Effects of sand permeability and weak aftershocks on earthquake-induced lateral spreading

Mitsu Okamura, Tarek Abdoun, Ricardo Dobry, Michael K. Sharp, Victor M. Taboada

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    Centrifuge research conducted at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) is summarized focusing on the effect of sand permeability and of weak aftershocks on earthquake-induced lateral spreading. One-dimensional shaking tests were conducted in a laminar box at a centrifugal acceleration of 50 g, simulating a 10 m thick homogeneous layer of clean Nevada sand of relative density 40-45% inclined a few degrees to the horizontal. Seven centrifuge experiments were done using either water or a viscous pore fluid fifty times more viscous than water, thus varying the soil permeability by a factor of fifty and simulating either a coarse prototype sand or a fine sand in the field. These seven tests were subjected to the same shape of base input excitation but with peak input accelerations ranging from 0.18 g to 0.46 g between tests. An additional special centrifuge test of a similar model with viscous pore fluid was subjected to a strong base "main shock", followed after a few seconds by two "weak aftershocks". Excess pore pressures, accelerations, settlements and lateral ground deformations were measured. The results are discussed in detail and several correlations are presented between testing and measured parameters such as thickness of liquefied soil, ground surface settlement, lateral ground displacement and input peak acceleration. The results of the special test, together with other evidence, provide strong support to the hypothesis that reported continued ground deformations from lateral spreads in the field are often caused by continued weak vibration or aftershocks occurring after the main shock.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)63-77
    Number of pages15
    JournalSoils and Foundations
    Volume41
    Issue number6
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Jan 1 2001

    Fingerprint

    aftershock
    Earthquakes
    Centrifuges
    Sand
    permeability
    earthquake
    centrifuge
    sand
    Soils
    Fluids
    Pore pressure
    peak acceleration
    fluid
    Water
    pore pressure
    vibration
    soil
    test
    effect
    Testing

    Keywords

    • Centrifuge model test
    • Lateral spreading
    • Liquefaction
    • Permeability (IGC: E7)

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Civil and Structural Engineering
    • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

    Cite this

    Effects of sand permeability and weak aftershocks on earthquake-induced lateral spreading. / Okamura, Mitsu; Abdoun, Tarek; Dobry, Ricardo; Sharp, Michael K.; Taboada, Victor M.

    In: Soils and Foundations, Vol. 41, No. 6, 01.01.2001, p. 63-77.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Okamura, Mitsu ; Abdoun, Tarek ; Dobry, Ricardo ; Sharp, Michael K. ; Taboada, Victor M. / Effects of sand permeability and weak aftershocks on earthquake-induced lateral spreading. In: Soils and Foundations. 2001 ; Vol. 41, No. 6. pp. 63-77.
    @article{ed49c5d56ce143c2a4b69915846bfeb2,
    title = "Effects of sand permeability and weak aftershocks on earthquake-induced lateral spreading",
    abstract = "Centrifuge research conducted at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) is summarized focusing on the effect of sand permeability and of weak aftershocks on earthquake-induced lateral spreading. One-dimensional shaking tests were conducted in a laminar box at a centrifugal acceleration of 50 g, simulating a 10 m thick homogeneous layer of clean Nevada sand of relative density 40-45{\%} inclined a few degrees to the horizontal. Seven centrifuge experiments were done using either water or a viscous pore fluid fifty times more viscous than water, thus varying the soil permeability by a factor of fifty and simulating either a coarse prototype sand or a fine sand in the field. These seven tests were subjected to the same shape of base input excitation but with peak input accelerations ranging from 0.18 g to 0.46 g between tests. An additional special centrifuge test of a similar model with viscous pore fluid was subjected to a strong base {"}main shock{"}, followed after a few seconds by two {"}weak aftershocks{"}. Excess pore pressures, accelerations, settlements and lateral ground deformations were measured. The results are discussed in detail and several correlations are presented between testing and measured parameters such as thickness of liquefied soil, ground surface settlement, lateral ground displacement and input peak acceleration. The results of the special test, together with other evidence, provide strong support to the hypothesis that reported continued ground deformations from lateral spreads in the field are often caused by continued weak vibration or aftershocks occurring after the main shock.",
    keywords = "Centrifuge model test, Lateral spreading, Liquefaction, Permeability (IGC: E7)",
    author = "Mitsu Okamura and Tarek Abdoun and Ricardo Dobry and Sharp, {Michael K.} and Taboada, {Victor M.}",
    year = "2001",
    month = "1",
    day = "1",
    doi = "10.3208/sandf.41.6_63",
    language = "English (US)",
    volume = "41",
    pages = "63--77",
    journal = "Soils and Foundations",
    issn = "0038-0806",
    publisher = "Japanese Geotechnical Society",
    number = "6",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Effects of sand permeability and weak aftershocks on earthquake-induced lateral spreading

    AU - Okamura, Mitsu

    AU - Abdoun, Tarek

    AU - Dobry, Ricardo

    AU - Sharp, Michael K.

    AU - Taboada, Victor M.

    PY - 2001/1/1

    Y1 - 2001/1/1

    N2 - Centrifuge research conducted at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) is summarized focusing on the effect of sand permeability and of weak aftershocks on earthquake-induced lateral spreading. One-dimensional shaking tests were conducted in a laminar box at a centrifugal acceleration of 50 g, simulating a 10 m thick homogeneous layer of clean Nevada sand of relative density 40-45% inclined a few degrees to the horizontal. Seven centrifuge experiments were done using either water or a viscous pore fluid fifty times more viscous than water, thus varying the soil permeability by a factor of fifty and simulating either a coarse prototype sand or a fine sand in the field. These seven tests were subjected to the same shape of base input excitation but with peak input accelerations ranging from 0.18 g to 0.46 g between tests. An additional special centrifuge test of a similar model with viscous pore fluid was subjected to a strong base "main shock", followed after a few seconds by two "weak aftershocks". Excess pore pressures, accelerations, settlements and lateral ground deformations were measured. The results are discussed in detail and several correlations are presented between testing and measured parameters such as thickness of liquefied soil, ground surface settlement, lateral ground displacement and input peak acceleration. The results of the special test, together with other evidence, provide strong support to the hypothesis that reported continued ground deformations from lateral spreads in the field are often caused by continued weak vibration or aftershocks occurring after the main shock.

    AB - Centrifuge research conducted at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) is summarized focusing on the effect of sand permeability and of weak aftershocks on earthquake-induced lateral spreading. One-dimensional shaking tests were conducted in a laminar box at a centrifugal acceleration of 50 g, simulating a 10 m thick homogeneous layer of clean Nevada sand of relative density 40-45% inclined a few degrees to the horizontal. Seven centrifuge experiments were done using either water or a viscous pore fluid fifty times more viscous than water, thus varying the soil permeability by a factor of fifty and simulating either a coarse prototype sand or a fine sand in the field. These seven tests were subjected to the same shape of base input excitation but with peak input accelerations ranging from 0.18 g to 0.46 g between tests. An additional special centrifuge test of a similar model with viscous pore fluid was subjected to a strong base "main shock", followed after a few seconds by two "weak aftershocks". Excess pore pressures, accelerations, settlements and lateral ground deformations were measured. The results are discussed in detail and several correlations are presented between testing and measured parameters such as thickness of liquefied soil, ground surface settlement, lateral ground displacement and input peak acceleration. The results of the special test, together with other evidence, provide strong support to the hypothesis that reported continued ground deformations from lateral spreads in the field are often caused by continued weak vibration or aftershocks occurring after the main shock.

    KW - Centrifuge model test

    KW - Lateral spreading

    KW - Liquefaction

    KW - Permeability (IGC: E7)

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0345758077&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0345758077&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.3208/sandf.41.6_63

    DO - 10.3208/sandf.41.6_63

    M3 - Article

    VL - 41

    SP - 63

    EP - 77

    JO - Soils and Foundations

    JF - Soils and Foundations

    SN - 0038-0806

    IS - 6

    ER -