Electron tunnelling spectroscopy

E. L. Wolf

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

A basic consequence of quantum mechanics makes possible measurable electrical currents between two conductors separated by a sufficiently thin uniform ( approximately 20 AA) insulator. The energy-spectroscopic information that can be, and has been, derived from careful measurement of the current-voltage (I-V) relation in such experiments is the subject of the present review. Giaever in 1960 demonstrated that when one member of the junction is superconducting, the differential conductance dI/dV as a function of bias energy eV directly measures the density of quasiparticle excitations of the superconductor. A second type of energy spectroscopy, that of inelastic excitation thresholds observed in the second derivative d2I/dV 2, was demonstrated initially by Esaki (1958) in phonon spectroscopy of semiconductor tunnel diodes. Finally, the present state of the field is assessed and some guesses are hazarded as to those areas most likely to lead to important future advances.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number002
Pages (from-to)1439-1508
Number of pages70
JournalReports on Progress in Physics
Volume41
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - 1978

Fingerprint

electron tunneling
spectroscopy
tunnel diodes
semiconductor diodes
excitation
energy
quantum mechanics
conductors
insulators
thresholds
electric potential

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

Cite this

Electron tunnelling spectroscopy. / Wolf, E. L.

In: Reports on Progress in Physics, Vol. 41, No. 9, 002, 1978, p. 1439-1508.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wolf, E. L. / Electron tunnelling spectroscopy. In: Reports on Progress in Physics. 1978 ; Vol. 41, No. 9. pp. 1439-1508.
@article{6926ac54507e470a95e2794cb76ab852,
title = "Electron tunnelling spectroscopy",
abstract = "A basic consequence of quantum mechanics makes possible measurable electrical currents between two conductors separated by a sufficiently thin uniform ( approximately 20 AA) insulator. The energy-spectroscopic information that can be, and has been, derived from careful measurement of the current-voltage (I-V) relation in such experiments is the subject of the present review. Giaever in 1960 demonstrated that when one member of the junction is superconducting, the differential conductance dI/dV as a function of bias energy eV directly measures the density of quasiparticle excitations of the superconductor. A second type of energy spectroscopy, that of inelastic excitation thresholds observed in the second derivative d2I/dV 2, was demonstrated initially by Esaki (1958) in phonon spectroscopy of semiconductor tunnel diodes. Finally, the present state of the field is assessed and some guesses are hazarded as to those areas most likely to lead to important future advances.",
author = "Wolf, {E. L.}",
year = "1978",
doi = "10.1088/0034-4885/41/9/002",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "41",
pages = "1439--1508",
journal = "Reports on Progress in Physics",
issn = "0034-4885",
publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",
number = "9",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Electron tunnelling spectroscopy

AU - Wolf, E. L.

PY - 1978

Y1 - 1978

N2 - A basic consequence of quantum mechanics makes possible measurable electrical currents between two conductors separated by a sufficiently thin uniform ( approximately 20 AA) insulator. The energy-spectroscopic information that can be, and has been, derived from careful measurement of the current-voltage (I-V) relation in such experiments is the subject of the present review. Giaever in 1960 demonstrated that when one member of the junction is superconducting, the differential conductance dI/dV as a function of bias energy eV directly measures the density of quasiparticle excitations of the superconductor. A second type of energy spectroscopy, that of inelastic excitation thresholds observed in the second derivative d2I/dV 2, was demonstrated initially by Esaki (1958) in phonon spectroscopy of semiconductor tunnel diodes. Finally, the present state of the field is assessed and some guesses are hazarded as to those areas most likely to lead to important future advances.

AB - A basic consequence of quantum mechanics makes possible measurable electrical currents between two conductors separated by a sufficiently thin uniform ( approximately 20 AA) insulator. The energy-spectroscopic information that can be, and has been, derived from careful measurement of the current-voltage (I-V) relation in such experiments is the subject of the present review. Giaever in 1960 demonstrated that when one member of the junction is superconducting, the differential conductance dI/dV as a function of bias energy eV directly measures the density of quasiparticle excitations of the superconductor. A second type of energy spectroscopy, that of inelastic excitation thresholds observed in the second derivative d2I/dV 2, was demonstrated initially by Esaki (1958) in phonon spectroscopy of semiconductor tunnel diodes. Finally, the present state of the field is assessed and some guesses are hazarded as to those areas most likely to lead to important future advances.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0042674750&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0042674750&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1088/0034-4885/41/9/002

DO - 10.1088/0034-4885/41/9/002

M3 - Article

VL - 41

SP - 1439

EP - 1508

JO - Reports on Progress in Physics

JF - Reports on Progress in Physics

SN - 0034-4885

IS - 9

M1 - 002

ER -