Energy contribution of sugar-sweetened beverage refills at fast-food restaurants

Andrew Breck, Jonathan H. Cantor, Brian D. Elbel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective: To identify demographic and consumer characteristics associated with refilling a soft drink at fast-food restaurants and the estimated energy content and volume of those refills. Design: Logistic and linear regression with cross-sectional survey data. Setting: Data include fast-food restaurant receipts and consumer surveys collected from restaurants in New York City (all boroughs except Staten Island), and Newark and Jersey City, New Jersey, during 2013 and 2014. Subjects: Fast-food restaurant customers (n 11795) from ninety-eight restaurants. Results: Thirty per cent of fast-food customers ordered a refillable soft drink. Nine per cent of fast-food customers with a refillable soft drink reported refilling their beverage (3 % of entire sample). Odds of having a beverage refill were higher among respondents with a refillable soft drink at restaurants with a self-serve refill kiosk (adjusted OR (aOR)=7·37, P<0·001) or who ate in the restaurant (aOR=4·45, P<0·001). KFC (aOR=2·18, P<0·001) and Wendy’s (aOR=0·41, P<0·001) customers had higher and lower odds, respectively, of obtaining a refill, compared with Burger King customers. Respondents from New Jersey (aOR=1·47, P<0·001) also had higher odds of refilling their beverage than New York City customers. Customers who got a refill obtained on average 29 more ‘beverage ounces’ (858 ml) and 250 more ‘beverage calories’ (1046 kJ) than customers who did not get a refill. Conclusions: Refilling a beverage was associated with having obtained more beverage calories and beverage ounces. Environmental cues, such as the placement and availability of self-serve beverage refills, may influence consumer beverage choice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-6
Number of pages6
JournalPublic Health Nutrition
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - May 9 2017

Fingerprint

Fast Foods
Restaurants
Beverages
Carbonated Beverages
Channel Islands
Cues
Linear Models
Cross-Sectional Studies
Logistic Models
Demography

Keywords

  • Fast food
  • Nutrition
  • Obesity
  • Sugar-sweetened beverages

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Energy contribution of sugar-sweetened beverage refills at fast-food restaurants. / Breck, Andrew; Cantor, Jonathan H.; Elbel, Brian D.

In: Public Health Nutrition, 09.05.2017, p. 1-6.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{5eef1def9e1842f6816d3baf354a9228,
title = "Energy contribution of sugar-sweetened beverage refills at fast-food restaurants",
abstract = "Objective: To identify demographic and consumer characteristics associated with refilling a soft drink at fast-food restaurants and the estimated energy content and volume of those refills. Design: Logistic and linear regression with cross-sectional survey data. Setting: Data include fast-food restaurant receipts and consumer surveys collected from restaurants in New York City (all boroughs except Staten Island), and Newark and Jersey City, New Jersey, during 2013 and 2014. Subjects: Fast-food restaurant customers (n 11795) from ninety-eight restaurants. Results: Thirty per cent of fast-food customers ordered a refillable soft drink. Nine per cent of fast-food customers with a refillable soft drink reported refilling their beverage (3 {\%} of entire sample). Odds of having a beverage refill were higher among respondents with a refillable soft drink at restaurants with a self-serve refill kiosk (adjusted OR (aOR)=7·37, P<0·001) or who ate in the restaurant (aOR=4·45, P<0·001). KFC (aOR=2·18, P<0·001) and Wendy’s (aOR=0·41, P<0·001) customers had higher and lower odds, respectively, of obtaining a refill, compared with Burger King customers. Respondents from New Jersey (aOR=1·47, P<0·001) also had higher odds of refilling their beverage than New York City customers. Customers who got a refill obtained on average 29 more ‘beverage ounces’ (858 ml) and 250 more ‘beverage calories’ (1046 kJ) than customers who did not get a refill. Conclusions: Refilling a beverage was associated with having obtained more beverage calories and beverage ounces. Environmental cues, such as the placement and availability of self-serve beverage refills, may influence consumer beverage choice.",
keywords = "Fast food, Nutrition, Obesity, Sugar-sweetened beverages",
author = "Andrew Breck and Cantor, {Jonathan H.} and Elbel, {Brian D.}",
year = "2017",
month = "5",
day = "9",
doi = "10.1017/S1368980017000611",
language = "English (US)",
pages = "1--6",
journal = "Public Health Nutrition",
issn = "1368-9800",
publisher = "Cambridge University Press",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Energy contribution of sugar-sweetened beverage refills at fast-food restaurants

AU - Breck, Andrew

AU - Cantor, Jonathan H.

AU - Elbel, Brian D.

PY - 2017/5/9

Y1 - 2017/5/9

N2 - Objective: To identify demographic and consumer characteristics associated with refilling a soft drink at fast-food restaurants and the estimated energy content and volume of those refills. Design: Logistic and linear regression with cross-sectional survey data. Setting: Data include fast-food restaurant receipts and consumer surveys collected from restaurants in New York City (all boroughs except Staten Island), and Newark and Jersey City, New Jersey, during 2013 and 2014. Subjects: Fast-food restaurant customers (n 11795) from ninety-eight restaurants. Results: Thirty per cent of fast-food customers ordered a refillable soft drink. Nine per cent of fast-food customers with a refillable soft drink reported refilling their beverage (3 % of entire sample). Odds of having a beverage refill were higher among respondents with a refillable soft drink at restaurants with a self-serve refill kiosk (adjusted OR (aOR)=7·37, P<0·001) or who ate in the restaurant (aOR=4·45, P<0·001). KFC (aOR=2·18, P<0·001) and Wendy’s (aOR=0·41, P<0·001) customers had higher and lower odds, respectively, of obtaining a refill, compared with Burger King customers. Respondents from New Jersey (aOR=1·47, P<0·001) also had higher odds of refilling their beverage than New York City customers. Customers who got a refill obtained on average 29 more ‘beverage ounces’ (858 ml) and 250 more ‘beverage calories’ (1046 kJ) than customers who did not get a refill. Conclusions: Refilling a beverage was associated with having obtained more beverage calories and beverage ounces. Environmental cues, such as the placement and availability of self-serve beverage refills, may influence consumer beverage choice.

AB - Objective: To identify demographic and consumer characteristics associated with refilling a soft drink at fast-food restaurants and the estimated energy content and volume of those refills. Design: Logistic and linear regression with cross-sectional survey data. Setting: Data include fast-food restaurant receipts and consumer surveys collected from restaurants in New York City (all boroughs except Staten Island), and Newark and Jersey City, New Jersey, during 2013 and 2014. Subjects: Fast-food restaurant customers (n 11795) from ninety-eight restaurants. Results: Thirty per cent of fast-food customers ordered a refillable soft drink. Nine per cent of fast-food customers with a refillable soft drink reported refilling their beverage (3 % of entire sample). Odds of having a beverage refill were higher among respondents with a refillable soft drink at restaurants with a self-serve refill kiosk (adjusted OR (aOR)=7·37, P<0·001) or who ate in the restaurant (aOR=4·45, P<0·001). KFC (aOR=2·18, P<0·001) and Wendy’s (aOR=0·41, P<0·001) customers had higher and lower odds, respectively, of obtaining a refill, compared with Burger King customers. Respondents from New Jersey (aOR=1·47, P<0·001) also had higher odds of refilling their beverage than New York City customers. Customers who got a refill obtained on average 29 more ‘beverage ounces’ (858 ml) and 250 more ‘beverage calories’ (1046 kJ) than customers who did not get a refill. Conclusions: Refilling a beverage was associated with having obtained more beverage calories and beverage ounces. Environmental cues, such as the placement and availability of self-serve beverage refills, may influence consumer beverage choice.

KW - Fast food

KW - Nutrition

KW - Obesity

KW - Sugar-sweetened beverages

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85019150101&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85019150101&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1017/S1368980017000611

DO - 10.1017/S1368980017000611

M3 - Article

C2 - 28485266

AN - SCOPUS:85019150101

SP - 1

EP - 6

JO - Public Health Nutrition

JF - Public Health Nutrition

SN - 1368-9800

ER -