Effects of megascale eruptions on Earth and Mars

Thorvaldur Thordarson, Michael Rampino, Laszlo P. Keszthelyi, Stephen Self

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Volcanic features are common on geologically active earthlike planets. Megascale or "super" eruptions involving >1000 Gt of magma have occurred on both Earth and Mars in the geologically recent past, introducing prodigious volumes of ash and volcanic gases into the atmosphere. Here we discuss felsic (explosive) and mafi c (flood lava) supereruptions and their potential atmospheric and environmental effects on both planets. On Earth, felsic supereruptions recur on average about every 100-200,000 years and our present knowledge of the 73.5 ka Toba eruption implies that such events can have the potential to be catastrophic to human civilization. A future eruption of this type may require an unprecedented response from humankind to assure the continuation of civilization as we know it. Mafi c supereruptions have resulted in atmospheric injection of volcanic gases (especially SO2) and may have played a part in punctuating the history of life on Earth. The contrast between the more sustained effects of flood basalt eruptions (decades to centuries) and the near-instantaneous effects of large impacts (months to years) is worthy of more detailed study than has been completed to date. Products of mafi c supereruptions, signifi cantly larger than known from the geologic record on Earth, are well preserved on Mars. The volatile emissions from these eruptions most likely had global dispersal, but the effects may not have been outside what Mars endures even in the absence of volcanic eruptions. This is testament to the extreme variability of the current Martian atmosphere: situations that would be considered catastrophic on Earth are the norm on Mars.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)37-53
Number of pages17
JournalSpecial Paper of the Geological Society of America
Volume453
DOIs
StatePublished - 2009

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Mars
volcanic eruption
volcanic gas
civilization
planet
volcanic feature
Martian atmosphere
flood basalt
environmental effect
lava
explosive
effect
ash
magma
atmosphere
history

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geology

Cite this

Effects of megascale eruptions on Earth and Mars. / Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Rampino, Michael; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Self, Stephen.

In: Special Paper of the Geological Society of America, Vol. 453, 2009, p. 37-53.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Thordarson, Thorvaldur ; Rampino, Michael ; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P. ; Self, Stephen. / Effects of megascale eruptions on Earth and Mars. In: Special Paper of the Geological Society of America. 2009 ; Vol. 453. pp. 37-53.
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