Tom M L Wigley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Stabilizing the carbon dioxide-induced component of climate change is an energy problem. Establishment of a course toward such stabilization will require the development within the coming decades of primary energy sources that do not emit carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, in addition to efforts to reduce end-use energy demand. Mid-century primary power requirements that are free of carbon dioxide emissions could be several times what we now derive from fossil fuels (∼ 1013 watts), even with improvements in energy efficiency. Here we survey possible future energy sources, evaluated for their capability to supply massive amounts of carbon emission-free energy and for their potential for large-scale commercialization. Possible candidates for primary energy sources include terrestrial solar and wind energy, solar power satellites, biomass, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, fission-fusion hybrids, and fossil fuels from which carbon has been sequestered. Non-primary power technologies that could contribute to climate stabilization include efficiency improvements, hydrogen production, storage and transport, superconducting global electric grids, and geoengineering. All of these approaches currently have severe deficiencies that limit their ability to stabilize global climate. We conclude that a broad range of intensive research and development is urgently needed to produce technological options that can allow both climate stabilization and economic development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)981-987
Number of pages7
JournalScience
Volume298
Issue number5595
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2002

Fingerprint

advanced technology
global climate
stabilization
planet
carbon dioxide
engineering
fossil fuel
energy
solar power
commercialization
climate
carbon emission
energy efficiency
research and development
economic development
hydrogen
climate change
atmosphere
carbon
biomass

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Hoffert, M. I., Caldeira, K., Benford, G., Criswell, D. R., Green, C., Herzog, H., ... Wigley, T. M. L. (2002). Engineering: Advanced technology paths to global climate stability: Energy for a greenhouse planet. Science, 298(5595), 981-987. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1072357

Engineering : Advanced technology paths to global climate stability: Energy for a greenhouse planet. / Hoffert, Martin I.; Caldeira, Ken; Benford, Gregory; Criswell, David R.; Green, Christopher; Herzog, Howard; Jain, Atul K.; Kheshgi, Haroon S.; Lackner, Klaus S.; Lewis, John S.; Lightfoot, H. Douglas; Manheimer, Wallace; Mankins, John C.; Mauel, Michael E.; Perkins, L. John; Schlesinger, Michael E.; Volk, Tyler; Wigley, Tom M L.

In: Science, Vol. 298, No. 5595, 01.11.2002, p. 981-987.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hoffert, MI, Caldeira, K, Benford, G, Criswell, DR, Green, C, Herzog, H, Jain, AK, Kheshgi, HS, Lackner, KS, Lewis, JS, Lightfoot, HD, Manheimer, W, Mankins, JC, Mauel, ME, Perkins, LJ, Schlesinger, ME, Volk, T & Wigley, TML 2002, 'Engineering: Advanced technology paths to global climate stability: Energy for a greenhouse planet', Science, vol. 298, no. 5595, pp. 981-987. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1072357
Hoffert MI, Caldeira K, Benford G, Criswell DR, Green C, Herzog H et al. Engineering: Advanced technology paths to global climate stability: Energy for a greenhouse planet. Science. 2002 Nov 1;298(5595):981-987. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1072357
Hoffert, Martin I. ; Caldeira, Ken ; Benford, Gregory ; Criswell, David R. ; Green, Christopher ; Herzog, Howard ; Jain, Atul K. ; Kheshgi, Haroon S. ; Lackner, Klaus S. ; Lewis, John S. ; Lightfoot, H. Douglas ; Manheimer, Wallace ; Mankins, John C. ; Mauel, Michael E. ; Perkins, L. John ; Schlesinger, Michael E. ; Volk, Tyler ; Wigley, Tom M L. / Engineering : Advanced technology paths to global climate stability: Energy for a greenhouse planet. In: Science. 2002 ; Vol. 298, No. 5595. pp. 981-987.
@article{6e44d3b6008c4cce9b2bd7334c4f5ca6,
title = "Engineering: Advanced technology paths to global climate stability: Energy for a greenhouse planet",
abstract = "Stabilizing the carbon dioxide-induced component of climate change is an energy problem. Establishment of a course toward such stabilization will require the development within the coming decades of primary energy sources that do not emit carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, in addition to efforts to reduce end-use energy demand. Mid-century primary power requirements that are free of carbon dioxide emissions could be several times what we now derive from fossil fuels (∼ 1013 watts), even with improvements in energy efficiency. Here we survey possible future energy sources, evaluated for their capability to supply massive amounts of carbon emission-free energy and for their potential for large-scale commercialization. Possible candidates for primary energy sources include terrestrial solar and wind energy, solar power satellites, biomass, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, fission-fusion hybrids, and fossil fuels from which carbon has been sequestered. Non-primary power technologies that could contribute to climate stabilization include efficiency improvements, hydrogen production, storage and transport, superconducting global electric grids, and geoengineering. All of these approaches currently have severe deficiencies that limit their ability to stabilize global climate. We conclude that a broad range of intensive research and development is urgently needed to produce technological options that can allow both climate stabilization and economic development.",
author = "Hoffert, {Martin I.} and Ken Caldeira and Gregory Benford and Criswell, {David R.} and Christopher Green and Howard Herzog and Jain, {Atul K.} and Kheshgi, {Haroon S.} and Lackner, {Klaus S.} and Lewis, {John S.} and Lightfoot, {H. Douglas} and Wallace Manheimer and Mankins, {John C.} and Mauel, {Michael E.} and Perkins, {L. John} and Schlesinger, {Michael E.} and Tyler Volk and Wigley, {Tom M L}",
year = "2002",
month = "11",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1126/science.1072357",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "298",
pages = "981--987",
journal = "Science",
issn = "0036-8075",
publisher = "American Association for the Advancement of Science",
number = "5595",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Engineering

T2 - Advanced technology paths to global climate stability: Energy for a greenhouse planet

AU - Hoffert, Martin I.

AU - Caldeira, Ken

AU - Benford, Gregory

AU - Criswell, David R.

AU - Green, Christopher

AU - Herzog, Howard

AU - Jain, Atul K.

AU - Kheshgi, Haroon S.

AU - Lackner, Klaus S.

AU - Lewis, John S.

AU - Lightfoot, H. Douglas

AU - Manheimer, Wallace

AU - Mankins, John C.

AU - Mauel, Michael E.

AU - Perkins, L. John

AU - Schlesinger, Michael E.

AU - Volk, Tyler

AU - Wigley, Tom M L

PY - 2002/11/1

Y1 - 2002/11/1

N2 - Stabilizing the carbon dioxide-induced component of climate change is an energy problem. Establishment of a course toward such stabilization will require the development within the coming decades of primary energy sources that do not emit carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, in addition to efforts to reduce end-use energy demand. Mid-century primary power requirements that are free of carbon dioxide emissions could be several times what we now derive from fossil fuels (∼ 1013 watts), even with improvements in energy efficiency. Here we survey possible future energy sources, evaluated for their capability to supply massive amounts of carbon emission-free energy and for their potential for large-scale commercialization. Possible candidates for primary energy sources include terrestrial solar and wind energy, solar power satellites, biomass, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, fission-fusion hybrids, and fossil fuels from which carbon has been sequestered. Non-primary power technologies that could contribute to climate stabilization include efficiency improvements, hydrogen production, storage and transport, superconducting global electric grids, and geoengineering. All of these approaches currently have severe deficiencies that limit their ability to stabilize global climate. We conclude that a broad range of intensive research and development is urgently needed to produce technological options that can allow both climate stabilization and economic development.

AB - Stabilizing the carbon dioxide-induced component of climate change is an energy problem. Establishment of a course toward such stabilization will require the development within the coming decades of primary energy sources that do not emit carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, in addition to efforts to reduce end-use energy demand. Mid-century primary power requirements that are free of carbon dioxide emissions could be several times what we now derive from fossil fuels (∼ 1013 watts), even with improvements in energy efficiency. Here we survey possible future energy sources, evaluated for their capability to supply massive amounts of carbon emission-free energy and for their potential for large-scale commercialization. Possible candidates for primary energy sources include terrestrial solar and wind energy, solar power satellites, biomass, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, fission-fusion hybrids, and fossil fuels from which carbon has been sequestered. Non-primary power technologies that could contribute to climate stabilization include efficiency improvements, hydrogen production, storage and transport, superconducting global electric grids, and geoengineering. All of these approaches currently have severe deficiencies that limit their ability to stabilize global climate. We conclude that a broad range of intensive research and development is urgently needed to produce technological options that can allow both climate stabilization and economic development.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=18644385222&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=18644385222&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1126/science.1072357

DO - 10.1126/science.1072357

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:18644385222

VL - 298

SP - 981

EP - 987

JO - Science

JF - Science

SN - 0036-8075

IS - 5595

ER -