Energy estimation of cosmic rays with the Engineering Radio Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory

A. Aab, P. Abreu, M. Aglietta, E. J. Ahn, I. Al Samarai, I. F M Albuquerque, I. Allekotte, P. Allison, A. Almela, J. Alvarez Castillo, J. Alvarez-Muñiz, R. Alves Batista, M. Ambrosio, A. Aminaei, G. A. Anastasi, L. Anchordoqui, S. Andringa, C. Aramo, F. Arqueros, N. ArseneH. Asorey, P. Assis, J. Aublin, G. Avila, N. Awal, A. M. Badescu, C. Baus, J. J. Beatty, K. H. Becker, J. A. Bellido, C. Berat, M. E. Bertaina, X. Bertou, P. L. Biermann, P. Billoir, S. G. Blaess, A. Blanco, M. Blanco, J. Blazek, C. Bleve, H. Blümer, M. Boháčová, D. Boncioli, C. Bonifazi, N. Borodai, J. Brack, I. Brancus, T. Bretz, A. Bridgeman, P. Brogueira, P. Buchholz, A. Bueno, S. Buitink, M. Buscemi, K. S. Caballero-Mora, B. Caccianiga, L. Caccianiga, M. Candusso, L. Caramete, R. Caruso, A. Castellina, G. Cataldi, L. Cazon, R. Cester, A. G. Chavez, A. Chiavassa, J. A. Chinellato, J. Chudoba, M. Cilmo, R. W. Clay, G. Cocciolo, R. Colalillo, A. Coleman, L. Collica, M. R. Coluccia, R. Conceição, F. Contreras, M. J. Cooper, A. Cordier, S. Coutu, C. E. Covault, J. Cronin, R. Dallier, B. Daniel, S. Dasso, K. Daumiller, B. R. Dawson, R. M. De Almeida, S. J. De Jong, G. De Mauro, J. R T De Mello Neto, I. De Mitri, J. De Oliveira, V. De Souza, L. Del Peral, O. Deligny, N. Dhital, C. Di Giulio, A. Di Matteo, J. C. Diaz, M. L. Díaz Castro, F. Diogo, C. Dobrigkeit, W. Docters, J. C. D'Olivo, A. Dorofeev, Q. Dorosti Hasankiadeh, R. C. Dos Anjos, M. T. Dova, J. Ebr, R. Engel, M. Erdmann, M. Erfani, C. O. Escobar, J. Espadanal, A. Etchegoyen, H. Falcke, K. Fang, G. Farrar, A. C. Fauth, N. Fazzini, A. P. Ferguson, B. Fick, J. M. Figueira, A. Filevich, A. Filipčič, O. Fratu, M. M. Freire, T. Fujii, B. García, D. Garcia-Gamez, D. Garcia-Pinto, F. Gate, H. Gemmeke, A. Gherghel-Lascu, P. L. Ghia, U. Giaccari, M. Giammarchi, M. Giller, D. Głas, C. Glaser, H. Glass, G. Golup, M. Gómez Berisso, P. F. Gómez Vitale, N. González, B. Gookin, J. Gordon, A. Gorgi, P. Gorham, P. Gouffon, N. Griffith, A. F. Grillo, T. D. Grubb, F. Guarino, G. P. Guedes, M. R. Hampel, P. Hansen, D. Harari, T. A. Harrison, S. Hartmann, J. L. Harton, A. Haungs, T. Hebbeker, D. Heck, P. Heimann, A. E. Herve, G. C. Hill, C. Hojvat, N. Hollon, E. Holt, P. Homola, J. R. Hörandel, P. Horvath, M. Hrabovský, D. Huber, T. Huege, A. Insolia, P. G. Isar, I. Jandt, S. Jansen, C. Jarne, J. A. Johnsen, M. Josebachuili, A. Kääpä, O. Kambeitz, K. H. Kampert, P. Kasper, I. Katkov, B. Keilhauer, E. Kemp, R. M. Kieckhafer, H. O. Klages, M. Kleifges, J. Kleinfeller, R. Krause, N. Krohm, D. Kuempel, G. Kukec Mezek, N. Kunka, A. W. Kuotb Awad, D. Lahurd, L. Latronico, R. Lauer, M. Lauscher, P. Lautridou, S. Le Coz, D. Lebrun, P. Lebrun, M. A. Leigui De Oliveira, A. Letessier-Selvon, I. Lhenry-Yvon, K. Link, L. Lopes, R. López, A. López Casado, K. Louedec, A. Lucero, M. Malacari, M. Mallamaci, J. Maller, D. Mandat, P. Mantsch, A. G. Mariazzi, V. Marin, I. C. Mariş, G. Marsella, D. Martello, H. Martinez, O. Martínez Bravo, D. Martraire, J. J. Masías Meza, H. J. Mathes, S. Mathys, J. Matthews, J. A J Matthews, G. Matthiae, D. Maurizio, E. Mayotte, P. O. Mazur, C. Medina, G. Medina-Tanco, R. Meissner, V. B B Mello, D. Melo, A. Menshikov, S. Messina, M. I. Micheletti, L. Middendorf, I. A. Minaya, L. Miramonti, B. Mitrica, L. Molina-Bueno, S. Mollerach, F. Montanet, C. Morello, M. Mostafá, C. A. Moura, M. A. Muller, G. Müller, S. Müller, S. Navas, P. Necesal, L. Nellen, A. Nelles, J. Neuser, P. H. Nguyen, M. Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M. Niechciol, L. Niemietz, T. Niggemann, D. Nitz, D. Nosek, V. Novotny, L. NoŽka, L. A. Núñez, L. Ochilo, F. Oikonomou, A. Olinto, N. Pacheco, D. Pakk Selmi-Dei, M. Palatka, J. Pallotta, P. Papenbreer, G. Parente, A. Parra, T. Paul, M. Pech, J. Pokala, R. Pelayo, I. M. Pepe, L. Perrone, E. Petermann, C. Peters, S. Petrera, Y. Petrov, J. Phuntsok, R. Piegaia, T. Pierog, P. Pieroni, M. Pimenta, V. Pirronello, M. Platino, M. Plum, A. Porcelli, C. Porowski, R. R. Prado, P. Privitera, M. Prouza, E. J. Quel, S. Querchfeld, S. Quinn, J. Rautenberg, O. Ravel, D. Ravignani, D. Reinert, B. Revenu, J. Ridky, M. Risse, P. Ristori, V. Rizi, W. Rodrigues De Carvalho, J. Rodriguez Rojo, M. D. Rodríguez-Frías, D. Rogozin, J. Rosado, M. Roth, E. Roulet, A. C. Rovero, S. J. Saffi, A. Saftoiu, H. Salazar, A. Saleh, F. Salesa Greus, G. Salina, J. D. Sanabria Gomez, F. Sánchez, P. Sanchez-Lucas, E. Santos, E. M. Santos, F. Sarazin, B. Sarkar, R. Sarmento, C. Sarmiento-Cano, R. Sato, C. Scarso, M. Schauer, V. Scherini, H. Schieler, D. Schmidt, O. Scholten, H. Schoorlemmer, P. Schovánek, F. G. Schröder, A. Schulz, J. Schulz, J. Schumacher, S. J. Sciutto, A. Segreto, M. Settimo, A. Shadkam, R. C. Shellard, G. Sigl, O. Sima, A. Śmiałkowski, R. Šmída, G. R. Snow, P. Sommers, S. Sonntag, J. Sorokin, R. Squartini, Y. N. Srivastava, D. Stanca, S. Stanič, J. Stapleton, J. Stasielak, M. Stephan, A. Stutz, F. Suarez, M. Suarez Durán, T. Suomijärvi, A. D. Supanitsky, M. S. Sutherland, J. Swain, Z. Szadkowski, O. A. Taborda, A. Tapia, A. Tepe, V. M. Theodoro, C. Timmermans, C. J. Todero Peixoto, G. Toma, L. Tomankova, B. Tomé, A. Tonachini, G. Torralba Elipe, D. Torres Machado, P. Travnicek, M. Trini, R. Ulrich, M. Unger, M. Urban, J. F. Valdés Galicia, I. Valiño, L. Valore, G. Van Aar, P. Van Bodegom, A. M. Van Den Berg, S. Van Velzen, A. Van Vliet, E. Varela, B. Vargas Cárdenas, G. Varner, R. Vasquez, J. R. Vázquez, R. A. Vázquez, D. Veberič, V. Verzi, J. Vicha, M. Videla, L. Villaseñor, B. Vlcek, S. Vorobiov, H. Wahlberg, O. Wainberg, D. Walz, A. A. Watson, M. Weber, K. Weidenhaupt, A. Weindl, C. Welling, F. Werner, A. Widom, L. Wiencke, H. Wilczyński, T. Winchen, D. Wittkowski, B. Wundheiler, S. Wykes, L. Yang, T. Yapici, A. Yushkov, E. Zas, D. Zavrtanik, M. Zavrtanik, A. Zepeda, B. Zimmermann, M. Ziolkowski, F. Zuccarello

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is part of the Pierre Auger Observatory and is used to detect the radio emission of cosmic-ray air showers. These observations are compared to the data of the surface detector stations of the Observatory, which provide well-calibrated information on the cosmic-ray energies and arrival directions. The response of the radio stations in the 30-80 MHz regime has been thoroughly calibrated to enable the reconstruction of the incoming electric field. For the latter, the energy deposit per area is determined from the radio pulses at each observer position and is interpolated using a two-dimensional function that takes into account signal asymmetries due to interference between the geomagnetic and charge-excess emission components. The spatial integral over the signal distribution gives a direct measurement of the energy transferred from the primary cosmic ray into radio emission in the AERA frequency range. We measure 15.8 MeV of radiation energy for a 1 EeV air shower arriving perpendicularly to the geomagnetic field. This radiation energy - corrected for geometrical effects - is used as a cosmic-ray energy estimator. Performing an absolute energy calibration against the surface-detector information, we observe that this radio-energy estimator scales quadratically with the cosmic-ray energy as expected for coherent emission. We find an energy resolution of the radio reconstruction of 22% for the data set and 17% for a high-quality subset containing only events with at least five radio stations with signal.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Article number122005
    JournalPhysical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology
    Volume93
    Issue number12
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Jun 14 2016

    Fingerprint

    cosmic rays
    observatories
    engineering
    energy
    stations
    cosmic ray showers
    radio emission
    estimators
    primary cosmic rays
    detectors
    radiation
    geomagnetism
    set theory
    arrivals
    frequency ranges
    deposits
    asymmetry
    interference
    electric fields
    pulses

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Nuclear and High Energy Physics

    Cite this

    Energy estimation of cosmic rays with the Engineering Radio Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. / Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F M; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anastasi, G. A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blanco, M.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Brogueira, P.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; De Almeida, R. M.; De Jong, S. J.; De Mauro, G.; De Mello Neto, J. R T; De Mitri, I.; De Oliveira, J.; De Souza, V.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dos Anjos, R. C.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fujii, T.; García, B.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Głas, D.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Golup, G.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kuempel, D.; Kukec Mezek, G.; Kunka, N.; Kuotb Awad, A. W.; Lahurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui De Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopes, L.; López, R.; López Casado, A.; Louedec, K.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A J; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meissner, R.; Mello, V. B B; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Müller, S.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; NoŽka, L.; Núñez, L. A.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pokala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Reinert, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues De Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sanabria Gomez, J. D.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sarmiento-Cano, C.; Sato, R.; Scarso, C.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sonntag, S.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanca, D.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suarez Durán, M.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trini, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; Van Aar, G.; Van Bodegom, P.; Van Den Berg, A. M.; Van Velzen, S.; Van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vasquez, R.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Welling, C.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyński, H.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yang, L.; Yapici, T.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.

    In: Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, Vol. 93, No. 12, 122005, 14.06.2016.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Aab, A, Abreu, P, Aglietta, M, Ahn, EJ, Al Samarai, I, Albuquerque, IFM, Allekotte, I, Allison, P, Almela, A, Alvarez Castillo, J, Alvarez-Muñiz, J, Alves Batista, R, Ambrosio, M, Aminaei, A, Anastasi, GA, Anchordoqui, L, Andringa, S, Aramo, C, Arqueros, F, Arsene, N, Asorey, H, Assis, P, Aublin, J, Avila, G, Awal, N, Badescu, AM, Baus, C, Beatty, JJ, Becker, KH, Bellido, JA, Berat, C, Bertaina, ME, Bertou, X, Biermann, PL, Billoir, P, Blaess, SG, Blanco, A, Blanco, M, Blazek, J, Bleve, C, Blümer, H, Boháčová, M, Boncioli, D, Bonifazi, C, Borodai, N, Brack, J, Brancus, I, Bretz, T, Bridgeman, A, Brogueira, P, Buchholz, P, Bueno, A, Buitink, S, Buscemi, M, Caballero-Mora, KS, Caccianiga, B, Caccianiga, L, Candusso, M, Caramete, L, Caruso, R, Castellina, A, Cataldi, G, Cazon, L, Cester, R, Chavez, AG, Chiavassa, A, Chinellato, JA, Chudoba, J, Cilmo, M, Clay, RW, Cocciolo, G, Colalillo, R, Coleman, A, Collica, L, Coluccia, MR, Conceição, R, Contreras, F, Cooper, MJ, Cordier, A, Coutu, S, Covault, CE, Cronin, J, Dallier, R, Daniel, B, Dasso, S, Daumiller, K, Dawson, BR, De Almeida, RM, De Jong, SJ, De Mauro, G, De Mello Neto, JRT, De Mitri, I, De Oliveira, J, De Souza, V, Del Peral, L, Deligny, O, Dhital, N, Di Giulio, C, Di Matteo, A, Diaz, JC, Díaz Castro, ML, Diogo, F, Dobrigkeit, C, Docters, W, D'Olivo, JC, Dorofeev, A, Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q, Dos Anjos, RC, Dova, MT, Ebr, J, Engel, R, Erdmann, M, Erfani, M, Escobar, CO, Espadanal, J, Etchegoyen, A, Falcke, H, Fang, K, Farrar, G, Fauth, AC, Fazzini, N, Ferguson, AP, Fick, B, Figueira, JM, Filevich, A, Filipčič, A, Fratu, O, Freire, MM, Fujii, T, García, B, Garcia-Gamez, D, Garcia-Pinto, D, Gate, F, Gemmeke, H, Gherghel-Lascu, A, Ghia, PL, Giaccari, U, Giammarchi, M, Giller, M, Głas, D, Glaser, C, Glass, H, Golup, G, Gómez Berisso, M, Gómez Vitale, PF, González, N, Gookin, B, Gordon, J, Gorgi, A, Gorham, P, Gouffon, P, Griffith, N, Grillo, AF, Grubb, TD, Guarino, F, Guedes, GP, Hampel, MR, Hansen, P, Harari, D, Harrison, TA, Hartmann, S, Harton, JL, Haungs, A, Hebbeker, T, Heck, D, Heimann, P, Herve, AE, Hill, GC, Hojvat, C, Hollon, N, Holt, E, Homola, P, Hörandel, JR, Horvath, P, Hrabovský, M, Huber, D, Huege, T, Insolia, A, Isar, PG, Jandt, I, Jansen, S, Jarne, C, Johnsen, JA, Josebachuili, M, Kääpä, A, Kambeitz, O, Kampert, KH, Kasper, P, Katkov, I, Keilhauer, B, Kemp, E, Kieckhafer, RM, Klages, HO, Kleifges, M, Kleinfeller, J, Krause, R, Krohm, N, Kuempel, D, Kukec Mezek, G, Kunka, N, Kuotb Awad, AW, Lahurd, D, Latronico, L, Lauer, R, Lauscher, M, Lautridou, P, Le Coz, S, Lebrun, D, Lebrun, P, Leigui De Oliveira, MA, Letessier-Selvon, A, Lhenry-Yvon, I, Link, K, Lopes, L, López, R, López Casado, A, Louedec, K, Lucero, A, Malacari, M, Mallamaci, M, Maller, J, Mandat, D, Mantsch, P, Mariazzi, AG, Marin, V, Mariş, IC, Marsella, G, Martello, D, Martinez, H, Martínez Bravo, O, Martraire, D, Masías Meza, JJ, Mathes, HJ, Mathys, S, Matthews, J, Matthews, JAJ, Matthiae, G, Maurizio, D, Mayotte, E, Mazur, PO, Medina, C, Medina-Tanco, G, Meissner, R, Mello, VBB, Melo, D, Menshikov, A, Messina, S, Micheletti, MI, Middendorf, L, Minaya, IA, Miramonti, L, Mitrica, B, Molina-Bueno, L, Mollerach, S, Montanet, F, Morello, C, Mostafá, M, Moura, CA, Muller, MA, Müller, G, Müller, S, Navas, S, Necesal, P, Nellen, L, Nelles, A, Neuser, J, Nguyen, PH, Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M, Niechciol, M, Niemietz, L, Niggemann, T, Nitz, D, Nosek, D, Novotny, V, NoŽka, L, Núñez, LA, Ochilo, L, Oikonomou, F, Olinto, A, Pacheco, N, Pakk Selmi-Dei, D, Palatka, M, Pallotta, J, Papenbreer, P, Parente, G, Parra, A, Paul, T, Pech, M, Pokala, J, Pelayo, R, Pepe, IM, Perrone, L, Petermann, E, Peters, C, Petrera, S, Petrov, Y, Phuntsok, J, Piegaia, R, Pierog, T, Pieroni, P, Pimenta, M, Pirronello, V, Platino, M, Plum, M, Porcelli, A, Porowski, C, Prado, RR, Privitera, P, Prouza, M, Quel, EJ, Querchfeld, S, Quinn, S, Rautenberg, J, Ravel, O, Ravignani, D, Reinert, D, Revenu, B, Ridky, J, Risse, M, Ristori, P, Rizi, V, Rodrigues De Carvalho, W, Rodriguez Rojo, J, Rodríguez-Frías, MD, Rogozin, D, Rosado, J, Roth, M, Roulet, E, Rovero, AC, Saffi, SJ, Saftoiu, A, Salazar, H, Saleh, A, Salesa Greus, F, Salina, G, Sanabria Gomez, JD, Sánchez, F, Sanchez-Lucas, P, Santos, E, Santos, EM, Sarazin, F, Sarkar, B, Sarmento, R, Sarmiento-Cano, C, Sato, R, Scarso, C, Schauer, M, Scherini, V, Schieler, H, Schmidt, D, Scholten, O, Schoorlemmer, H, Schovánek, P, Schröder, FG, Schulz, A, Schulz, J, Schumacher, J, Sciutto, SJ, Segreto, A, Settimo, M, Shadkam, A, Shellard, RC, Sigl, G, Sima, O, Śmiałkowski, A, Šmída, R, Snow, GR, Sommers, P, Sonntag, S, Sorokin, J, Squartini, R, Srivastava, YN, Stanca, D, Stanič, S, Stapleton, J, Stasielak, J, Stephan, M, Stutz, A, Suarez, F, Suarez Durán, M, Suomijärvi, T, Supanitsky, AD, Sutherland, MS, Swain, J, Szadkowski, Z, Taborda, OA, Tapia, A, Tepe, A, Theodoro, VM, Timmermans, C, Todero Peixoto, CJ, Toma, G, Tomankova, L, Tomé, B, Tonachini, A, Torralba Elipe, G, Torres Machado, D, Travnicek, P, Trini, M, Ulrich, R, Unger, M, Urban, M, Valdés Galicia, JF, Valiño, I, Valore, L, Van Aar, G, Van Bodegom, P, Van Den Berg, AM, Van Velzen, S, Van Vliet, A, Varela, E, Vargas Cárdenas, B, Varner, G, Vasquez, R, Vázquez, JR, Vázquez, RA, Veberič, D, Verzi, V, Vicha, J, Videla, M, Villaseñor, L, Vlcek, B, Vorobiov, S, Wahlberg, H, Wainberg, O, Walz, D, Watson, AA, Weber, M, Weidenhaupt, K, Weindl, A, Welling, C, Werner, F, Widom, A, Wiencke, L, Wilczyński, H, Winchen, T, Wittkowski, D, Wundheiler, B, Wykes, S, Yang, L, Yapici, T, Yushkov, A, Zas, E, Zavrtanik, D, Zavrtanik, M, Zepeda, A, Zimmermann, B, Ziolkowski, M & Zuccarello, F 2016, 'Energy estimation of cosmic rays with the Engineering Radio Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory', Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, vol. 93, no. 12, 122005. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.93.122005
    Aab, A. ; Abreu, P. ; Aglietta, M. ; Ahn, E. J. ; Al Samarai, I. ; Albuquerque, I. F M ; Allekotte, I. ; Allison, P. ; Almela, A. ; Alvarez Castillo, J. ; Alvarez-Muñiz, J. ; Alves Batista, R. ; Ambrosio, M. ; Aminaei, A. ; Anastasi, G. A. ; Anchordoqui, L. ; Andringa, S. ; Aramo, C. ; Arqueros, F. ; Arsene, N. ; Asorey, H. ; Assis, P. ; Aublin, J. ; Avila, G. ; Awal, N. ; Badescu, A. M. ; Baus, C. ; Beatty, J. J. ; Becker, K. H. ; Bellido, J. A. ; Berat, C. ; Bertaina, M. E. ; Bertou, X. ; Biermann, P. L. ; Billoir, P. ; Blaess, S. G. ; Blanco, A. ; Blanco, M. ; Blazek, J. ; Bleve, C. ; Blümer, H. ; Boháčová, M. ; Boncioli, D. ; Bonifazi, C. ; Borodai, N. ; Brack, J. ; Brancus, I. ; Bretz, T. ; Bridgeman, A. ; Brogueira, P. ; Buchholz, P. ; Bueno, A. ; Buitink, S. ; Buscemi, M. ; Caballero-Mora, K. S. ; Caccianiga, B. ; Caccianiga, L. ; Candusso, M. ; Caramete, L. ; Caruso, R. ; Castellina, A. ; Cataldi, G. ; Cazon, L. ; Cester, R. ; Chavez, A. G. ; Chiavassa, A. ; Chinellato, J. A. ; Chudoba, J. ; Cilmo, M. ; Clay, R. W. ; Cocciolo, G. ; Colalillo, R. ; Coleman, A. ; Collica, L. ; Coluccia, M. R. ; Conceição, R. ; Contreras, F. ; Cooper, M. J. ; Cordier, A. ; Coutu, S. ; Covault, C. E. ; Cronin, J. ; Dallier, R. ; Daniel, B. ; Dasso, S. ; Daumiller, K. ; Dawson, B. R. ; De Almeida, R. M. ; De Jong, S. J. ; De Mauro, G. ; De Mello Neto, J. R T ; De Mitri, I. ; De Oliveira, J. ; De Souza, V. ; Del Peral, L. ; Deligny, O. ; Dhital, N. ; Di Giulio, C. ; Di Matteo, A. ; Diaz, J. C. ; Díaz Castro, M. L. ; Diogo, F. ; Dobrigkeit, C. ; Docters, W. ; D'Olivo, J. C. ; Dorofeev, A. ; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q. ; Dos Anjos, R. C. ; Dova, M. T. ; Ebr, J. ; Engel, R. ; Erdmann, M. ; Erfani, M. ; Escobar, C. O. ; Espadanal, J. ; Etchegoyen, A. ; Falcke, H. ; Fang, K. ; Farrar, G. ; Fauth, A. C. ; Fazzini, N. ; Ferguson, A. P. ; Fick, B. ; Figueira, J. M. ; Filevich, A. ; Filipčič, A. ; Fratu, O. ; Freire, M. M. ; Fujii, T. ; García, B. ; Garcia-Gamez, D. ; Garcia-Pinto, D. ; Gate, F. ; Gemmeke, H. ; Gherghel-Lascu, A. ; Ghia, P. L. ; Giaccari, U. ; Giammarchi, M. ; Giller, M. ; Głas, D. ; Glaser, C. ; Glass, H. ; Golup, G. ; Gómez Berisso, M. ; Gómez Vitale, P. F. ; González, N. ; Gookin, B. ; Gordon, J. ; Gorgi, A. ; Gorham, P. ; Gouffon, P. ; Griffith, N. ; Grillo, A. F. ; Grubb, T. D. ; Guarino, F. ; Guedes, G. P. ; Hampel, M. R. ; Hansen, P. ; Harari, D. ; Harrison, T. A. ; Hartmann, S. ; Harton, J. L. ; Haungs, A. ; Hebbeker, T. ; Heck, D. ; Heimann, P. ; Herve, A. E. ; Hill, G. C. ; Hojvat, C. ; Hollon, N. ; Holt, E. ; Homola, P. ; Hörandel, J. R. ; Horvath, P. ; Hrabovský, M. ; Huber, D. ; Huege, T. ; Insolia, A. ; Isar, P. G. ; Jandt, I. ; Jansen, S. ; Jarne, C. ; Johnsen, J. A. ; Josebachuili, M. ; Kääpä, A. ; Kambeitz, O. ; Kampert, K. H. ; Kasper, P. ; Katkov, I. ; Keilhauer, B. ; Kemp, E. ; Kieckhafer, R. M. ; Klages, H. O. ; Kleifges, M. ; Kleinfeller, J. ; Krause, R. ; Krohm, N. ; Kuempel, D. ; Kukec Mezek, G. ; Kunka, N. ; Kuotb Awad, A. W. ; Lahurd, D. ; Latronico, L. ; Lauer, R. ; Lauscher, M. ; Lautridou, P. ; Le Coz, S. ; Lebrun, D. ; Lebrun, P. ; Leigui De Oliveira, M. A. ; Letessier-Selvon, A. ; Lhenry-Yvon, I. ; Link, K. ; Lopes, L. ; López, R. ; López Casado, A. ; Louedec, K. ; Lucero, A. ; Malacari, M. ; Mallamaci, M. ; Maller, J. ; Mandat, D. ; Mantsch, P. ; Mariazzi, A. G. ; Marin, V. ; Mariş, I. C. ; Marsella, G. ; Martello, D. ; Martinez, H. ; Martínez Bravo, O. ; Martraire, D. ; Masías Meza, J. J. ; Mathes, H. J. ; Mathys, S. ; Matthews, J. ; Matthews, J. A J ; Matthiae, G. ; Maurizio, D. ; Mayotte, E. ; Mazur, P. O. ; Medina, C. ; Medina-Tanco, G. ; Meissner, R. ; Mello, V. B B ; Melo, D. ; Menshikov, A. ; Messina, S. ; Micheletti, M. I. ; Middendorf, L. ; Minaya, I. A. ; Miramonti, L. ; Mitrica, B. ; Molina-Bueno, L. ; Mollerach, S. ; Montanet, F. ; Morello, C. ; Mostafá, M. ; Moura, C. A. ; Muller, M. A. ; Müller, G. ; Müller, S. ; Navas, S. ; Necesal, P. ; Nellen, L. ; Nelles, A. ; Neuser, J. ; Nguyen, P. H. ; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M. ; Niechciol, M. ; Niemietz, L. ; Niggemann, T. ; Nitz, D. ; Nosek, D. ; Novotny, V. ; NoŽka, L. ; Núñez, L. A. ; Ochilo, L. ; Oikonomou, F. ; Olinto, A. ; Pacheco, N. ; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D. ; Palatka, M. ; Pallotta, J. ; Papenbreer, P. ; Parente, G. ; Parra, A. ; Paul, T. ; Pech, M. ; Pokala, J. ; Pelayo, R. ; Pepe, I. M. ; Perrone, L. ; Petermann, E. ; Peters, C. ; Petrera, S. ; Petrov, Y. ; Phuntsok, J. ; Piegaia, R. ; Pierog, T. ; Pieroni, P. ; Pimenta, M. ; Pirronello, V. ; Platino, M. ; Plum, M. ; Porcelli, A. ; Porowski, C. ; Prado, R. R. ; Privitera, P. ; Prouza, M. ; Quel, E. J. ; Querchfeld, S. ; Quinn, S. ; Rautenberg, J. ; Ravel, O. ; Ravignani, D. ; Reinert, D. ; Revenu, B. ; Ridky, J. ; Risse, M. ; Ristori, P. ; Rizi, V. ; Rodrigues De Carvalho, W. ; Rodriguez Rojo, J. ; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D. ; Rogozin, D. ; Rosado, J. ; Roth, M. ; Roulet, E. ; Rovero, A. C. ; Saffi, S. J. ; Saftoiu, A. ; Salazar, H. ; Saleh, A. ; Salesa Greus, F. ; Salina, G. ; Sanabria Gomez, J. D. ; Sánchez, F. ; Sanchez-Lucas, P. ; Santos, E. ; Santos, E. M. ; Sarazin, F. ; Sarkar, B. ; Sarmento, R. ; Sarmiento-Cano, C. ; Sato, R. ; Scarso, C. ; Schauer, M. ; Scherini, V. ; Schieler, H. ; Schmidt, D. ; Scholten, O. ; Schoorlemmer, H. ; Schovánek, P. ; Schröder, F. G. ; Schulz, A. ; Schulz, J. ; Schumacher, J. ; Sciutto, S. J. ; Segreto, A. ; Settimo, M. ; Shadkam, A. ; Shellard, R. C. ; Sigl, G. ; Sima, O. ; Śmiałkowski, A. ; Šmída, R. ; Snow, G. R. ; Sommers, P. ; Sonntag, S. ; Sorokin, J. ; Squartini, R. ; Srivastava, Y. N. ; Stanca, D. ; Stanič, S. ; Stapleton, J. ; Stasielak, J. ; Stephan, M. ; Stutz, A. ; Suarez, F. ; Suarez Durán, M. ; Suomijärvi, T. ; Supanitsky, A. D. ; Sutherland, M. S. ; Swain, J. ; Szadkowski, Z. ; Taborda, O. A. ; Tapia, A. ; Tepe, A. ; Theodoro, V. M. ; Timmermans, C. ; Todero Peixoto, C. J. ; Toma, G. ; Tomankova, L. ; Tomé, B. ; Tonachini, A. ; Torralba Elipe, G. ; Torres Machado, D. ; Travnicek, P. ; Trini, M. ; Ulrich, R. ; Unger, M. ; Urban, M. ; Valdés Galicia, J. F. ; Valiño, I. ; Valore, L. ; Van Aar, G. ; Van Bodegom, P. ; Van Den Berg, A. M. ; Van Velzen, S. ; Van Vliet, A. ; Varela, E. ; Vargas Cárdenas, B. ; Varner, G. ; Vasquez, R. ; Vázquez, J. R. ; Vázquez, R. A. ; Veberič, D. ; Verzi, V. ; Vicha, J. ; Videla, M. ; Villaseñor, L. ; Vlcek, B. ; Vorobiov, S. ; Wahlberg, H. ; Wainberg, O. ; Walz, D. ; Watson, A. A. ; Weber, M. ; Weidenhaupt, K. ; Weindl, A. ; Welling, C. ; Werner, F. ; Widom, A. ; Wiencke, L. ; Wilczyński, H. ; Winchen, T. ; Wittkowski, D. ; Wundheiler, B. ; Wykes, S. ; Yang, L. ; Yapici, T. ; Yushkov, A. ; Zas, E. ; Zavrtanik, D. ; Zavrtanik, M. ; Zepeda, A. ; Zimmermann, B. ; Ziolkowski, M. ; Zuccarello, F. / Energy estimation of cosmic rays with the Engineering Radio Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. In: Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology. 2016 ; Vol. 93, No. 12.
    @article{1f001e0fadbc4f65b1ebac363c97d9d8,
    title = "Energy estimation of cosmic rays with the Engineering Radio Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory",
    abstract = "The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is part of the Pierre Auger Observatory and is used to detect the radio emission of cosmic-ray air showers. These observations are compared to the data of the surface detector stations of the Observatory, which provide well-calibrated information on the cosmic-ray energies and arrival directions. The response of the radio stations in the 30-80 MHz regime has been thoroughly calibrated to enable the reconstruction of the incoming electric field. For the latter, the energy deposit per area is determined from the radio pulses at each observer position and is interpolated using a two-dimensional function that takes into account signal asymmetries due to interference between the geomagnetic and charge-excess emission components. The spatial integral over the signal distribution gives a direct measurement of the energy transferred from the primary cosmic ray into radio emission in the AERA frequency range. We measure 15.8 MeV of radiation energy for a 1 EeV air shower arriving perpendicularly to the geomagnetic field. This radiation energy - corrected for geometrical effects - is used as a cosmic-ray energy estimator. Performing an absolute energy calibration against the surface-detector information, we observe that this radio-energy estimator scales quadratically with the cosmic-ray energy as expected for coherent emission. We find an energy resolution of the radio reconstruction of 22{\%} for the data set and 17{\%} for a high-quality subset containing only events with at least five radio stations with signal.",
    author = "A. Aab and P. Abreu and M. Aglietta and Ahn, {E. J.} and {Al Samarai}, I. and Albuquerque, {I. F M} and I. Allekotte and P. Allison and A. Almela and {Alvarez Castillo}, J. and J. Alvarez-Mu{\~n}iz and {Alves Batista}, R. and M. Ambrosio and A. Aminaei and Anastasi, {G. A.} and L. Anchordoqui and S. Andringa and C. Aramo and F. Arqueros and N. Arsene and H. Asorey and P. Assis and J. Aublin and G. Avila and N. Awal and Badescu, {A. M.} and C. Baus and Beatty, {J. J.} and Becker, {K. H.} and Bellido, {J. A.} and C. Berat and Bertaina, {M. E.} and X. Bertou and Biermann, {P. L.} and P. Billoir and Blaess, {S. G.} and A. Blanco and M. Blanco and J. Blazek and C. Bleve and H. Bl{\"u}mer and M. Boh{\'a}čov{\'a} and D. Boncioli and C. Bonifazi and N. Borodai and J. Brack and I. Brancus and T. Bretz and A. Bridgeman and P. Brogueira and P. Buchholz and A. Bueno and S. Buitink and M. Buscemi and Caballero-Mora, {K. S.} and B. Caccianiga and L. Caccianiga and M. Candusso and L. Caramete and R. Caruso and A. Castellina and G. Cataldi and L. Cazon and R. Cester and Chavez, {A. G.} and A. Chiavassa and Chinellato, {J. A.} and J. Chudoba and M. Cilmo and Clay, {R. W.} and G. Cocciolo and R. Colalillo and A. Coleman and L. Collica and Coluccia, {M. R.} and R. Concei{\cc}{\~a}o and F. Contreras and Cooper, {M. J.} and A. Cordier and S. Coutu and Covault, {C. E.} and J. Cronin and R. Dallier and B. Daniel and S. Dasso and K. Daumiller and Dawson, {B. R.} and {De Almeida}, {R. M.} and {De Jong}, {S. J.} and {De Mauro}, G. and {De Mello Neto}, {J. R T} and {De Mitri}, I. and {De Oliveira}, J. and {De Souza}, V. and {Del Peral}, L. and O. Deligny and N. Dhital and {Di Giulio}, C. and {Di Matteo}, A. and Diaz, {J. C.} and {D{\'i}az Castro}, {M. L.} and F. Diogo and C. Dobrigkeit and W. Docters and D'Olivo, {J. C.} and A. Dorofeev and {Dorosti Hasankiadeh}, Q. and {Dos Anjos}, {R. C.} and Dova, {M. T.} and J. Ebr and R. Engel and M. Erdmann and M. Erfani and Escobar, {C. O.} and J. Espadanal and A. Etchegoyen and H. Falcke and K. Fang and G. Farrar and Fauth, {A. C.} and N. Fazzini and Ferguson, {A. P.} and B. Fick and Figueira, {J. M.} and A. Filevich and A. Filipčič and O. Fratu and Freire, {M. M.} and T. Fujii and B. Garc{\'i}a and D. Garcia-Gamez and D. Garcia-Pinto and F. Gate and H. Gemmeke and A. Gherghel-Lascu and Ghia, {P. L.} and U. Giaccari and M. Giammarchi and M. Giller and D. Głas and C. Glaser and H. Glass and G. Golup and {G{\'o}mez Berisso}, M. and {G{\'o}mez Vitale}, {P. F.} and N. Gonz{\'a}lez and B. Gookin and J. Gordon and A. Gorgi and P. Gorham and P. Gouffon and N. Griffith and Grillo, {A. F.} and Grubb, {T. D.} and F. Guarino and Guedes, {G. P.} and Hampel, {M. R.} and P. Hansen and D. Harari and Harrison, {T. A.} and S. Hartmann and Harton, {J. L.} and A. Haungs and T. Hebbeker and D. Heck and P. Heimann and Herve, {A. E.} and Hill, {G. C.} and C. Hojvat and N. Hollon and E. Holt and P. Homola and H{\"o}randel, {J. R.} and P. Horvath and M. Hrabovsk{\'y} and D. Huber and T. Huege and A. Insolia and Isar, {P. G.} and I. Jandt and S. Jansen and C. Jarne and Johnsen, {J. A.} and M. Josebachuili and A. K{\"a}{\"a}p{\"a} and O. Kambeitz and Kampert, {K. H.} and P. Kasper and I. Katkov and B. Keilhauer and E. Kemp and Kieckhafer, {R. M.} and Klages, {H. O.} and M. Kleifges and J. Kleinfeller and R. Krause and N. Krohm and D. Kuempel and {Kukec Mezek}, G. and N. Kunka and {Kuotb Awad}, {A. W.} and D. Lahurd and L. Latronico and R. Lauer and M. Lauscher and P. Lautridou and {Le Coz}, S. and D. Lebrun and P. Lebrun and {Leigui De Oliveira}, {M. A.} and A. Letessier-Selvon and I. Lhenry-Yvon and K. Link and L. Lopes and R. L{\'o}pez and {L{\'o}pez Casado}, A. and K. Louedec and A. Lucero and M. Malacari and M. Mallamaci and J. Maller and D. Mandat and P. Mantsch and Mariazzi, {A. G.} and V. Marin and Mariş, {I. C.} and G. Marsella and D. Martello and H. Martinez and {Mart{\'i}nez Bravo}, O. and D. Martraire and {Mas{\'i}as Meza}, {J. J.} and Mathes, {H. J.} and S. Mathys and J. Matthews and Matthews, {J. A J} and G. Matthiae and D. Maurizio and E. Mayotte and Mazur, {P. O.} and C. Medina and G. Medina-Tanco and R. Meissner and Mello, {V. B B} and D. Melo and A. Menshikov and S. Messina and Micheletti, {M. I.} and L. Middendorf and Minaya, {I. A.} and L. Miramonti and B. Mitrica and L. Molina-Bueno and S. Mollerach and F. Montanet and C. Morello and M. Mostaf{\'a} and Moura, {C. A.} and Muller, {M. A.} and G. M{\"u}ller and S. M{\"u}ller and S. Navas and P. Necesal and L. Nellen and A. Nelles and J. Neuser and Nguyen, {P. H.} and M. Niculescu-Oglinzanu and M. Niechciol and L. Niemietz and T. Niggemann and D. Nitz and D. Nosek and V. Novotny and L. NoŽka and N{\'u}{\~n}ez, {L. A.} and L. Ochilo and F. Oikonomou and A. Olinto and N. Pacheco and {Pakk Selmi-Dei}, D. and M. Palatka and J. Pallotta and P. Papenbreer and G. Parente and A. Parra and T. Paul and M. Pech and J. Pokala and R. Pelayo and Pepe, {I. M.} and L. Perrone and E. Petermann and C. Peters and S. Petrera and Y. Petrov and J. Phuntsok and R. Piegaia and T. Pierog and P. Pieroni and M. Pimenta and V. Pirronello and M. Platino and M. Plum and A. Porcelli and C. Porowski and Prado, {R. R.} and P. Privitera and M. Prouza and Quel, {E. J.} and S. Querchfeld and S. Quinn and J. Rautenberg and O. Ravel and D. Ravignani and D. Reinert and B. Revenu and J. Ridky and M. Risse and P. Ristori and V. Rizi and {Rodrigues De Carvalho}, W. and {Rodriguez Rojo}, J. and Rodr{\'i}guez-Fr{\'i}as, {M. D.} and D. Rogozin and J. Rosado and M. Roth and E. Roulet and Rovero, {A. C.} and Saffi, {S. J.} and A. Saftoiu and H. Salazar and A. Saleh and {Salesa Greus}, F. and G. Salina and {Sanabria Gomez}, {J. D.} and F. S{\'a}nchez and P. Sanchez-Lucas and E. Santos and Santos, {E. M.} and F. Sarazin and B. Sarkar and R. Sarmento and C. Sarmiento-Cano and R. Sato and C. Scarso and M. Schauer and V. Scherini and H. Schieler and D. Schmidt and O. Scholten and H. Schoorlemmer and P. Schov{\'a}nek and Schr{\"o}der, {F. G.} and A. Schulz and J. Schulz and J. Schumacher and Sciutto, {S. J.} and A. Segreto and M. Settimo and A. Shadkam and Shellard, {R. C.} and G. Sigl and O. Sima and A. Śmiałkowski and R. Šm{\'i}da and Snow, {G. R.} and P. Sommers and S. Sonntag and J. Sorokin and R. Squartini and Srivastava, {Y. N.} and D. Stanca and S. Stanič and J. Stapleton and J. Stasielak and M. Stephan and A. Stutz and F. Suarez and {Suarez Dur{\'a}n}, M. and T. Suomij{\"a}rvi and Supanitsky, {A. D.} and Sutherland, {M. S.} and J. Swain and Z. Szadkowski and Taborda, {O. A.} and A. Tapia and A. Tepe and Theodoro, {V. M.} and C. Timmermans and {Todero Peixoto}, {C. J.} and G. Toma and L. Tomankova and B. Tom{\'e} and A. Tonachini and {Torralba Elipe}, G. and {Torres Machado}, D. and P. Travnicek and M. Trini and R. Ulrich and M. Unger and M. Urban and {Vald{\'e}s Galicia}, {J. F.} and I. Vali{\~n}o and L. Valore and {Van Aar}, G. and {Van Bodegom}, P. and {Van Den Berg}, {A. M.} and {Van Velzen}, S. and {Van Vliet}, A. and E. Varela and {Vargas C{\'a}rdenas}, B. and G. Varner and R. Vasquez and V{\'a}zquez, {J. R.} and V{\'a}zquez, {R. A.} and D. Veberič and V. Verzi and J. Vicha and M. Videla and L. Villase{\~n}or and B. Vlcek and S. Vorobiov and H. Wahlberg and O. Wainberg and D. Walz and Watson, {A. A.} and M. Weber and K. Weidenhaupt and A. Weindl and C. Welling and F. Werner and A. Widom and L. Wiencke and H. Wilczyński and T. Winchen and D. Wittkowski and B. Wundheiler and S. Wykes and L. Yang and T. Yapici and A. Yushkov and E. Zas and D. Zavrtanik and M. Zavrtanik and A. Zepeda and B. Zimmermann and M. Ziolkowski and F. Zuccarello",
    year = "2016",
    month = "6",
    day = "14",
    doi = "10.1103/PhysRevD.93.122005",
    language = "English (US)",
    volume = "93",
    journal = "Physical review D: Particles and fields",
    issn = "1550-7998",
    publisher = "American Institute of Physics",
    number = "12",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Energy estimation of cosmic rays with the Engineering Radio Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory

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    AU - Wundheiler, B.

    AU - Wykes, S.

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    AU - Yapici, T.

    AU - Yushkov, A.

    AU - Zas, E.

    AU - Zavrtanik, D.

    AU - Zavrtanik, M.

    AU - Zepeda, A.

    AU - Zimmermann, B.

    AU - Ziolkowski, M.

    AU - Zuccarello, F.

    PY - 2016/6/14

    Y1 - 2016/6/14

    N2 - The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is part of the Pierre Auger Observatory and is used to detect the radio emission of cosmic-ray air showers. These observations are compared to the data of the surface detector stations of the Observatory, which provide well-calibrated information on the cosmic-ray energies and arrival directions. The response of the radio stations in the 30-80 MHz regime has been thoroughly calibrated to enable the reconstruction of the incoming electric field. For the latter, the energy deposit per area is determined from the radio pulses at each observer position and is interpolated using a two-dimensional function that takes into account signal asymmetries due to interference between the geomagnetic and charge-excess emission components. The spatial integral over the signal distribution gives a direct measurement of the energy transferred from the primary cosmic ray into radio emission in the AERA frequency range. We measure 15.8 MeV of radiation energy for a 1 EeV air shower arriving perpendicularly to the geomagnetic field. This radiation energy - corrected for geometrical effects - is used as a cosmic-ray energy estimator. Performing an absolute energy calibration against the surface-detector information, we observe that this radio-energy estimator scales quadratically with the cosmic-ray energy as expected for coherent emission. We find an energy resolution of the radio reconstruction of 22% for the data set and 17% for a high-quality subset containing only events with at least five radio stations with signal.

    AB - The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is part of the Pierre Auger Observatory and is used to detect the radio emission of cosmic-ray air showers. These observations are compared to the data of the surface detector stations of the Observatory, which provide well-calibrated information on the cosmic-ray energies and arrival directions. The response of the radio stations in the 30-80 MHz regime has been thoroughly calibrated to enable the reconstruction of the incoming electric field. For the latter, the energy deposit per area is determined from the radio pulses at each observer position and is interpolated using a two-dimensional function that takes into account signal asymmetries due to interference between the geomagnetic and charge-excess emission components. The spatial integral over the signal distribution gives a direct measurement of the energy transferred from the primary cosmic ray into radio emission in the AERA frequency range. We measure 15.8 MeV of radiation energy for a 1 EeV air shower arriving perpendicularly to the geomagnetic field. This radiation energy - corrected for geometrical effects - is used as a cosmic-ray energy estimator. Performing an absolute energy calibration against the surface-detector information, we observe that this radio-energy estimator scales quadratically with the cosmic-ray energy as expected for coherent emission. We find an energy resolution of the radio reconstruction of 22% for the data set and 17% for a high-quality subset containing only events with at least five radio stations with signal.

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84976426647&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84976426647&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1103/PhysRevD.93.122005

    DO - 10.1103/PhysRevD.93.122005

    M3 - Article

    AN - SCOPUS:84976426647

    VL - 93

    JO - Physical review D: Particles and fields

    JF - Physical review D: Particles and fields

    SN - 1550-7998

    IS - 12

    M1 - 122005

    ER -